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In issuing * An Ancient Irish Parish — Past and Present/ 
I desire to record my sincere thanks to the many 
kind friends who assisted me in the work, among 
whom I must specially mention Dr. F. Elrington 
Ball, Litt.D., Mr. Stanley Howard, F.E.S.A., Dr. 
P. W. Joyce, LL.D., Rev. S. Baring-Gould, M.A., 
Rev. C. T. McCready, D.D., Rev. J. B. Leslie, M.A., 
Rev. W. T. Latimer, M.A., Mr. Philip Crossle, and 
Mr. J. F. Small. I am deeply indebted to the Rev. 
Canon Lett, M.A., M.R.LA., and Mr. Hugh Digenan 
for valuable information regarding the ancient place- 
names and the Glen surnames. 

I am under special obhgations to the Rev. H. B. 
Swanzy, M.A., for much information of a genealogical 
nature, and for his kindness in writing the Index. 

I must also express my grateful indebtedness to 
Mr. James Mills, Deputy-Keeper, Public Record 
Office, Dublin, and to the Librarians and Assistants 
of the Library, T.C.D., Marsh's Library, the National 
Library of Ireland, and the Linen Hall Library, 



Belfast, for having afforded me so many facilities 
for research. I gratefully acknowledge the kind 
assistance of deceased friends, among whom were 
the Eev. W. A. Eeynell, B.D., the Eev. Canon 
Scott, M.A. (Belfast), and the Eev. Canon Moore 
Morgan, LL.D., Librarian, the Public Library, Armagh. 
I also received much assistance from my wife in 
various ways, and especially in reading the proofs. 



Feast of St. MacErc 
(First Bishop of Donaghmobe), 
July 6, 1913. 









Antiquities of Donaghmore 

. 120 



. 164 


Donaghmore Parish Vestry Books 

. 213 


Donaghmore Presbyterian Church 

. 260 


Donaghmore Dispensary 

. 304 


Glen and Fourtowns 

. 336 


Donaghmore Churchyard 

. 370 


. 399 


Dromantinb House . . . . . Frontispiece 

Celtic Cboss ....... To face p. 156 



Harshaw Homestead „ 316 




The parish of Donaghmore takes its name indirectly 
from the church, and hence has an ecclesiastical 
Dom a h o^gin. The townland in which the church 
mor— De- is situated was originally called Donagh- 
rivation and more, and from thence the name was 
Meaning. applied to the parish. When parishes were 
formed the names given them were generally those 
of townlands within their respective limits ; but, in 
almost all cases, the townland in which the church 
was situated gave its name to the parish. 

The Irish language afforded St. Patrick and the 
other early Christian missionaries few terms which 
could be used for ecclesiastical purposes. Conse- 
quently, they had to borrow from the Latin, and some- 
times from Greek through Latin — while the words 
thus appropriated became ' changed in form to suit 
the Irish laws of pronunciation.' i 

One of these words was Domnach, which is derived 
from the Latin, (Dies) Dominica, and signifies in Irish 
* Sunday,' or * the Lord's Day,' and also a ' church ' ; 

^ See Joyce, Social History of Ancient Ireland, vol. i. p. 316. 



and, according to the best authorities, all the churches 
in Ireland which bear the name Domnach, or — in its 
anglicised form — 'Donagh,' were so called because their 
foundations were marked out on Sunday, or the Lord's 
Day. Mor in Irish means ' great ' — anglicised, ' more ' 
— and hence 'Donaghmore ' signifies the *Great Church.' 

The spelling of the word varies but little at present. 
In the older records the Irish is more or less preserved 
— where we have Dompnachmore, Domnachmore, 
Donnachmore and Donachmore. In modern times 
it is generally spelled Donaghmore or Donoughmore ; 
but the former is undoubtedly the correct orthography 
and is that adopted on the ordnance map. 

Donaghmore was anciently termed by way of 
distinction Domnach Mor MuigJie Cohha — i.e. Donagh- 
more of Magh Cobha — Magh Cobha being 
Donagh- ^y^q name of the territory in which it was 
Magh Cobha. situated. In the early centuries of the 
Christian era there were no parishes in 
Ireland, and during this period Donaghmore was simply 
the townland which contained the church — subse- 
quently called Tullynacross — and at present the Glebe 
on the ordnance map. It will therefore be necessary 
to treat of the territory in general, of which the several 
townland s of the present parish of Donaghmore in 
early times formed a part. Bishop Eeeves (' Ecclesi- 
astical Antiquities '), in his sketch of Donaghmore and 
its ancient church, refers at length, in the same con- 
nection, to Magh Ccbha, while Dr. Jchn O'Donovan, in 
his notes on the Four Masters and the ' Book of Rights,* 
constantly associates this territory with Donaghmore 
and its church. 


Magh Ccbha (proncunced Moy Cova) signifies the 
Plain of Cobha, and was doubtless known as such for 
M h Cobh ^^^y centuiies before the Christian era. 
— Significa- Bishop Reeves i informs us that according 
tionand Lo- to the ' Eennes Dinnsenchus * ^ Magh Ccbha 
cation. ^^g surnamed after Ccbha, the huntsman 

of the sons of Miletius ^ of Spain. Doubtless, the 
particular passage referred to in the * Dinnsenchus * 
by Dr. Reeves is that quoted by Dr. Joyce as 
follows : — * Ccba (Cova), the Cuchaire or trapper of 
Heremon (first Milesian King of Ireland) sen of Mile- 
sius ; it is he that first prepared a trap (airrchis) and a 
pit-fall {cuithech) in Erin ; and he himself put his foot 
in it to try if it was trim, whereupon his shin-bone 
and his two forearms were fractured in it ; and his 
drinking-cup, after being emptied, fell down, so he 
died thereof (i.e. of the wound and thirst) ; whence is 
derived Mag Coba, Cova's plain.' * 

In the third century this territory was ruled by 
Prince Eochaidh ^ Cobha (Eochaidh in Irish denotes 
eqiies, horseman), and was known as the plain of 
Eochaidh Cobha. Tlie tribe name anciently borne 
by the territory was Uibh Eathach, from which, when 
anglicised and the silent letters dropped, we derive 
Evagh, Iveach or Iveagh, the name of the barony. 

* Ecdesiastkal Antiquities, p. 349. 

^ A tract giving the legendary history and etymology of the 
names of remarkable places. 

^ The Milesian Colony, of Spanish origin, arrived in Ireland about 
thirteen hundred years before the birih of Christ. 

* Social History of Ancient Ireland, vol. ii. p. 469. 

'' This prince was the great ancestor of the Magenr ises and other 
ancient families of the race of Ir-one of the Milesian Kings of Ireland. 



There seems to have been a conflict of opinion at 
one time in regard to the location of the territory of 
Magh Cobha — chiefly owing to an error of the Four 
Masters in placing it in Tyrone. Dr. John 0' Donovan, 
in the notes to his translation of the Four Masters, 
thus refers to it : 

' The Four Masters, and from them Colgan and 
others, have erred in placing the plain (Magh Cobha) 
in Tyrone, and Dr. Lanigan has been set astray by 
them, where he conjectures (' Ecclesiastical History of 
Ireland ') that Magh Cobha was probably where the 
village now called Coagh is situated ; but the situation 
of the plain of Magh Cobha is fixed by the older writers, 
who place it in Uibh Eathach, now Iveagh, and who 
placed it in the Church of Domhnach More Muighe 
Cobha, which is unquestionably the present Donagh- 
more, in the barony of Upper Iveagh, nearly midway 
between Newry and Loughbrickland.' i 

O'Donovan cites the best authorities for his con- 
tention both here and in the ' Book of Eights,' ^ where 
he affords us some idea as to the extent of the plain — 
placing it ' in the monastery of Druim Mor (Dromore) 
and the Church of Domhnach Mor Muighe Cobha ' 
(Donaghmore). * Donaghmore of Magh Cobha ' has 
been so closely connected with this territory that some 
have been led to suppose that it was coteru inous with 
the present boundaries of the parish of Donaghmore, 
but this is a mistake. 

» Vol. ui. p. 344. « Note, pp. 165-6 


The territory was of considerable extent and em- 
braced a large portion of Iveagh — extending from 
Donaghmore to Dromore. According to Hogan's 
* Onomasticon/ the river Lagan at Dromore was in 
Magh Ccbha. Some authorities consider that this 
territory extended fi'om Newry to Dromore, ^ but the 
probability is that it included only the north section 
of the lordship of Newry. 

According to the Four Masters, Magh Cobha was 
cleared of wood and the forts erected a.m. 8529, 
during the reign of Irial (known as the Prophet), son 
of Eremon, King of Ireland. With all due respect, 
however, to such eminent authorities, it may be 
safely asserted that there were great forests in 
Magh Cobha for many centuries after this date, 
while doubtless only some of the forts were then 

The * Annals ' also record the names of several kings 
or chiefs of the territory as at the following dates : 
A.D. 683— Fearghus ; 732— Cuanach ; 734— 
CMefsof ^ea^g^^s Glut; 771— Conall Crai ; 796 
Magh Cobha. {recte 801) Euchaid ; 851 — Cearnach ; 879 — 
Conallan. The Magennises were chiefs of 
Magh Cobha in the twelfth century, and indeed for 
a long time afterwards. They superseded another 
branch of the Magennis family — named O'Haideth — 
the last of whom was slain a.d. 1136 — while, accord- 
ing to O'Dubhagain's * Topographical Poem,' the 
O'Quinns, the O'Garveys and the O'Hanveys were 
among the petty kings in Iveagh. 

* See Orpen, Ireland under the Normans, p. 117. 


It is interesting to know the rights and revenues 
of these petty Kings of Magh Cobha. This in- 
formation is afforded us in the * Book of 
Rights^ Rights,' which gives us ' an account of 
the rights of the Monarchs of all Ireland, 
and the revenues payable to them by the principal 
Kings of the several provinces, and of the stipends 
paid by the Monarchs to the inferior Kings for their 
services. It also treats of the rights of each of the 
provincial Kings, and the revenues payable to them 
from the inferior Kings of the districts or tribes 
subsidiary to them, and of the stipends paid by the 
superior to the inferior provincial Kings for their 
services ' (Introduction, ' Book of Rights '). 
Stipend of ^^^ following is the stipend of the King 

King of of Magh Cobha paid by the King of 
Magh Cobha. uiadh : 1 

'The stipend of the King of Cobha of Victory (is) 
Ten drinking-horns, ten wounding swords, 
Ten ships which a host mans, 
Ten cloaks with their borders of gold.' 

He had also the following rights : 

' Entitled is the King of Magh Cobha 
Of the light and thin-edged weapons 
To eight greyhounds and eight steeds 
And eight mares in fine running order.' 

The ' Book of Rights ' contains no record of the 
King's Lee-Metfords, motors, or aeroplanes ! 

Doubtless, there was a castle, or castles, in Magh 

* Uladh was the name applied to the entire province of Ulster 
up till 332 — after which it embraced the counties of Antrim and 
Down only — known as ' Little Ulster.' 


Cobha from the earliest times. One of these structures 

is mentioned by the Four Masters, where we read of 

* the foreigners of the castle of Magh Cobha ' making 

an incursion into Tiro wen (Tyrone) in 1188. 

MaghCobha. ^^ *^^* ^^^^ *^^^ castle is said to have 
been a strong one — possessed by the English 
(* the foreigners '), who doubtless captured it from a 
native chief or king. This castle is also mentioned 
in the * Confirmation * of Innocent III. of John 
de Courcy's Charter to St. Andrew de Stokes 
(' Papal Letters,' vol. i. p. 17). According to 
the 'Annals of Ulster,* it was rebuilt of stone 
in 1252 by the son of Maurice Fitzgerald, and 
demolished by Brian O'Neill in the following year — 
having met the fate of many similar buildings in 
those troublous times. It was restored 1200. Knox 
informs us that this castle was in Donaghniore.^ 
Probably Knox is indebted for his information to 
Harris, who states that castles were formerly erected 
at Tuscan Pass (Jerretspass) and Fenwick's Pass 

The * Annals of the Four Masters ' record various 
exploits in Magh Cobha at the years herein mentioned, 
and although no particular spot in the 
Ma^hCobha ^^^ritory is specified as a scene of 
action, yet we may feel certain that no 
portion of the little kingdom stood aloof and 
unaffected in the circumstances. Indeed, it is 
more than probable that some of the principal 
scenes of action in many of the stirring events and 
sanguinary conflicts recorded lay within the modern 

* History of Down, p. 356. ♦ Down, p. 85. 


bounds of the parish of Donaghmore, and especially 
in that portion contiguous to the Passes from Armagh 
to Down, viz. Jerretspass and Poyntzpass. 

A.D. 998, Magh Cobha was plundered by Aedh, 
son of Domhnall ^ when a ' great spoil of cattle ' was 
carried off— afterwards called ' the great spoil of Magh 

A.D. 1102, an army was led into Magh Cobha by 
the Cinel Eoghain.^ The Ulidians ^ entered their 
camp during the night and slew two distinguished 

A.D. 1103, a * great war ' was waged between the 
Cinel Eoghain and the Ulidians, with its seat princi- 
pally in Magh Cobha- — though the first battle seems to 
have been fought close to the city of Armagh. Large 
forces proceeded to Magh Cobha to relieve the Ulidians, 
viz. * Muir Cheartach Ua Briain (O'Brien), with the 
men of Munster, Leinster, and Osraige (Ossory), and 
with the chiefs of Connaught, and the men of Meath 
with their Kings.' * Both parties went all into Machaire 
Arda-Macha *• — and were for a week laying siege to 
Ardmach ' (City of Armagh). Mair Cheartach, it 
seems, when ' the men of Munster were wearied,' 
entered Armagh by a devious route, ' and left 8 oz. 
of gold upon the altar, and promised 8 score cows,'— 

^ King of Aileach — Elagh — in Inis- Eoghain, Inishowen in County 

^ The race of Eoghain — the O'Neills, MacLaughlins, and their 
' correlatives in Tyrone.' 

' The people of Uladh — called by O'Flaherty, who wrote in 
Latin, Ulidia, while he designated the other portion of Ulster 

* The plain of Armagh — lying round the city. 


after which he returned to Magh Cobha, where a 
* spirited battle ' was fought on * Tuesday the Nones i 
of August,' between Domhnall Ua Lochlainn, with the 
Clanna-Neill of the north, and the men of Munster, 
Leinster, and Ossory. The latter were defeated with 
great slaughter by the Clanna-Neill, who * returned 
to their forts victoriously and triumphantly, with 
valuable jewels and much wealth, together with the 
royal tent, the standard, and many other precious 

A.D. 1103, Maghnus, King of Norway, who had 

contemplated the invasion of all Ireland, was slain by 

the UHdians, and his people slaughtered at 

King of Nor- ^^y Cova, while on a predatory excursion 

way 81 in in . ^*; . ^ .^ 

Magh Cobha. ^ this territory. 

The * Annals of Ulster ' also record that 
the King of Norway was slain in this year (1108) * at 
Moy Cova in which is situated Donaghmore beyond 
Newry in Iveagh.' 

A.D. 1104, Domhnall, grandson of Lochlain, led 
an army to Magh Cobha when he obtained * the host- 
ages of the Ulidians.' 

In A.D. 1109 another attack is made on the Ulidians 
who were in Magh Cobha by * the people of the North 
of Ireland, with the Cinel-Conaill and the Cinel- 
Eoghain— when the UHdians gave them the three 
hostages which they themselves selected.' 

A.D. 1113, Magh Cobha is once more the seat of 

' In ancient times the month was divided into Kalends, Nones, 
and Ides. The Nones fell on the 6th of the month, e;xcept in May, 
March, July and October, when they fell on the 7th. The Ides in the 
latter four months fell on the 16th, but generally on the 13th. 


war. Donnchadh ' is banished from Ulidia, his king- 
dom divided and given to others. His old alHes, the 
men of Munster, Leinster, and Connaught, proceed to 
Magh Cobha to his aid. * Another army . . . was 
marched by Domhnall Ua Lochlainn to reUeve the 
UHdians : and there was a challenge between them, 
but the successor of St. Patrick separated them, 
under the semblance of peace and tranquillity.' 

A.D. 1128, the hostages of Ui-Eathach were 
carried off by a plundering army which entered Magh 

In A.D. 1188, we are told, the English of Moy 
Cova Castle and a party from Iveagh set off on a 
plundering excursion all the way ' into Tyrone ' — 
where they seized a number of cows. They were 
pursued by Donnell O'Loughlin and his retainers, who 
defeated them with great slaughter. ' But Donnell, 
the son of Hugh O'Loughlin, Lord of Aileach, and 
heir-presumptive to the throne of Ireland, . . . alone 
received a thrust from an English spear, and fell in the 
heat of the conflict.' 

It would be deeply interesting to know something 

in regard to the people who lived here in ancient 

times- — their lineage, social condition, and 

^. °^" manners and customs, together with the 

covians. ' ° 

physical aspect of the place ; but such 
information is only afforded us from what is 
known of the Irish people and the country in 
general at the period. In ancient times the Irish, 
though a mixed race, were certainly more closely allied 

» King of UUdia. 


in blood than we are to-day ; their social condition, 
manners and customs were more uniform than at 
present. Between Ulster and Connaught there was 
no substantial difference in these respects, while the 
physical aspect of the country as a whole was much 
the same^ — apart from its natural conformation. 

In these several respects, therefore, anything that 
may be said of Ireland and the Irish people in general 
is largely applicable to Moy Cova and its people in 
particular. In regard to Pagan times we are lost in 
the mists of legend and myth, though doubtless these 
contain kernels of truth ; but we are on surer ground 
when we come to the earlier centuries of the Christian 
Era. It is not to be inferred, however, that Chris- 
tianity changed all ; for, as a matter of fact, much was 
handed down from Pagan times, and survived for 
centuries ; and even yet traces may be found of customs 
— at least' — which have been in vogue from time 
immemorial. It is worthy of note, too, in this connec- 
tion that ' The Institutions, Arts and Customs of 
Ancient Ireland, with few exceptions, grew up from 
within, almost wholly unaffected by external influence.'^ 

Eome, which conquered and influenced most of 
the ancient world, never subjugated Ireland — what- 
ever she may have done ecclesiastically in bygone 

Much of this preUminary chapter, it is to be feared, 
may appear a digression from that which the rea4er 
had expected, but as our intention is to give a * pen 
picture ' of things as they were here and elsewhere 
in past times, and which we understand will be of 
^ Joyce, Social History of Ancient Ireland, vol. i. p. 1. 


interest, we crave the pardon of those who are likely 
to prefer something more miodern. 

The Moycovians were doubtless for the most part 
a portion of the great Celtic family which colonised 

Ireland at an early date, and largely 
Moycovians possessed the characteristics of their race 
Celtic Family .i^ type and temperament. They were 

certainly of purer stock than those of a 
subsequent period, while it is to be feared that at 
present among the modern inhabitants it would be 
impossible to find a ' pure Celt ' anywhere — though 
some possess the pardonable pride that they are such. 
During the long lapse of centuries the Irish have 
become a very mixed race — for the most part, 

* descendants of Firbolgs and other British 
mxedRace ^^^ Belgic races, Umorians, Formorians, 

Tuatha De Danands, Milesians, Gauls, Nor- 
wegians, Anglo-Saxons, Anglo-Normans, and English.' 
Sullivan, who, if he could advocate the existence 
of a ' pure Celt,' would certainly do so, yet, in view 
of this admixture of race in Ireland, makes the 
following significant comment : * This (admixture) 
is a fact which should be remembered by those who 
theorise over the qualities of pure Celts, whoever 
these may be.' ^ 

It seems there were two distinct types of people in 
ancient Ireland, and it is confidently asserted that, 

notwithstanding the subsequent admixture 
wo yP^^^of race, such can still be traced. Sullivan 

considers that there are a few broad 
facts regarding the ethnology of ancient Ireland 

^ Introduction — Manners and Customs of the Ancient Irish ^ 
O'Curry, p. xxiv. 


which may be taken as certainly established. 

* In the first place, there were two distinct types of 
people — one a high statured, golden-coloured or red 
haired, fair-skinned, and blue, or grey-blue eyed race ; 
the other a dark-haired, dark-eyed, pale-skinned, 
small or medium statured, little-limbed race. The 
two types may still be traced in the country, and are 
curiously contrasted in their blushes : the fair-haired 
type has a pinkish tinge, the other a full red, with 
scarcely a trace of pink in their blush.' i 

We fail to trace these types in Donaghmore — at 
least so far as blushes are concerned. The truth is, 
we are not a blushing people, but should we occasionally 

* colour,' the hue seems to be a deep crimson ! 

Dr. Joyce gives us the * marks of aristocracy ' 
among the ancient Irish as * an oval face, broad above 
Ancient ^^^ narrow below, golden hair, fair skin. 
Physical white, delicate, and well-formed hands, 
Marks of with slender tapering fingers.' ~ We are not 
nstocracy. q^^q^^q j^q^ f^j. these ' marks ' are traceable 
in our modem aristocracy. Certainly, ' the true Celtic 
head of Ireland ' is wanting, which 0' Curry describes 
as * a face broad above and narrow below.' ^ 

Canon MacCulloch, D.D., in his recent standard 
work on * The Religion (Pagan) of the Ancient Celts,' 
after showing in the opening chapter (on * The Celtic 
Family ') that they were a mixed race — having mixed 
not only with the aborigines of the lands in which they 
settled, but with other peoples — refers to their types and 
characteristics. They were, we are told, of differing 

* Introduction — O'Curry, p. Ixxii. 

' Social History, vol. ii. p. 176. 

' Manners and Cust&ms, vol. iii. p. 94. 


types ; some short and dark, others tall and fair, 
and blue-eyed. But among all there is a common 
Celtic fades ; the same old Celtic charac- 
^H Ph"^^^^ teristics are exhibited by all — ' vanity, 
teristics. loquacity, excitability, fickleness, imagina- 
tion, love of the romantic, fidelity, attach- 
ment to family ties, sentimental love of their 
country, religiosity passing over easily to superstition, 
and a comparatively high degree of sexual morality.' 
The Moycovians lived under the clan system — a 
grouping of society which was far different from that 
of to-day. The people were divided into 

^ ^\ ^^ tribes and clans, as were the Scotch and 

the Anglo-Saxons m remote times. In the 
expanding series there were : the Family (' the Hiding 
parents and all their descendants'), the Sept, the 
Clan, and the Tribe. These several divisions were 
supposed to be united by descent from a common 
ancestor ; but such descent was more or less fictitious, 
as * those whose degree of consanguinity was doubtful 
or obscure,' and even strangers, were frequently 
adopted into all the groups. 

Under the tribal system Ireland was blest with a 
multitude of kings — in regular gradation order. 

Besides the supreme monarch, there were 
oiK^^ the Kings of the Five Provinces, i and 

those of the Tuaths, and Mor Tuaths, i.e. 
a number of Tuaths united. A Tuath, we are 
informed, contained about 177 English square miles, 

^ In the beginnning of the second century Ireland was divided 
into five Provinces, the fifth being Meath. This division continued 
till long after the Anglo-Norman invasion. 


representing an oblong district sixteen miles by 
eleven. 1 Moy Cova was a Tuath, and had its own 
king, as had doubtless most of the other Tuaths — at 
least those not united into Mor Tuaths. In all Ire- 
land there were 184 Tuaths, and taking into account 
the Mor Tuaths, it may be safely asserted that the Irish 
kings in those days numbered at least upwards of 160 ! 
Under such a regal host, Ireland, in those olden 
times, should have been well and peacefully governed ; 
but the truth is it was far otherwise. 
TribTo^Jv- ^^® *^^^^^ system with its gradation of 
emment. kings provided about the worst government 
possible, especially for a people of the 
Celtic temperament. There was no cohesion, and 
no real central authority — even that of the supreme 
monarch was only nominal. * The chief king had 
no power over the numerous sub-reguli beyond what 
he could enforce by arms, and there was no cohesion 
even amongst cbns the most closely related.* ^ Ire- 
land was only so miny petty kingdoms or principalities 
with no clearly defined rights and obligations that could 
be legally enforced — while each contained the fiery 
elements which, on the slightest pretext, so often 
culminated in bloody strife, and hence the constant 
wars and tumults of which we read. Tribe fought 
with tribe and chief with chief, and only the fittest 

* The term Tuath had both a geographical and genealogical 
signification, having been ' applied to the people occupying a disirict 
which had a complete poli ical and legal administradon, a Chief or 
Righ (King), and could bring into the field a battalion of seven 
hundred men (' Introduction, O'Curry, p. Ixxix.). 

" Introduction, O'Curry, p. jdi. 


It cannot be truthfully said that Ireland was ever 
a nation in the proper acceptation of the term, though 
Mrs Green's ^^ ^^® aware Others hold to the contrary. 

* Irish Mrs. Green writes beautifully on ' Irish 
Nation- Nationality,' but it is to be feared she 

* *^* frequently romances, and, instead of stating 
facts, too often deals in fiction. She admits that (at 
the time she claims this * Nationality ') there was 

* no central authority '• — only a number of ' self- 
governing communities ' — ' each tribe being supreme 
within its own borders,' and hence a * divided govern- 
ment.' True there was a uniform system of law, such 
as it was ; but there was no Executive to enforce it, 
except the sword! With all due respect to Mrs. 
Green's opinion in regard to * Irish Nationality ' (if 
she means ' Ireland, a Nation, ' as the term is 
popularly understood) we make bold to assert that 
no such idea existed, nor could it in the circumstances. 
If our authoress means, by ' Irish Nationality,' Irish 
sentiment and tradition, she is nearer the truth. 
These did assuredly prevail, and we are among 
those who think they should still prevail. The Scotch 
have largely maintained their old national customs 
and traditions, and to their credit be it told. He is a 
poor Irishman who will not do likewise. Doubtless 
the present revival of Irish learning will do much to 
improve matters in this respect, if it can he kept out of 
the domain of politics ! In this connection, we think 
that anyone who wishes to study Irish archaeology 
should learn the Irish language. For others, the study 
would be simply a waste of time — the acquirement 
being perfectly worthless as a qualification for any 


post of importance either inside or outside of Ireland. 
The EngHsh language holds the field, and bids ' fair 
to become the general language of the human race ' 

It is interesting to know the nature of the tenure 

of lands in Donaghmore in its territorial days, and 

elsewhere in Ireland, and that of the rents 

Tenures *^ ^® P^^^ ^^ *^® tenants. According to 
the best authorities, it would seem that in 
the most ancient times there was no private owner- 
ship of land in Ireland- — that it was all common 
property, and every few years there was a fresh 
distribution, i.e. the tenure was not fixed or permanent. 
Private ownership was a matter of evolution, and 
it was only by slow degrees that certain persons 
began to possess land as their absolute property ; 
but, even then, such lands comprised a very small 
portion of the soil of Ireland. The king, his nobles, 
and a few others who rendered him various kinds of 
services, held lands in this way, which they let to 
tenants for a term of seven years, and for which they 
were paid rent in kind. The mensal lands of the chief 
could thus be let, but such were not private property, 
being his only for life or during his chieftainship. 
Most of the land, however, was either tribe-land or 
commons-land, and in neither case was private owner- 
ship recognised. The tribe-land was common property 
and belonged to the people in general. It was, how- 
ever, parcelled out to the several famihes of the sept, 
and every few years there was a fresh distribution. 
The commons-land (not arable land) was fenceless and 
used in common by all for pasturage and other purposes. 


Doubtless a large portion of Donaghmore was commons- 
land' — such as Glen, the marshes, the bogs and 
forests. Those who held tribe-land or used commons- 
land, although they were not hable for rent in the 
ordinary acceptation of the term, yet they were obliged 
to make certain payments or subsidies to the chief.^ 
It may be noted that those who occupied tribe or 
commons-land could not dispose of such by will or 
otherwise. Their property was purely personal, which 
passed on the death of the owner to his family. If 
the owner died in debt to the value of his * estate,' 
only a certain portion went to his creditors, the family 
being entitled to a small part, so as to be saved from 
destitution. This is what was called ' The rights of a 
corpse '• — thus mentioned by Ware : * Every dead 
body has in its own right a cow and a horse, and a 
garment, and the furniture of his bed ; nor shall any 
of these be paid in satisfaction of his debts ; because 
they are, as it were, the special property of his body.' ^ 
It will thus be seen that, under the Brehon Laws, 
Under which regulated the land customs in 

Brehon Laws ancient times, the tenant had no right of 
—no F'jd y private ownership, and no fixity of tenure, 
o enure, except for a few years, and that, more- 
over, he was obliged to pay rent. True, the tribe 
land was supposed to be the common property of the 
people ; but when the individual is denied the right 
of private ownership and a permanent tenure of 
his particular holding, the phrase * common pro- 
perty ' is not so fascinating. Such were the sole 
rights and obhgations of tenants under ' Irish law.' 

^ See Joyce, vol. i. p. 188. ^ Antiqq,, 152. 


British law seems to have been more generous to the 

Irish tenant. Under the recent Land Purchase Acts, 

Irish tenants have been enabled to purchase their 

holdings, the British exchequer advancing the money, 

for which a moderate interest is charged for a term of 

years — when they become absolute owners of their 

farms, free of rent. 

It is worth noting that the first rent-payers in 

Ireland were the Firbolgs, who were conquered by the 

Tuatha De Danann. * Breas Mac Elathan, 

^"^* _ one of the Tuatha De Danand Kings, 
Rent-payers. i r. i • 

was the first who imposed rents in 

Ireland, and the rent-payers were chiefly the 
Firbolgs, and so grievous were the burthens he im- 
posed upon the whole country that he was deposed. 
The Scoti or Milesians conquered the Tuatha De Danand 
and in turn made Aiihechs or tenants of them, and so 
it has continued as in most other countries, each 
succeeding conquering race obliging their conquered 
predecessors to pay tributes and rents.' ^ 

We are sure it would be an interesting sight to us 
modems if we could behold the old inhabitants of 

Donaghmore in their native dress — so. far 
Ancient different from our present habihments. 
Costume. ^^^ costume wom by them was that 

of the ancient Irish, and was indeed 
a very picturesque one— at least so far as colours were 
concerned — though we fear the combinations were not 
quite harmonious ! The upper garments worn by 
the men were mainly of four classes : a great cloak, 
without sleeves, commonly covering the whole person 

' Introduction (Sullivan), Professor O'Curry, p. xxiii. 

c 2 


from the shoulders ; a jacket, tight-fitting, with 
sleeves ; a cape for shoulders with head-hood ; a 
kilt— same as that worn by the Scottish Highlander ; 
while one of the nether garments was a tight-fitting 
trousers' — called triuhhas- — anglicised trewS' — from which 
we derive ' trousers.' The large sleeveless cloak was 
worn by both men and women, and was variously 

The Irish were very fond of colours ; and besides, 

rank was denoted by the hue of the 
Rank garment. The * Book of Bally mote ' has 

Cobur. ^ *^® following stanza on the * sumptuary 

law ' of dress : 

' Mottled to simpletons, blue to women ; 
Crimson to Kings of every host ; 
Green and black to noble laymen ; 
White to clerics of proper devotion.' 

It seems the distinction of rank by the wearing of 
certain colours had a pagan origin, and was intro- 
p g^ • • d^^®^' according to our legendary history, 
of the by the thirteenth monarch of Ireland — 

Sumptuary Tigernmas — B.C. 1543. His successor, 
^*'^* Eochaidh Edgudach— known as * Eochaidh, 

the cloth-designer ' — is said to have extended and 
completely established this sumptuary law. 0' Curry 
refers to a statement by Keating (on the authority of 
an ancient record now lost) that it was by this Eochaidh 
* cloth was first coloured crimson, blue and gieen in 
Ireland. It was by him that various colours were 
introduced into the wearing-clothes of Erin — viz. one 
colour in the clothes of servants ; two colours in the 

^ See Joyce, Social History, vol. ii. p. 193. 


clothes of rent-paying farmers ; three colours in the 
clothes of officers ; five colours in the clothes of chiefs ; 
six colours in the clothes of Ollamhs (Doctors holding 
the highest degree in the arts or professions) and 
poets ; seven colours in the clothes of Kings or Queens. 
It was from this (says the old book) the custom has 
grown this day, that all these colours are in the clothes 
of a Bishop.' ^ 

O'Curry refers to the colours worn by the cele- 
brated Queen of Connaught, Medbh, and her consort, 
Ailill, in the century immediately preceding the 
Christian era — recorded in ' The Tain.' These two 
good people had been boasting and, it would seem, 
disputing in regard to their respective possessions, 
when, to end the contest, it was decided to make a 
complete inspection of their valuables. Among the 
precious possessions examined was the royal wardrobe 
— the colours of which are thus specified : * Crimson, 
and blue, and black, and green, and yellow, and 
speckled, and pale, and gray, and blay, and 
striped ' ! 2 

The old Brehon Law (which was much hke our 
Common Law, there being no Parliament in ancient 
times, and consequently no Statute Law) took cognis- 
ance of Lrish costume — ^its material and colours — aa 
denoting position or rank. A sumptuary law in the 
Senchus Mor lays down the following regulations : — 
* The sons of kings, when in fosterage, were to have 
satin mantles, dyed scarlet, purple or blue ' ; while * the 
sons of chiefs were to be dressed in red, green, and 

^ Manners and Customs, voL iiL p. 89. 
« Ibid. p. 90. 


brown clothes, and those of inferior ranks in grey, 
yellow, black and white.' ^ 

The inhabitants of Moy Cova must have been 
familiar with the picturesque sight of the Ulster 
clans and their leaders, with their 
Clans ^^ differences of costume and colours — as 
they marched through the territory, and 
doubtless fought in their midst. Indeed, the 
Moycovians themselves were members of an Ulster 
clan — three of whose chiefs (' the three good chieftains 
of Moy Cova ') have been immortalised in the great 
poem of ' The Tain ' (see infra). 

A vivid pen-picture of the Ulster clans is afforded 
us in the tale of the Tain — one of our best pieces of 
Irish Homeric literature — though of course all due 
allowance must be made for the poetic license assumed 
by the author of the poem in his description. 

Queen Medbh of Connaught with her army had 
invaded Ulster — the kingdom of her former husband 
the renowned Conchobar Mac Nessa. In her retreat 
with the Connaught forces she was overtaken by 
Conchobar and the Ulster army at Slane of Meath. 
She and her consort, Ailill, held a council, when 
MacRoth, the royal herald, was ordered to go forth and 
observe the approaching clans of Ulster, and then 
return with an exact account of ' their military order, 
their dress, their weapons, and their numbers.' 

The Ulster warriors were fast approaching, and anon 
the herald heard, 

' Floating from far away, a muffled roar, 
A crackling, thunderous murmur, and deep din 
Of many mingled sounds.' 

^ Joyce, Social History, vol. ii. p. 222. 


He gazed again, 

' And while he gazed, he heard a growing roar 
Of mingled booming, crying, thundering, 
With shrill, sharp snaps and thuds, ringings and cheers, 
All floating towards him on the eastern wind.' 

MacKoth had not long to wait, for soon, 

* From early morning till the evening fell, 
The Ulster hosts arrived in Slane of Meath. 
So great their numbers that in all the time 
The land was ne'er left naked, but was clothed 
By moving throngs. All orderly they came ; 
For every throng surrounded its own King, 
And every band its lord.' 

The first warrior described by MacEoth is the great 
champion — Conchobar MacNessa — King of Ulster, 

who led the northern hosts — ^having under 
Ulster "^^° his special command * an ardent, stalwart 

band of very noble aspect,' esteemed in 
* numbers to be thrice three thousand/ 

Quick flinging off their raiment, dug the earth, 
And lifted sods, and raised a mighty mound 
H gh on the rounded summit of a hill. 
To be a seat and station for their lord. 
And he, their lord, was tall and thinly built. 
Courteous and proud, of princeliest way and style, 
Accustomed to command and to restrain. 
And awful was his kingly gleaming eye. 
His yellow bush of crispM drooping hair ; 
His trimly forking beard ; his crimson fooan (mantle) 
Folding five times about him ; the gold pin. 
Above his breast ; the lagna (shirt) next his skin, 
Of purest white, adorned with threads of gold, 
Were all of princely make. He wore, besides, 


A white-bright shield, adorned with monstrous beasts, 
In deep red gold. In the one hand he bore 
A golden-hilted sword, and in the other 
A wide, gray spear.' 

Chieftains of We must not fail to mention the ' Three 
Moy Cova good chieftams of Moy Cova ' : 

* " There came another band into that hill," 
MacRoth went on. " Controlling it, I saw 
Three purple-faced and anger-kindled men 
Of honourable rank. Each had thick hair 
Of pale blay-yellow ; and their ample brats (mantles) 
Were all alike, and were secured by pins 
Of brightest gold. Bright gold embroidery 
Adorned their three neat lagnas. Their three shields 
Were all alike. A gold-hilted sword 
Each wore upon his thigh ; in his right hand 
Each grasped a gray, white spear." 
'* Who were those, Fergus ? " asked Al-Yill. 
" Three good chieftains of Moy Cova " . . . ' ^ 

Among the numerous clans described by MacEoth 

was that under the great chieftain Celtchair Mac 

Uthair of Dun-da -leth-dass (Downpatrick) 

Clan of , , 1, 1 "^ • -XT 

Celtchair — ^ ^^^^ overwhelmmg m magnitude ; 
Mac Uthair fiery-red in a heat ; a battalion in numbers ; 
of DouTi. Q^ j.Q(jjj [^ strength ; a destruction in battle ; 
^* "° ' as thunder in impetuosity. The chief- 
tain at its head (a great contrast to Conchobar !) 
was an angry, terrific, hideous man, long-nosed, large- 
eared, apple-eyed : with coarse, dark-gray hair. He 
wore a striped cloak, and, instead of a brooch, he had 
a stake of iron in that cloak over his breast — which 

' From the beautiful poetic translation of The Tdin by Mrs. Mary 
A. Hutton of Belfast, book jciv. pp. 384-9 and 404. 


reached from one shoulder to the other. He wore a 
coarse, streaked shirt next his skin.' i 

We cannot forbear to mention the picturesque 
clan of Ercc — the little son of Capri Nia-Fer, Monarch 

of Erin, and of Fedilm (ever-blooming) 
Eroc° Nucruthach, daughter of Conchobar, King 

of Ulster. The herald describes this clan 
and its youthful chieftain thus : 

' Some of them had red cloaks, some gray cloaks ; 
others blue cloaks ; and others cloaks of green, blay, 
white, and yellow; and these cloaks all floating 
splendidly and brightly upon them. There is a red 
speckled little boy, with a crimson cloak, among them 
in the centre ; he has a brooch of gold in that cloak 
over his breast ; and a shirt of kingly silk interwoven 
with red gold next his white skin.* 2 

Well, * the old order changeth, giving place to the 
new ' — the * Ulster clans ' have gone, never to return, 
and the Irish dress, so many -coloured and picturesque, 
has long since disappeared, with the exception, 
Modem perhaps, of that faint relic, the large 
Relic of hooded cloak which, we are told, the 
Ancient country- women still wear in many parts 
^^^^' of Ireland, though we have not observed 

it in Donaghmore ; and * more is the pity,' for it is a 
very comely attire — especially if, as in ancient times, 
it is ' striped and spotted with divers colours ' ! Prob- 
ably the claddah cloak, now worn by many women, 

* Prose translation of The Tain — see O'Curry, Manners and 
Customs, vol. iii. p. 95. 

^ See O'Curry, Manners and Customs, vol. iii. p. 96. 


resembles in some respects that of the olden time, 
and it is to be hoped won't be soon proscribed 
by * Dame Fashion.' 

Early attempts were made to anglicise the Irish 
dress, but failed — particularly during the reign of 

King John. 
S^lrish'*''''' The ' Head Act,' as it was called, of 
Costume. Edward IV. rendered it lawful to seize 
' any native having no faithful men of 
good name, clad in English apparel, in his company, 
and to kill him and cut off his head, the cutter- 
off of each head being entitled to levy off every 
man in the barony who tilled one plow-land, two 
pence : and off every cottier, having a house and moat, 
one penny.' i 

A sumptuary law of Henry VIII. enacted that * no 
person shall wear . . . any manner of clothing, mantle, 
coat, or hood, after the Irish fashion, but in all things 
shall conform to the habits and manners of the civil 
people within the English pale.' ^ The same monarch 
proscribed the colour saffron thus : * Ne persone, 
or persones, the King's subjects, shall weare any shirte, 
kercher, bandelle, or market e, coloured or dyed with 

We should have thought this proscription quite 
unnecessary, if the following statement (quoted by 
Knox) of an Irish tourist be true, who visited the 
country about the close of the fifteenth century : 
* The Irish doe weare linen shirtes of great length for 

^ See Knox, History of Down, p. 33. 

- Note, an English surname must also be taken, the main 
policy of the Act being to detach the Irish from their sept — whose 
name they bore. 


wantonnesse and braverye, with white hanging 
sleeves plaited : thirty yards are little enough for one of 
them. They have now left off they're saffron, and learned 
to washe their shirtes four or five times in the year I ' i 

Notwithstanding, however, the various enactments 
and proscriptions, including those of James I., against 
Irish dress, it continued to be worn, and its general 
disuse in the reigns of James II., William III. and 
Anne may probably be attributed to the fashion of the 
times rather than to legal prohibition. 

We fail to see any valid reason for the proscription 
of the Irish dress. The Irish should have been per- 
mitted to wear their native costume, if they chose, were 
it only for the sake of sentiment, which has its uses, 
and especially in regard to dress, which in this case 
was considered a distinguishing mark of nationality. 

It may be interesting to note that, notwithstanding 
all their passionate love of colour, yet * as a matter of 
Ancient ^^^*' *'^® ancient Irish had no national 
Irish— no colour ' — SO we are informed by Dr. Joyce, 
National and there is no higher authority. A large 
^^^' proportion of our countrymen have adopted 
green as a national colour, but Joyce regards its 
adoption as a very modern innovation.^ 

Sir Bernard Burke agrees that the ancient Irish 
had no national colour. He states : * The various 
septs were ranged under the banners of 
Present Irish ^jjgjj. respective chiefs, and when one of 
Colour. those chiefs was elected King, his colour 
may be considered for the national ensign : ' 
but ' since the introduction of English rule, the national 

* History of Down, p. 66. ^ Social History, vol. ii. p. 192. 


colour, established by and derived from the National 
Arms, has been invariably, blue.' ^ 

The colours most in vogue at present in Donagh- 
more Parish are * orange and green,' but these are 
mere ' party ' badges. If the Battle of Boyne had any 
decisive effect as regards the adoption of party colours, 
they should certainly be ' green ' and^ ' white,' as we 
know (Macaulay) the army of King William wore 
sprigs of green in their cap, while that of King James 
wore strips of white paper. 

The writer finds a popular local impression to the 
effect that the Moycovians, who lived here and else- 
where in the territory, even in the early 
Civmsation centuries of the Christian era, were half 
Ancient Irish.s^'^^g^Sj as were Irishmen generally at 
the period ; but this is far from the truth, 
and is indeed little short of a libel. For the age, and 
as compared with other peoples, the Irish possessed 
a high degree of civilisation, and were the means of 
Christianising and civilising others, who now affect to 
despise them as an inferior race in this as well as in 
other respects. The Irish Church, in those days of 
her splendour, was the brightest light in Christen- 
dom, and Ireland, under her teaching and influence, 
was justly called, comparatively speaking, * the Island 
of Saints.' Of course they fought and were cruel in 
the * bloody strife,' but they were no worse than other 
Christian nations in this respect — in an age when even 
bishops buckled on their armour and led the armed 
host. Notwithstanding, however, the Irish were, j)ar 

^ Vicissitudes of Families, note, vol. i. p. 126. 


excellence^ devoted to their religion, and very 
punctilious in regard to its observances. 

It is to be feared that our modern * week-end * 
Sabbath- breakers, and others of their ilk, would con- 
sider the following rule of St. Conall, in 
St Conall ^^® ^^^^^ century, as regards the observ- 
ance of the Lord's Day, rather severe : 
* No out or indoor labour, not even sweeping or 
cleaning up the house ; no combing ; no shaving ; 
no clipping the hair or beard ; no washing the 
face or hands ; no cutting ; no sewing ; no churn- 
ing ; no riding on horseback ; no fishing ; no sailing 
or rowing ; no journeying of travellers, but wher- 
ever a man happened to be on a Saturday night, 
there was he to remain till Monday morning.' We 
would (for modem times) add : * No tennis ; no 
croquet ; no golf ; and no motoring, except to 
church ! ' 

The Irish in those times, we are told, were an in- 
telligent and enlightened people, and loved learning, 
while good schools abounded all over 
L^^^?""* the country. One school alone (Clonard) 
Education. ^^ ^^^^ ^^ \id,YQ contained 8,000 pupils. 
In the sixth, seventh, and eighth cen- 
turies Irish schools were famous throughout Europe. 
The English nobihty and gentry sent theii* sons to be 
educated in Ireland, while many Continental countries 
were also well represented in this respect. 

It seems, too, that the Ii'ish were a gay, light- 
hearted race in those days, and much given to amuse- 
ment — a bright contrast, in this respect at least, to 
the Irish of to-day. 


We suppose an ancient Irish fair will afford 
us the best instance of the popular amusements of 
Ancient *^® ^™®* ^'^ ^SiYe no record of a fair 
Irish Amuse- or aenach having been held at or near 
ments— Donaghmore in times far away ; but the 

^^^' inhabitants of the place must have shared 

in the festivities of such, for all the people of a 
tuath, and even of a province, received their periodic 
summons to attend. A fair in those times must have 
been a merry and picturesque assembly — far different 
from our modern conception of such. These fairs were 
attended by many thousands of people, who, for the 
time being, gave themselves up to unrestrained mirth, 
enjoyment, and amusement of various kinds — ' athletic 
games and exercises, racing, music, recitations by 
skilled poets and story-tellers, jugglers' and showmen's 
representations, eating and drinking, marrying and 
giving in marriage.' . . . ' The people were dressed in 
their best, and in great variety, for all, both men and 
women, loved bright colours, and from head to foot 
every individual wore articles of varied hue. Here 
you saw a tall gentleman walking along with a scarlet 
cloak flowing loosely over a short jacket of purple, 
with perhaps a blue trousers, while the next showed 
a colour arrangement wholly different, and the women 
vied with men in variety of hues.' ^ 

The Irish of to-day are fond of dancing ; yet it 

seems, in ancient times, they never indulged in that 

form of amusement, either at fairs or else- 

^^°"^8' where. Authorities inform us that in the 
Irish language there are no ancient words for dancing 

^ Joyce, Social History, vol. i. p. 30. 


as we understand it, nor is it once mentioned in any 
of the old manuscript books. We suppose there is no 
higher authority than O'Curry, who writes : * As far 
as I have ever read there is no reference that can be 
identified as containing a clear allusion to dancing in 
any of our really ancient (Irish) MS. books.' i 

Irish fairs were governed by stringent rules — one 
being the prohibition of all fighting or quarrelling of 

any kind — a very necessary provision, we 
Fafrs ^ should think ! There was a sacred * truce 

of peace ' for the time being, and woe betide 
the man who raised his blackthorn or other weapon, 
even by way of threat or provocation. The penalty 
was probably death — at least such was the punish- 
ment for a breach of this law at the great triennial 
fair of Carman (Wexford) : 

* Whoever transgresses the law of the assembly, 
Which Benen with accuracy indelibly wrote, 
Cannot be spared upon family composition, 
But he must die for hia transgression.* ' 

It is to be feared that Irish fairs have degenerated, 
in that there is no longer a * truce of peace,' and that 
Modern *^® shillelagh may be freely used with 
Fairs and impunity. 

* the Shil- w^e are told that one of the ancient 

^ ^^ ' Irish weapons of warfare was * a great 

club of black thorn, with a band of iron,' 
and that * each of the thrice fifty attendants 
of hospitaller Da Derga ' carried this formidable 

^ Manners and Customs, vol. ii. p. 406. 
^ From the poem on Carman, verse 5G. 


weapon. Dr. Joyce, in a note on the statement, tells 
us that more than eighteen centuries later, that is to 
say, towards the middle of the last century, he often 
saw the men of the rival factions— the * Three-year- 
old,' and * Four-year-old ' — fighting at the * big fair of 
Kildorrery,' co. Cork, with precisely the same kind 
of weapons — ^heavy sticks — blackthorn, oak, or ash, 
with iron or lead ferrules on the end.^ 

Most people have heard of Donnybrook Fair, 
originally established by King John, so notorious for 

its riotous proceedings. This famous 
Fair^ '°° ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ annually at the end of August 
transferred for upwards of six centuries, the last 
to the taking place in 1855. We have no modern 

Co^mmons ^^^^ Donnybrook — though it seems the 

old scenes have been revived elsewhere — 
even at Westminster (' Tell it not in Gath ! '), where, 
on certain occasions in the year of our Lord 1911, 
Harry Furniss tells us, the riotous proceedings were 
* typical of the old (Donnybrook) Fair, where fathers, 
sons, brothers, and cousins mixed up, (and) fought for 
the " divil of it " in the " Here-is-a-head-let-us-crack- 
it " style of " rale enjoyment." ' ^ 

It may be noted that the Irish fair or aenach had 
its origin in pagan times, and was primarily instituted 

for the purpose of celebrating the funeral 
9|"^.?^ rites of kings, nobles, and other persons 
Fair. ^f distinction. The fairs were always 

held around the ancient pagan cemeteries 
— generally forts — the burial place of such person- 

' Social History, vol. i. p. 106. 
* Articles on Parliament. 


ages, where the members of the assembly chanted 
the guha, or mournful chorus, and, after the funeral, 
joined in the * funeral games ' — which were generally 
repeated at certain intervals, say on the anniversary 
of the funeral or triennially. 

Subsequently, the Irish fair developed into an 
assembly of a more social and festive character — while 
the sale and purchase of various kinds of commodities 
formed an important function of the aenach. Besides, 
the fairs became a kind of parhament for the pro- 
mulgation and rehearsal of laws, and the transaction of 
divers kinds of business affecting the community at 

The old Irish aenach has long since departed ; but, 
doubtless, in many parts of Ireland the festive idea 
still hngers. 

About the middle of the eighteenth century we find 
the Donaghmore fairs always * finished up ' with * the 
usual diversions.' 

The modern inhabitants of Donaghmore, it is to be 
feared, would not be impressed with the physical 
aspect of the locality in ancient times 
A^^trof ^^ compared with the present. Then, the 
Moy Cova. larger proportion of the district which 
now constitutes the parish was composed 
of morasses and forests. 

Moy Cova must have been a fine field for sport in 
those old times — if it resembled the rest of Ireland. 
' The (Irish) woods and waste places were alive with 
birds and wild animals of all kinds,' and * the rivers 
and lakes teemed with fish.' 

All the lands, here and elsewhere, in ancient times 



whether for cultivation or pasturage, were for the 
most part fenceless, and hence there were no fields as 
we understand them. It was not till about the seventh 
century that fences for the first time became general, 
owing, it seems, to the people having become so numer- 
ous. The little land under cultivation was farmed 
in a very primitive fashion* — corn of various kinds 
being the chief crop — ^while the pasturage was mainly 
used for cows*— one of the ' chief articles ' of wealth in 
those dayS' — the Irish pig coming next in that respect. 

The houses were mostly of wood — the families of 
superior rank living at the forts ■ — the * palaces '< — 
which were generally of a circular form, and 
cient situated on hills and other places of difficult 
access, while their retainers occupied de- 
tached structures apart, but within the rath or lis 
enclosures. The lower orders of the people generally, 
especially during the summer, while attending their 
flocks and herds, dwelt in the hut or caban, outside 
the rath enclosures, which consisted of a few 
branches of trees stuck into the ground, in a cir- 
cular or oblong fashion, tied at the top with withes, 
and covered with leaves and grass. Their winter 
dwellings were more endurable and comfortable, but 
for ages there were no windows or chimneys ! i 

Tne Danes, and other invaders of Ireland, did 
little to improve Irish architecture — especially in 
regard to the habitations of the people. Indeed, it 
was not till the seventeenth century that comfortable, 
substantial houses of habitation and elegant country 
seats became general in Ireland- — and, even then, such 
were * few and far between.' 

^ See Homohgia Bibemica, vol. ii. p. 4. 


In 1635 an Englishman^ — Sir William Brereton — 
made an extensive tour of Ireland, and, on his journey 
T . „ from Dromore to Newry, must have 

Impressions "^ ' 

of an Eng- passed through this parish, if his route 
lish Tourist, were at all direct. His impressions of 
the material condition of the district are 
far from flattering — to say nothing in regard to his 
opinion of the * villain ' who led him out of the way. 
He writes in his MS. Journal : ' July 7th (1635) wee 
left Dromoare and went to the Newrie, which is sixteen 
miles ; this is a most difficult way for a stranger to 
find out ; herein wee wandered, and being lost fell 
among the Irish townes. The Irish houses are the 
poorest cabins I have seen ; erected in the middle of 
the fields and grounds which they farm and rent. This 
is a wild countries noil inhabited, planted, nor inclosed, 
yeit Hi would hee come if it was husbanded. I gave 
an Irishman to bring us into the way a groate, who led 
us like a villain directly out of the way, and soe left us ; 
soe as by this deviation it was 3 houre before we came 
to the Newrie.' ^ 

This ' English gentleman,' as the Rev. John 
Dubourdieu calls him, had doubtless his prejudices and 
viewed Ireland through coloured glasses — a habit too 
common on the part of some Enghshmen, especially 
of the tourist class, or those who study us through the 
medium of the illustrated postcard of caricature- — 
many of whom imagine that we actually feed and 
harbour our pigs in the drawing-room ! 

Making all due allowances, however, for Sir William's 
prejudices, it is to be feared that his impressions 

^ Quoted by the Rev. John Dubourdieu, Statistical Survey of 
Down, pp. 309-10. 


were not wholly baseless. But we have progressed 
since then, and the Ireland generally of to-day (and 
Ulster in particular) is far different from that of ancient 
or even more modern times. 

The remains of the best ancient dwellings- — the 
silent, deserted and dismantled forts- — now look down 
in their utter desertion and loneliness 
Present ^^ ^]^q proud mansions- — the lordly habita- 
Aspect. tions of the great noble or wealthy com- 
moner, scattered throughout the land ; 
while the caban, once the wretched abode of the poor 
' sons of toil,' has disappeared, and given place to the 
neat cottage with its flower-garden, or, it may be, the 
* government house,' built on the best and sunniest 
site, where the tenant is ' safe and secure '■ — so long as 
he fulfils the conditions of his tenure. Where anciently 
great forests, morasses, and quagmires abounded, 
are now for the most part to be seen well-cultivated 
farms, smiling industry, and all the signs and tokens of 
prosperity and Christian civilisation. 

Should any ' English gentleman ' of unbiassed 
mind at present make the same trip as that of Brereton, 
Modem ^® ^^^^ ^^^ ^^ route as he traverses our 
Donaghmore great main road, the well-known * green 
—Material fields' of Donaghmore, its fertile soil, its 
Condition. j^.gj^j^ cultivated farms, its rich and 
prosperous farmers, its fine mansion (Dromantine), 
and other commodious structures, while at the same 
time we can positively assure him that no local ' villain ' 
will be found so base as to divert his footsteps out of 
the way ! 



It is impossible to specify any precise date when the 
territory of Moy Cova was divided into well-defined 
Evolution parishes, because the parochial system was 
of the .a matter of evolution. It was conceived 

Parochial by Theodore of Tarsus, who was Archbishop 
System. ^^ Canterbury in the seventh century, but 
the evolution was not complete till long afterwards. 
According to Bishop Reeves (' 1 ownland Distribu- 
tion ') our parochial distribution (of land) is entirely 
borrowed from the Church, under which it was matured, 
probably about the middle of the twelfth century, and 
hence we may conclude that about that time 
Donaghmore became a regularly defined parish. 

In regard to the several townlands which comprise 
the parish of Donaghmore, it may also be remarked, 
that no precise time can be mentioned when 
r^ribution ^^^^ ^^^^ formed and named. Tiaat excel- 
lent authority — Dr. Joyce (letter to writer) 
— informs us : * I do not think there was any precise 
time when townlands (and parishes) were formed and 
named. I think the whole structure grew up imper- 
ceptibly, beginning in the most ancient times. The 


townland names came first- — each applied to some 
small feature or structure or spot, and very gradually 
boundaries were formed round each- — the parish in 
almost all cases taking name from the townland in 
which the old church of the patron saint was 
situated. . . . The boundaries of both townlands 
and parishes were finally fixed at the time of the 
Ordnance Survey, 70 or 80 years ago.' 

Bishop Beeves (' Townland Distribution ') considers 
the townlands, which he calls the infima sjpecies in the 
civil distribution of land, under the province, as, in 
part, the earliest allotment in the scale, and identifies 
them as that which best represents the ancient Seisreach 
(derived from Seisrear, ' six,' and each, * horse,'— 
denoting the extent of ground a six-horse plough would 
turn up in a year). 

There seems an extraordinary discrepancy between 
the contents of a townland now and formerly. Dr. 
Keeves accounts for the difference by the 
Townilnds^ fact, that the extent of the old Shes-ragh 
now and or plowland was ascertained by estimation 
formerly— and not by measurement ; and he instances, 
aTS^a^? among others, the case of the townland of 
' The Cross ' (parish of Bally dug, co. 
Antrim), which in 1640 was estimated as containing 
120 acres, but now, as the result of actual survey, 
comprises 1,529 acres. 

In regard to the townlands of Donaghmore, we 
notice a like discrepancy. For example, the townland 
of Dromenteane (Dromantine) is cited {' Inquisitions ') 
in 1641 as containing ' 3 messuages and 100 acres,' 
but now by survey comprises upwards of 597 acres. 


Dr. Sullivan informs us that among the ancient Irish, 
and all early nations, land was admeasured more by- 
quality than by area, and that consequently a division 
of land in a poor country was larger in extent than in a 
rich one.i Hence, it would seem that the smaller the 
townland, the richer the soil. Accordingly, the town- 
land of MiU Tenement (parish of Ardchnis, county 
Antrim), which is said to be the smallest in Ireland, 
containing 1a. 1r. 1p., must be a rich and fertile spot, 
as compared with that of Sheskin (co. Mayo), which 
comprises 7,012 acres. Dr. Reeves (an undoubted 
authority), however, considers that the acreable 
average of townlands in the various counties was not 
regulated by the general productiveness of the land — 
but * must have had its origin in the civil pecuharities 
of the district, while in the possession of the ancient 

Donaghmore is rich in ancient place-names — a heri- 
tage for which we cannot be too grateful. Indeed the 

same may be said of Ireland generally. 
f^°®J^^™®^ Had the Romans conquered Ireland, and 

had the Normans not adopted our manners 
and customs by becoming even ' more Irish than 
the Irish themselves '■ — our place-names might have 
been far different. True, certain corrupting influ- 
ences have been at work, such as the Ordnance 
Survey, the Post Office, the Railway, and the National 
Board ; but these have in no way materially affected 
us here. All our place-names (excepting * Glebe ' 
townland), including that of the parish, have been 
handed down to us from ancient times. Such names, 

* See Introduction to O'Curry, Manners and Customs, p. xcviii. 


both here and elsewhere, are an interesting study, 
especially when we consider their origin. It is said 
there is scarcely a member of the human frame that 
did not supply a place-name ; while a similar remark 
applies to strongholds, churches, rivers, and divisions of 
lands. Besides, physical features, local and historical 
incidents, etc., all helped to swell the list. 

The parish of Donaghmore contains an area oj 
8,396 acres, and comprises the following twenty-six 
townlands, the names of which are given 
Names— ^^^ ^^^^^ boundaries set out on the Ord- 
Irish Deriva- nance Survey map. These names, with 
tion and q^q exception, are all derived from words 
* of the Irish language, and were taken down 
from the pronunciation of the inhabitants, at the time 
the Ordnance Survey was being made, by Dr. John 
O'Donovan, the well-known Irish scholar, who was 
specially employed to collect and record the names, 
and he is the authority for their present form. Even 
so long ago as the beginning of the last century Irish 
was almost a dead language in the district, and no doubt 
many of the names had become altered and corrupted, 
so that in this generation the discovery of their 
meanings or translation into English is no easy 
task. However, happily there are only a few such 
among the place-names of Donaghmore. O'Donovan's 
spelling has been carefully followed, and wherever 
there is a spelling or name different from that of the 
Ordnance Survey maps, it is given in brackets. For the 
convenience of reference the names are arranged alpha- 
betically. Following each name is given the spelhng 
and the meaning of the Irish words of which it is a 
compound, so far as it can be represented in English. 


As our authorities seem to differ slightly regarding the 
spelhng of the Irish words, both forms are given — 
one being in brackets. The numerals following the 
names of sixteen townlands give the number of raths 
or lisses (i.e. towns or villages in each) that appear in 
the latest edition of the Ordnance Survey maps. 

Annaghbane : Eanach-ban (eanach ban), * The 
white marsh ' — descriptive of the grasses that grew 
on it. 1. 

Ardkeeragh : Ard-caora (ard oaoragh), i The 
sheep's height, or the hill of the sheep.* 

Aughintober : Achad-na-tober (achadh an to- 
bair), ' The field of the well.* This townland had 
formerly a celebrated spa well, one of the Holy Wells 
so common throughout Ireland. This in all proba- 
bility was the well used by St. Mac Ere, it being in 
close proximity to the church. [Tullivarry : tulach 
MHAiRE, * The hill of Mary,* not the Blessed Virgin, 
but an ordinary Mary.] 1. 

Aughnacavan : Achadh-na-cabhan (achadh a 
cabhain), * The field of the hollow or valley.' [Agha- 

Ballyblaugh : Baile-blathach (bails blathach), 
' The town of flowers.* It is likely that at some period 
the residents in this town or village grew a posy or 
two beside their abode. [Bally bleaghe.] 1. 

Ballylough : Baile-an-loch (baile an locha), 
* The town of the lough or lake.* 1. 

Ballymacaratty-Beg : Baile-mac-ionnreachtaich-beg 
(baile mac ionnreachtaigh beag), * The small town 
of Mac Ionnreachtaigh.' lonnreachtach is an old Irish 
word which was a patronymic under the forms Mac 
Ionnreachtaigh and O'Hionnreachtaig, the names of 


families who resided in co. Armagh, where they are 
now modernised into Enright and Hanratty. This 
and the following townland were, up till at least 
the year 1618, one district, which was subsequently 
divided into heg ' the smaller,' and more * the larger.' 
It is a curious fact that 'heg' ' the smaller town ' is 
at present of greater dimensions than ' mor ' * the 
larger town * ! i 4. 

Ballymacaratty-More : Baile-mac-ionnreachtaigh- 
mor (baille mac ionnreachtaigh mor), * The large 
town of Mac lonnreachtaig. [Bally M'Enratty.] 3. 

Buskhill : Baile-na-bascaille (baile na bascaille), 
* The town of the hind or deer.' [Ballinebaskilly, 
Boskyll and Vaskyll.] 

Cargabane : Cairgeach-ban (cairgeach ban), ' The 
white rocky place ' or ' The white rocks.' 

Carrickovaddy or Carrickrovaddy : Carraic-ruadh- 
mhadaidh (carraic ruadh mhadaidh), ' The rock of 
the red dog,' i.e. the fox. 1. 

Corgary : Cor-garbh (corgarbh), ' The rough 
round hill.' 

Derrycraw : Doire-creach (doire creaoh), * The 
oak-wood of the herds or plunder.' [Balledericraghe.] 

Drumantine : Druim-an-tsidheain (druim an 
tsidheain), * The ridge of the fairies, or of the 
foxgloves.' [Balledromentighean.] 4. 

Drummiller : Druim -iolar (druim iolar), * The 
eagle's ridge.' The name is likely in memory of an 
eagle from the Mourne Mountains having paid a visit 
to a sheep run. 8. 

1 The explanation is that the townland of Carrickdrummond 
(Parish of Aghaderg) was formerly portion of Bally macaratty more. 


Glebe. This, of course, is a modern name. The 
old name of this townland is Tulljoiacross : Talach-na- 
croch (tulach na cros), ' The hill of the Cross,' from 
the ancient Celtic Cross standing in the churchyard. 

Killysavin ; Coill-samhain (coillidh samhan), 

* Hollantide-bushes or wood.' The first of November 
was called * Savin,' i.e. the end of summer, when the 
pagan Irish celebrated their harvest-home. Tuathal, 
who was King of Ireland in the first century, instituted 
the festival of Samhuin at Tlachtga, now the hill of 
Ward near Athboy, in Meath, where fires were Hghted, 
and games and sports indulged in for six days, whilst 
at the same time minor festivities were observed 
throughout the country. Of these bygone pastimes 
the name Killysavin is a perpetual memorial. [Kil- 
lassonne.] 1. 

Knockanamey : Cnock-na-aime (cnoc na n-airne), 

* The hill of the sloes.' 2. 

Lurganare : Lurgan-air (luroan air), ' The long 
low hill of slaughter.' An old subdivision of Lur- 
ganare was Knockrower (cnoc ramhair), * The 
thick hill.' 

Moneymore : Muine-mor (muine mor), * The big 
shrubbery.' 2. 

Muddy drumbrist : Muine-drom-riasg (muine droma 
riasca), ' The shrubbery of the moory ridge.' This is 
an instance of the first syllable being corrupted in the 
course of transmission. [Munny-drum-brisk.] 1. 

Ringbane ; Rin-ban (rinn ban), ' The white 
point.' 1. 

Ringclare ; Rin-clar (rinn clair), * The level 
point,' or * The point of the plain.' [Balleeisharboy : 


BAiLE EASA BUiDHE, ' The town of the yellow water- 
fall.' Also Assaboy.] 1. 

Ringolish : Rin-na-lis (rinn a' lis), ' The point 
of the fort.' 3. 

Tullymore : Tulac-mor (tulach mor), ' The big 
hill.' [Ballereigner : baile ui threanmhoir, — 
' O'Treanor's Town.' Trainor or Treanor is still a 
family name in this parish.] 2. 

Tullymurry : Tulac-mhuire (tulach mhuire), 
* The hill of Mary.' This townland is close to the 
church, and probably within its bounds a chapel or 
place of devotion was dedicated to the blessed Virgin 
Mary. [BallytoUywryry.] 

The parish of Donaghmore is situated in the 
south-west end of the county of Down and barony of 
Upper Iveagh. It is bounded on the north 
anrihysical ^nd north-east by the parish of Aghaderg, 
Features of east and south by that of Newry, and on the 
Donagh- ^^g^ ^y ^y^q county of Armagh. Its extreme 
length from north to south is about six 
miles, and mean length upwards of four miles. Its 
extreme breadth from east to west is four miles, and 
its mean breadth about two and one-half miles. 

The eastern portion of the parish becomes extremely 
narrow where, on the north, the townland of Lisnatier- 
ney (Parish of Aghaderg) projects into it ; while on the 
south and south-east the townlands of Lisserboy, 
Loughorne, Curley, and Ouley (parish of Newry) com- 
pletely cut off what would naturally form a portion of 
the parish of Donaghmore, and hence the small 
dimensions of its mean breadth. It is more than 


probable tbat these several townlands were comprised 
in the Donaghmore group previous to the actual com- 
pletion of the parochial system. Lisnatiemey was a 
portion of one of the ancient manors of Donaghmore 
parish — viz. that in ' the precinct of Clanagan,' ^ while 
in King Maurice MacLaughlin's Charter to Newry, about 
the year 1158, amongst the twenty denominations of 
land recited, those of Lisserboy, Loughorne, Curley, and 
Ouley do not occur. These four townlands must have 
been added to the parish of Newry at a subsequent 
period, when considerable additions were made to the 
original grant, and probably the * twenty denominations * 
subdivided — for in an Inquisition of 1547 the posses- 
sions of the Newry Abbey are described as consisting 
of forty-seven carracates — the actual number of town- 
lands now in the parish and barony of Newry.- 

The physical features of the parish of Donaghmore 
differ little from those generally attributed to the 
county of Down, which are supposed to be peculiar in 
one respect at least, in that its * plains are not plains, 
its slopes are not slopes, and its undulations are not 
undulations,* in the ordinary sense. It (Down) con- 
sists in general of a series of hillocks, which have been 
quaintly compared to wooden bowls inverted, or 
eggs set in salt .3 While this description is generally 
applicable to Donaghmore — especially to the eastern 
portion of the parish, it may be added that the hills or 
hillocks vary much in height, and many of them 

' This statement is only given for what it is worth, as a 
portion of a manor was often in a separate parish. 

- See Reeves, Tovndand DigtrtbtUion, and AniiquitieSt p. 117. 
* Ulster Journal of Archctology^ vol. L Old Series. 


are considerably above sea-level. The ' Five Mile * 
(being that distance from Newry) and * Barr ' hills 
are, respectively, 385 and 357 feet above sea-level. 
A hill in Cargabane townland and a point in that of 
Ringclare are each about 365 feet above the sea. 
The parish is closely intersected with roads and by- 
lanes. The main road from Dublin to Belfast enters 
the parish at Sheepbridge — about three miles from 
Newry, running north the same distance, where it 
enters the parish of Aghaderg. A portion of the old 
* coach road ' to Dublin remains — close to the parish 
church — and is still used for local traffic. 

Schist is the only rock in the parish, except in 
the extreme southern portion, where it is found in 
conjunction with granite. 

According to an Ordnance Survey MS. — 1834 — in 
the Royal Irish Academy,^ the parish at that date con- 
tained 223 acres of bog, all in small detached pieces — 
none larger than the bog of Aughintubber, which was 
18 acres in extent. Besides the bogs there were 
70 acres of swampy ground along the Newry Canal, 
flooded in winter, but used as pasture during the 
summer — of which 17 acres were in Ballylough, 
16 in Lurganare, 13 in Corgary, 10 in Knockinamey, 
and 3 in Dromantine townlands. The woods of the 
parish covered about 235 acres, mostly in Dromantine 
demesne and the townland of Ballylough. There was 
a very large corn mill on the Newry river in Drumiller, 
two smaller ones in Ballymacrattybeg and Ringbawn, 
and a flax mill in Aughnacavan townlands. Loughorne 
Lake contained 51 acres, 28 of which were in the 

^ Statistical Remarks on Donaghmore Pariaht E, 31. 


parish of Donaghmore — the remainder in that of 

The inhabitants of the parish at that date (1884) 
numbered 4,463 persons. 

According to Lewis's * Topographical Dictionary,* 
the parish in 1837 contained 110 acres of woodland, 
449 of bog, 16 of waste, and 48 of water. 

The bogs of the parish are now almost exhausted, 
while a few of them, together with most of the swampy 
lands, have been drained and converted into arable 
land or pasturage. There are at present no mills in 
working order in the parish — only the sad wrecks of 
those which flourished in former days. The beautiful 
little Lake of Loughome has also disappeared — 
though close to its former site still stands 
Loughome House, the residence of John Martin — 
the noted Lrish Repealer. 

The following table contains an interesting Census 
of Donaghmore Parish — attributed to the year 1659 — 
extracted from Manuscripts which are in 
iftsr^*"" the possession of the Royal Lrish Academy. 
It is taken from what has been called 
* Petty's Census,' which is supposed to contain a full 
and complete record of the population of Ireland at the 
time- — say those over fifteen years of age (taken from 
the Poll Tax returns). The figures doubtless contrast 
very unfavourably, say, with those of the census 
of 1821 ; but it must be remembered that in 
1659 the population of Ireland was sparse, as much 
land was then unfit for cultivation, and, besides, the 
country had greatly suffered, owing to the rebellion of 
1641 and all that followed that cruel insurrection. 



Census of Ireland, attributed to the year 1659 
County of Downe : Upper Iveagh Barrony 




ToUemor . 
Killeshanan . 
Ringban . 
Ringe Imulbeece 
Anaghban . 
The three \ tow 

?he three \ towns of^ 
Knockenenarney,Bal- \ 
lylogh, & Corgery -' 
["he i towne of Car) 

The ^ towne 

Ballyblegg .... 

The other 3^ towns of ^ 
Knockenenamey,Bal- V 
lylogh, & Corgery J 

Ballyhamettybegg . 

Ballyhametty Mor . 

Mune More ^ towne . 

Moneydrombrist . 

Aghy Cavin \ towne 

Tolleny Cross. . . . 

ToUenemary . . . . 

Cargaghban . . . . 







John Cambbell, gent. 

Edmond McBryan,gent 











18 1 








24 i 






12 j 










Though the census of 1861 first instituted inquiries as 
to the rehgious professions of the people, yet a previous 
attempt had heen made in that direction by order of 
the House of Lords to the Clergy of the Church of 
Ireland. Accordingly a religious census of Donagh- 
more was returned, March 22, 1766, ' in 
obedience to the order of the House of 
Lords,' by the Kev. George Vaughan, 
Vicar of the parish. The families (whose 
names are not given) are divided into ' Protestant ' 
and ' Popish ' — ^while the good Vicar's return in regard 

Census — 


to the number of such was doubtless a rough guess, 
and therefore, as we are informed, his estimate- — and 
similar ones^ — are extremely unrehable. The return 
is : * Two hundred Protestant famihes : two hundred 
and one Popish ditto : one Popish priest — one reputed 
Popish priest. No friars.' ^ 

An important census is that of 1821, in which 
the name of each inhabitant, age, occupation or 

profession, and townland are given. The 
18^^^*'^ following particulars are taken from the 

somewhat bulky volume containing this 
census of Donaghmore, in the Public Record Office, 

The enumerator was Joseph Harper, who com- 
menced May 28, 1821, and continued, ' Sundays ex- 
cepted,* till attestation — August 1 — of the same year. 

Famihes . . 829] 

Males . . . 2,138 [ Total, 4,478 

Females . . 2,885) 

Inhabited Houses . 814 
Uninhabited „ . 5 

The Glebe School contained 80 boys and 23 girls — 
' day scholars.' Schoolmaster, William Robinson. 

A school in Tullymurry townland had 19 ' day 
scholars.' Teacher, Thomas Marshall. 

It is interesting to note the number of those 
employed in connection with the Flax Industry in 
the parish in 1821. In the townlands of Dromantine, 
Ballyblaugh, and Corgary alone, there were 96 flax- 
spinners and 43 linen weavers. In most of the other 

' Parliamentary Retunie, Public Record OflSce. 


townlands the proportion of those following these 
occupations was equally large, while at present there 
are none such in the parish. 

The census of 1841 gives the population as 4,436, 
which differs little from that of 1821. During the 
Census ^^^ years which followed, the number of the 
Returns— inhabitants decreased by one thousand; 
1841-1911. £qj. ^q f^^ ^Yie census of 1851 gives the 
population as only 3,434. 

The population in 1861 (census) was as follows : 
males, 1,424 ; females, 1,418 ; making a total of 2,842, 
and showing a further marked decrease in the number 
of the inhabitants. 

The census of 1871, and those that follow, give the 
population of the Electoral Districts into which the 
parish is divided, viz. Donaghmore and Glen : 

1871 Donaghmore 1,386 

Glen . . 1,165 Total, 2,551. 

1881 Donaghmore 1,130 

Glen . . 1,032 Total, 2,162. 

1891 Donaghmore 881— Males, 449 ; females, 432. 
Glen . . 823— „ 412; „ 411, 
Total population, 1,704. 

Census, 1901 

Donaghmore : 

Population.- — Persons, 648 : Males, 335 ; Females, 
313. Houses (total), 211 : inhabited, 177 ; uninhabited, 
34. Out-offices and farmsteadings, 821. 

Valuation.' — Houses and Land, £5,235 3s. Od. 
Area, 4,337 acres 1 rood 10 perches. 



Glen : 

Population. ^-Peisons, 737 : Males, 384 ; Females, 
353. Houses (total), 193: inhabited, 166; unin- 
habited, 27. Out-offices and farmsteadings, 867. 

Valuatio7i. — Houses and Land, £5,229 55. Od. 
Area, 4,051 acres 1 rood 3 perches. 

Total population of the parish (Donaghmore and 
Glen).— Persons, 1,385 : Males, 719 ; Females, 666. 

Religious Professions : 

Roman Catholics. — Total, 704 : Males, 364 ; 
Females, 340. 

Presbyterians.— Total, 486 : Males, 263 ; Females, 

Irish Church members. — Total, 163 : Males, 78 ; 
Females, 85. 

Methodists.— 16. 

All other denominations.— 16. 

Census, 1911 
Parish of Donaghmore 

Peraons. Males. 


Roman Catholics. . 770 

Presbyterians . . 472 

Church of Ireland . 141 

Methodists ... 5 

All other denominations 23 

Donaghmore Electoral Divi- 
sion .... 








Inhabited Uninhabited 
Houses. Houses. 

163 25 



£ 2 


Out-offices and farmsteadings.' — Donaghmore, 962 ; 
Glen, 1,135. 

Education.' — Donaghmore : 678 persons, of whom 
514 could read and write, 21 could read only. Illi- 
terates (of 9 years and over), 45. Balance of popula- 
tion under 9, 98. 

Glen : 733 persons ; read and write, 567 ; read 
only, 30. Illiterates (of 9 years and over), 37. Balance 
under 9, 99 persons. 

Primary Education. — Donaghmore : two mixed 
schools. Average attendance week ending May 13, 
1911, 32 males and 29 females. 

Glen : two mixed schools. Average attendance 
May 13, 60 males and 52 females. 

Donaghmore : 3 persons could speak Irish and 

Glen, ditto. 

The oldest person in the parish at this date (1913) 
is James Walsh (ex-surveyor), who was born July 23, 
1817, and hence is in the ninety-sixth year of his age ; 
while the youngest — well, we must not make rash 
statements, for such are ever with us, and they are 
heartily welcome ! 

The parish, as we have seen, is divided into the 

Electoral Divisions of Donaghmore and Glen. The 

present government valuation of Donagh- 

Electoral ^^^^ Electoral Division is £5,206, and that 


of Glen £5,298 5s.— Total, £10,504 5s., 
an immense increase as compared with that (Griffith*s) 
in 1839, which was £6,814 lis. lOd. 


The representatives at the Board of Guardians for 

the respective Divisions are : Donaghmore, William 

Bradford (smce 1884) and Falkiner B. 

Guard^^. ^^^^^' ^^^' ^^^® Cranny, J.P., and 
Arthur McEvoy, J.P. 

Former Guardians : Donaghmore, James Har- 
shaw, James Martin, John Harshaw, John Bradford 
(1860), Alexander Ledlie, John Marshall, Joseph Mar- 
shall, J. Gordon Young, and Samuel James Marshall ; 
Glen^ James Savage (the first elected Guardian, 
and father of James Savage of Glen House), Hugh 
M* Court, Pat Loughlin, Edward Convery, John Reavy, 
John O'Hare, Peter Kerr and Laurence M'Court. 

The following magistrates for the county of Down 
are resident in the parish : Richard John Anderson, 

. M.A., M.D., Beechhill House ; Luke Cranny, 

*^® "^ ** Ringclare House; Arthur M'Evoy,Drumiller; 

James Rooney, Momit Mills, Drumiller. In former 

times there was generally but one magistrate in the 

parish, a member of the Lanes family. 

Dr. Anderson is the second son of Robert (son of 
John Anderson of Gamagat, co. Tyrone) and Elizabeth 
Harcourt (granddaughter of John Harcourt 
Andean. ^^ *^^^ parish). He had a brilliant Univer- 
sity career — having won several scholar- 
ships, exhibitions, and two gold medals at graduation. 
He held a medical and sanitary appointment, 1873-5 ; 
Demonstrator of (and Lecturer on) Anatomy, 
1875-83 ; Clinical Lecturer and Attendant, County 
Galway Infirmary, 1890-1 ; Professor of Natural 
Science, including Comparative Anatomy, 1883 ; 
an Hon. President, Section of Anatomy, XV. 


Congres International De Medicine, Lisbon, 1906 ; 
Examiner in Botany (Intermediate Board), 1889- 
1900 ; Poor Law Guardian {ex-officio), 1892-9. Dr. 
Anderson still holds the Professorship of Natural 
History and Mineralogy in the University College, 
Galway, and is, besides. Examiner in the National 
University. Publications : over 200 papers in British 
and Contmental Journals and Comptes Kendus of Inter- 
national Congresses, and, besides, many booklets and 
pamphlets ; joint conductor of the ' International 
Journal of Anatomy and Physiology ' (London, Leipzig, 
and Paris) since 1884 ; and an original collaborateur 
of the Anat. Anzeig, 1887. Inventor of a revolving 
microscopic apparatus, etc. Professor Anderson 
married Hannah Perry, B.A., of Belfast in 1889. 
Mrs. Anderson is a member of a distinguished family 
— one of whom (her brother) is John Perry, M.E., 
D.Sc, LL.D., F.E.S., Professor of Mathematics in the 
Eoyal College of Science, South Kensington. Professor 
Perry was President of the Institution of Electrical 
Engineers, President of the Physical Society of 
London, General Treasurer of the British Association, 
and Member of the Council of the Eoyal Society. He 
is a well-known author on scientific subjects. Among 
his numerous publications are treatises on the * Steam 
Engine ' (1874) ; ' Practical Mechanics ' (1883) ; * Spin- 
ning Top * (1890) ; * Hydraulics ' (Cantor Lectures, 
1882) ; ' England's Neglect of Science ' (1901), etc. 
The parish of Donaghmore had formerly two 
manors — ^viz. the Manor of Donaghmore 
' and that within * the precinct called 


The Manor of Donaghmore originally embraced 
twelve townlands and the rectory — the lord of the 

manor and the patron of the living being 
^l^nT *^® ^^^^ Archbishop of Armagh for the 
more. *'i^® being. In the Ulster Visitation of 1622 

this property is described as the 'Manor 
of Donaghmore contayning twelve townes and one 
Rectorie.' Subsequently three of these * townes ' 
were sold or alienated — after which the manor 
consisted of nine townlands (and the rectory), 
comprising about 2,005 acres. 

This property has been connected with the See of 
Armagh from the earliest times, and is reckoned as one 
of its first endowments. The Primates, however, seem 
to have made surrenders of this (and other properties) 

at different times, under some arrangement 
a^d^R^^" by which they were to receive re-grants 
Grante. ^^m the Crown. This procedure may 

have been considered necessary on the sup- 
position that monastic lands had become vested in the 
Crown through confiscation or otherwise, in con- 
sequence of the suppression of the monasteries. For 
example, the Primate surrendered all his advowsons to 
the Crown on December 1, 1612, and all his estates 
in 1614 (Patent Rolls— Erk's Eccl. Reports, p. 500). 
There was, however, a previous surrender of the 
Donaghmore estate at least ; for we find from the Royal 
and Parliamentary Grants of Land and Tythes in the 
Chancery Rolls (p. 197), under date of 9 James I. 
31 May (1612) : * Grants from the King to Henry 
Usher, Archbishop of Armagh and his successors — 
Down County — In Evagh otherwise Magennissea* 


Country,* viz. * The Manor or precinct of Donaghmore 
and the towns, hamlets and lands of Balleeisharboy 
(Ringclare), Ballaghecavan (Aughnacavan), Bally tully- 
Imrie (Tullymurry), Balleenecarraghebane (Cargabane), 
Balleeneraghnabane (Eingbane), Bally ardkeeragh 
(Ardkeeragh), Balleeneranagh (Ringolish), Balleen- 
nianbane (Annaghbane), Ballinebaskilly (Buskhill) — To 
hold to him and his successors for ever in pure and 
perpetual alms. These lands, with those of Bally- 
munnymore (Money more), Bally tullyvar (Aughen- 
tubber), and Ballymanydroomvarish (Maddydrum- 
brist), are also created the Manor of Donaghmore — 
with a Court baron.' 

In ' the schedule of names of such persons as are 
thought fit to be freeholders in the County of Iveagh ' 
(Patent Rolls, 1 James I., p. 394) we find that Patrick 
McConnor or McKearney (or ' O'Kearney, gent., 
Armagh Co.') is to have to himself, his heirs and 
assigns, * the last three townes ' in the above list — 
' To hold of the See of Armagh as of the said Manor, 
by fealty and suit of Court, and a rent of £6 (Irish) with 
a grant of the said rent, and a power of distress to 
the Archbishop of Armagh : for ever in pure alms, 
31 May, 9th.' 

Following the surrenders of 1612 and 1614 by 
Archbishop Hampton, a re-grant was made by the 
Crown, 12 James I., 25 February (1614), and confirmed 
by 18 James I., 3 July (1621).i Thus: * Grants to 
Christopher, Lord Archbishop of Armagh, inter alia, 
Down Co. The Manor or Lordship of Donaghmore,' 
etc. (here the several townlands are recited) ' with all 

^ Patent RoUs, pp. 477, 479^ 


the rents, services, and customs reserved out of the 
three last denominations ('' Monamore, Tullysoare, 
and Monidrombristee ") : and the Rectory of Donagh- 
more. Also power to create tenures, etc., to hold 
Courts leet and baron, and build gaols in the said Manor 
of Donaghmore/ 

We have no record of the good Primate having 
exercised his right to * build gaols ' in Donaghmore, 
but had he done so, or even contemplated such an act 
of extravagance, we should have thought that one 
good building would have been amply sufficient at the 
period for all the * gaol birds ' in the * twelve townes ' ! 
At present, of course, a few such establishments in 
Donaghmore would be utterly superfluous ! 

The Manor House of Donaghmore was Frankfort 
in the townland of Moneymore, subsequently the 
The Manor residence of Isaac Corry, and at present 
House. that of Mrs. Ranton. 

We are uncertain regarding the precise date the 
Manor Courts of Donaghmore ceased to exist, but not 
previous to 1814 — at which date we find 
Courts ^^® Courts of the Manor of Glynwood 

abolished, exercising judicial functions. Such Courts 
being relics of feudalism were not adapted 
to the new conditions of things, and besides, it was 
considered that their existence was prejudicial to the 
proper administration of justice in the country. Hence 
they became gradually shorn of their functions, until 
finally abolished (in Ireland) in 1869, by 22 Victoria, 
cap. 14. 

The land tenm-es of the Manor were somewhat 
complicated, while certain items of * rent ' were rather 


antiquated. The Tenant-in- Chief, who held directly 
under the Primate, was known in legal phraseo- 
logy as the * Immediate Lessor,' and 
TenurTs ^^^^ ^^^ property by lease for a term 
of twenty-one years, with a toties quoties 
covenant of renewal for ever. He was obliged, 
according to the terms of his title, to let the lands to 
his tenants for a term of twenty years, with a toties 
quoties covenant of renewal in perpetuity. At the 
renewal of the leases both parties had the privilege of 
having the rent varied, either up or down, according 
to the average price of corn as published in the Dublin 
Gazette for the seven years preceding the date of the 
proposed renewal, as compared with the average price 
in the same paper for a similar period immediately 
preceding the date of the expired lease. The imme- 
diate lessor always gave two receipts to each of his 
tenants on payment of rent, one for * Rent ' at the rate 
of about 55. per Irish acre (his own share), and another 
for * Fines ' (the Primate's portion), amounting to 
about 45. Qd. per Irish acre, this custom continuing 
down to 1859. Subsequently the Church Temporali- 
ties Commissioners compelled the tenant-in-chief (Hill 
Irvine) to pay a fine of £3,900, and take a lease in 
perpetuity. He was also obliged to give grants in 
perpetuity to his tenants on the same terms, the vari- 
able clause remaining in the leases. By a clause in 
the Land Act of 1903, introduced by T. M. Healy, 
the tenants of the immediate lessor were enabled to 
obtain a reduction in rent of 20s. per cent., without 
any legal proceedings. One of the old leases referred 
to, granted by the trustees of John Vaughan (tenant- 
in-chief) in 1844 to David Woods, specifies the rent 


payable by the latter, including some curious items 
in the shape of * ancient and usual Duties/ viz. * The 
sum of five shillings and two pence | — Irish — per 
acre, together with the usual Duties, that is to say, 
a rough fat mutton, or ten pence — sterling — in lieu 
thereof : half a bushel of good oats, or five pence in lieu 
thereof : a couple of fat hens of each smoke, or seven 
pence in lieu thereof : a day's work of Man and Horse 
from each Chief Tenant, or one shilling for each day 
in lieu thereof at the Election of the Trustees (John 
Lindsay of Tullyhenan and Henry Magill of Tully- 
caim), and the sum of nine shillings for Rent-charge 
to be paid at the Feast of All Saints.' 
Tenant-in- In 1621 Sir Edward Trevor held the 

Chief, 1621. ♦ twelve townes ' as constituting the Manor 
under the Primate. 

Sir Edward Trevor, Knight, of Rostrevor, was 
a Privy Councillor and M.P. for co. Down. He 

married (secondly) Rose, youngest daughter 
Trevo7* of Henry Ussher, Archbishop of Armagh 

(1595-1613), who was uncle to James 
Ussher, * one of the greatest scholars of any age,' and 
who was also Archbishop of Armagh (1625-60). 
We find : * Pardon of Sir Edward Trevor, William 
Smith and Brian Magennis for having alienated 
certain lands of the latter, in the County of Down, 
without having obtained the Licence of the Crown ' 
(May 27, 1° 1625. Patent RoUs, Charles I., p. 7). 

Sir Edward had a pension bestowed upon him of 
five shillings and eight pence (Irish) per diem, by 
letters patent during his life * for his gallantry in his 
Majesty's Wars,' having * therein received many 
wounds.' For some reason or other the pension had 


been stopped, the arrears amounting to £534 25. 8^., 
Irish. The King, in his letter granting Sir Edward's 
petition to have the pension continued and the arrears 
paid, speaks of him as an ' Ancient Servitor of the 
Kingdom (Ireland) and of extraordinary merit ' 
(Patent Kolls of Charles I.). 

He died (a poor man) at Dundalk, March 10, 1669, 
and was buried in Clonallon churchyard. 

In his will he states- — ' now prisoner here (the Castle) 
in ye Newry ' . . . ' I give and bequeath unto my 
son, Arthur Trevor, and my son, Edward Trevor, 
jointly between them ye benefit of ye lease of Lough- 
horne, in Ireland/ 1 

Sir Edward's son, Mark or Marcus Trevor, who was 
Governor of Ulster, for his gallantry in wounding 
Oliver Cromwell at Marston Moor in the County of 
York, was created Baron Trevor of Eostrevor, co. 
Down, April 21, 1662, and Viscount Dungannon, 
August 28 of the same year. He married Frances, 
daughter of Marmaduke Whitechurch of Loughbrick- 
land. He died November 8, 1706. 

Three of the townlands of the Manor, viz. Money- 
more, Aughentobber, and Maddydrumbrist, were 
subsequently acquired by Sir Thomas 
Fortescues ^^ortescue of Dromiskin, co. Louth, for 
his elder son, Chichester. Chichester 
Fortescue was Colonel of a Eegiment of Foot, and 
was accounted one of the best swordsmen of his 
time. He resided, during the reign of James II., 
on his father's estate, at the Manor House, Donagh- 

* We are unable to ascertain if this be the Loughome bordering 


more, until disturbed by the troubles which marked 
its close. In the spring of 1689, James's Irish soldiers 
having come in force to Newry to disperse the loyal 
inhabitants, all who were able fled the country. Colonel 
Fortescue's wife and three children were sent from 
Donaghmore to the Isle of Man for safety, while he 
himself raised, at his own charge, a troop of dragoons, 
and led them to the defence of Londonderry. He 
died there, some time before the rehef of the city, 
of the prevalent disease. He married (1681) Frides, 
daughter of Francis Hall, of Mount Hall, in Down 
— by whom he left one son, Thomas, and four 

Thomas succeeded to the estate of his grandfather, 
and was styled as of Dromiskin, but he apparently 
also held the Fortescue property in Donaghmore, for 
we find, after his decease, an advertisement of * the 
Auction of goods and Furniture of Thomas Fortescue, 
Esq., late of Frankfort, Co. Down, deceased.' - We 
are unable to identify the Francis Fortescue whose 
name appears in the following obituary notice : — 
* Last Sunday (8th inst.) died Mrs. Martin, wife of 
Rev. Robert Martin and daughter to Francis Fortescue, 
Esq., of Donaghmore. She was a tender and affec- 
tionate wife, and was sincerely regretted by all who 
had the Pleasure of her Acquaintance.* ^ 

The Fortescue property in Donaghmore was 

purchased by the Corry family shortly before 1769. 

By deed of partition, dated September 11, 1769, 

^ See A History of the Family of Fortescue. in all its Branches, by 
Thomas (Fortescue), Lord Clermont. 
' Belfast Newsletter, March 16, 1764. 
^ Ibid., September 13, 1765. 


between Edward and Isaac Corry (brothers), who were 
jointly seised in fee simple of the three townlands, 
Isaac took the lands of * the three half town lands 
of MoneydroiLbriste, otherwise Maddybrombriste, 
Aghantubber otherwise Aghantober, Monymore other- 
wise Monimore otherwise Minimore in the Barony of 
Upper Iveagh and County Down '• — (and also the 
townland of Corcreechy in the Parish and Barony 
of Newry).! 

Isaac Corry, eldest son of Isaiah Corry of Kock- 
corry, co. Monaghan, became a merchant in Newry. 
He married Caesarea Smyth, and died in 
1752, having had, with daughters, three 
sons, Edward, Isaac, and Trevor. Edward Corry 
was M.P. for Newry, and died May 5, 1792, leaving 
with other children a son, the Eight Hon. Isaac 
Corry, M.P. for Newry, Chancellor of the Exchequer 
in the Irish Parliament, a well-known statesman, 
who fought a celebrated duel with Grattan. He 
died in 1813, and a handsome monument stands to his 
memory in St. Mary's Church, Newry. The youngest 
son of Isaac and Caesarea Corry was Sir Trevor Corry, 
Knight, Baron of the Kingdom of Poland, so created 
by Stanislaus Augustus in 1773. He left money to 
build St. Mary's Church in his native town, and a 
mural monument therein records his virtues. He died 
in Pomerania, September 1, 1780. The second son 
of Isaac and Csesarea Corry was Isaac Corry, of 
Abbey Yard, Newry, who married, September 1769, 
Mary, eldest daughter of John Pollock, of Newry, 

* There was a tithe rent-charge on these lands of £23 3«. lOd. 
at the time of sale to the tenants which was then redeemed. The 
sale to the tenants was completed in 1911. 


and Elizabeth his wife, daughter of Eobert Carhle. 
He died in 1809, having had five sons and five 
daughters. Only two of the daughters married : Maria 
in 1802, to the Kev. Wilham H. Pratt, and Anna 
in 1828, to Lieutenant-Colonel Henry Westenra, 8th 
Koyal Irish Hussars, brother of the second Lord Eoss- 
more. Three of the sons, Marcus, Trevor, and Smith- 
son, were married. The eldest, Lieutenant-Colonel 
Marcus Corry, of Ballyhomra, co. Down, High Sheriff 
CO. Down, 1799, married Elizabeth Mary Neville, 
daughter of the Kev. John Fiske, and had two sons 
who died unmarried, and two daughters, one of whom 
married the Kev. Charles Lett, and was mother of 
the Kev. Canon Lett, M.A., now Rector of Aghaderg, 
Loughbrickland. Trevor and Smithson Corry were 
merchants in Newry. Smithson lived at Old Hall, 
Rostrevor, was J.P., co. Down, married Miss Douglas, 
and died without children in 1856. Trevor Corry re- 
sided at Abbey Yard, Newry, was J.P. and D.L., and 
married July 12, 1809, Anna, daughter of Savage Hall, 
of Narrow Water, co. Down. The Corry Monument 
was erected in his honour. He died July 22, 1838, 
leaving four sons and three daughters. Two of the 
sons died unmarried, namely. Lieutenant Savage Hall 
Corry, 17th Regiment, and Trevor Corry, junior, while 
the third was Edward Smithson Corry, Sub-Inspector 
R.I.C., whose daughter, Mary Alice Eden, married 
George Gordon of Maryvale. The eldest son of Trevor 
Corry and Anna Hall was Isaac Corry, of Abbey Yard, 
J.P., D.L., Captain, North Down Rifles, who married, 
1840, EUis, daughter of Henry Ryan, and died 1869, 
leaving daughters (of whom were Mrs. Huston, Mrs. 
Glenny, and Lady Woodhouse) and a son, Trevor 


Corry, of Belmont, Newry, who married, 1869, Sarah, 
daughter of James Foxall, and died 1880, leaving with 
three daughters a son, James Edward Smithson Corry, 
the present representative of the family. 

The Eev. Francis Johnston, Vicar of Donaghmore 
(1775-89), seems to have held the nine town- 
lands, which then constituted the manor, 
^^^^''^^^ under the Primate; for by 'marriage 
articles ' (in his will, proved June 25, 
1789) he charged several townlands of the manor 
(and a townland in County Armagh) with £1,600 
for his younger children. 

This property was subsequently held by John 

Vaughan — whose ancestor was vicar of the parish. 

By his will, dated September 28, 1837, 

John YiQ makes a disposition of his interest in 

Vaugnan. ^ 

the lands, * upon trust,' in favour of his 
children, and appoints John Harshaw of Donaghmore, 
and James Vaughan of Castlewellan, trustees, * to see 
the money applied to the education of his children.' 
Hill Irvine of Newry became tenant-in-chief of 
the nine townlands, October 20, 1849, when ' The 

Sheriff (Mr. Nelson) gave Mr. Todd (agent) 

possession of the estate for Mr. HQl Irvine 
by (handing him) a clod and branch of poplar ! ' 

A dinner was given the new landlord in the Four 
Mile House on the 22nd of the same month — James 

Harshaw presiding and Robert Wilson in 
HiU^lrvine ^^® vice-chair — about fifty guests being 

present. The toasts were : * The Queen 
and Prosperity to Ireland,' * Our New Landlord,' 
' The Independent Tenantry of the Donaghmore 


estate * (proposed by Hill Irvine and responded to by 
John Bradford and R. Wilson), * Education in all its 
branches ' (responded to by the Rev. S. J. Moore), 
* Tenant- Right,' — 'Live and let live' (Joseph Carswell 
responding), ' Civil and Religious Liberty,' to which 
the Rev. J. A. Alexander (Newry) responded, * Agri- 
cultural interests and a speedy reduction of rack rents * 
(responded to by Thomas Greer of Buskhill). 

Hill Irvine was succeeded by Mrs. Cunningham of 
Mrs. Lisfannon, co. Londonderry, who now holds 

Cunningham, the property under the present owners of 
the estate — the Craigs of Craigavon. 

The Primate's interest in the property passed, 
on January 1, 1871, to the Church Temporalities 
Commissioners, and from thence to the 
o'^^^ra f -^^^^ Land Commission. The renewable 
the Estate, lease under which the property was held 
by the immediate lessor was converted into 
a grant in perpetuity in 1872, at a rent of £308 7s. Od. 
The estate was purchased in 1889 from the Irish Land 
Commission by James Craig of Craigavon, co. Down, 
who redeemed the rent by a payment of £7,708 155. Od, 

The Craigs, an old family of the county of Down, 
are at present represented by the well-known and dis- 
tinguished parliamentarians — Charles Curtis 
T^®. and James, sons of the late James Craig of 

Craigavon. Craigavon and Tyrella. Charles Curtis 
Craig, bom February 18, 1869, resides in 
London, married (1897) Lillian Bowring, daughter of 
the late John Wimble of Long Ditton, Surrey, is 
M.P. for South Antrim since 1908, and a member of 
the Carlton and Ulster (Belfast) Clubs. 


James Craig of Craigavon, born January 8, 1871, 
Hon. Captain in the Army, married (1905) Cecil Mary 
Nowell Dering, only child of Daniel Alfred Anley 
Tupper, served in the South African War, and received 
for distinguished service the Queen's medal and three 
clasps, the King's medal and two clasps. He is M.P. 
for East Down since 1906, a magistrate for the county 
of Down, and a member of the Carlton, Constitutional, 
Ulster, and other clubs. 

The second manor in the parish of Donaghmore — * an 
Th Ma r ^^^i^^* Manor of Magenis ' — comprised ten 
* within the townlands, nine of these composing the dis- 
precinct of trict at present known as Glen,while the tenth 
nagan. (Lisnatierney) is a considerable distance 
apart and in a different parish, viz. that of Aghaderg. 

The ' Montgomery Manuscripts ' (p. 808) give a 
summary of grants made to the Magennis family in 
February 1611 by James I., and amongst them is one 
to * Murtagh MacEnaspicke Magenis of Corgirrie ' 
(Corgary) of the ten townlands described as ' within 
the precinct called Clanagan ' and ' now all in the 
parish of Donaghmore.' This latter statement is 
incorrect, for Lisnatierney, whatever parish it may 
have been in originally, was certainly not in that of 
Donaghmore when the * Manuscripts ' were compiled. 
We believe, too, it is an error to include this 
townland as ' within the precinct of Clanagan ' though 
it is thus described in the grant. Clanasan 
Clana an doubtless included the whole of the 
district of Glen, and probably that of 
the Four Towns. The * Montgomery MSS.' have 
been characterised by a learned writer as ' an 


interesting collection of truth and fiction,' while it 
is to be feared in many instances, in regard to the 
grants themselves, neither accuracy in description of 
locality, nor indeed in orthography, were considered 
a prime necessity in such official documents. 

In the grant to Murtagh, the several townlands 
are recited, etc., thus : ' Grant from the King — To 
Grant to Murtagh McEnaspicke Magenis of Cor- 
Murtagh girrie, gent, the 10 towns within the 
McEnaspicke precinct of Clanagan, called Corgirrie (Cor- 
Magenis. ^^^^^^ Ballenlough (Ballylough), Ballen 
knocknenary (Knockanarney), Ballycarrickrovade 
(Carrickrovaddy), Ballelengannore (Lurganare), Balli- 
dromiller (Dromiller), Ballyderricragh, otherwise 
Ballechragh (Derrycraw), Bally blagh (Bally blaugh), 
Ballydromintighan (Dromantine), and Ballylisrahin- 
tierne (Lisnatiernej^) : rent £10 Irish — Corgirrie to 
be held free ' (Patent Bolls, 8 James I., February 20, 

A reference is made (' Calendar * — Inquisitiones — 
Chancery Eolls) to certain mortgages upon portions 
of these lands in the year 1612, when we find Murtagh 
possessed of but * 9 townlands ' (Derrycraw having 
been disposed of in the meantime — doubtless to one 
of the Trevor family — as we find Mark Trevor owning 
it in 1641). * Being thus possessed the said Murtagh by 
his deed, bearing date, last day of September 1612, 
demised the premises in Ballenlagh, Dromentean, and 
Ballebleagh, ... to Art Oge Magennes of Ilanderry 
(County Down) for a term of 99 years, beginning 
immediately after the death of the said Murtagh — 
the tenor of which deed is in the said deed.* 

F 2 


It will be seen that Murtagh is described in 1611 
as ' Gent.' ... * of Corgirrie ' — the Manor 
Hous^^''''' House at that date being Corgary Lodge- 
now the residence of Lawrence McCourt. 

It is interesting to know the proprietors of the 
lands (other than the * churchlands ') in the parish 
in 1641, and those who became owners (of 
^wTkL *^® ^^^^^ forfeited) under the Acts of 
1641, and Settlement. This information is afforded 
Owners under us in the table on next page, taken from 
Stttement ^ manuscript in the Eoyal Irish Academy 
(Stowe Collection), which gives * A Distri- 
bution of Forfeited Land in the Countyes of Downe, 
etc. returned by the Downe Survey, showing whose 
they were in anno 1641, and to whom they are 
now sett out by the Acts of Settlement — and 
explanation,' etc. (' Tome ' 8d. vol. 2, Parish of 

We have seen that Murtagh Magenis owned the 
nine townlands comprising Glen in 1611, while in 1641 
his descendant Art Magennis was the proprietor of 
* eight townes ' — Aughuly Magenis having acquired 
Knockanarney. This townland, although in the Glen 
district, does not again appear as portion 
^rfeteT* ^^ *^® ^^^^ Estate. It may be noted that 
the only lands in the parish not forfeited 
were the * twelve townes ' constituting the Manor of 
Donaghmore, and Derrybrogh (Derrycraw), owned by 
Mark Trever (Trevor). 

Art Magennis and the Lord of Iveagh, like most 
of the Magennis family, were active participants on the 
side of the Eebellion in 1641, and hence the forfeiture 
of their estates. 



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The origin of this renowned family takes us back 

into the dim and distant past — the third century — 

when Eochaidh Cobha — their great ancestor 

Ma 'aes — ^^led the territory of Magh Cob.ia, and 

who was descended from Ir, one of the 

Milesian Kings oi Ireland — according to O'Hart. 

The Magennises derive their name from Mac 
Aongas — a County Down prince who flourished in the 
eleventh century — and who was the sixteenth in 
descent from Eochaidh Cobha. The name * Mac ' 
(son of) Aongus (Aon — * strength ' and gus — 
' excellent ') has been variously anglicised thus : 
* MacGennis,' * MacGinnis,' * MacGuinness,' ' Magennis,' 
' Maguinis,' ' McGennis,' ' McGinnis,' ' Maginnis,' and 
' Guinness.' 

The ancient patrimony of the Magennises com- 
prised the Baronies of Upper and Lower Iveagh, with 
the Lordship of Newry and Mourne, while their com- 
manding position and influence were commensurate 
with their vast territorial possessions. This cele- 
brated family (the senior branch of the Clanna Rory) 
rose into prominence in the twelfth century, and 
continued great and powerful till 1641. Although 
their former greatness had departed after that date, 
yet it is true they had somewhat recovered them- 
selves under .Tames IL, when their claims were revived ; 
for we find Viscount Magennis made Lord Lieutenant 
of Down, sat in the Parliament which met on May 7, 
1689, and commanded a regiment of foot for the King ; 
that Murtagh Magennis (of Greencastle) and Ever 
Magennis (of Castlewellan) represented the County of 
Down, while Bernard Magennis sat for Killyleagh, 


in the Commons. The name Magennis appears among 
the attestations of the Charter of Newry Abbey 
about 1158 — the attester being Hugh Magennis. His 
great-great-grandson (EaehmiUdh Mac Aonguis), chief 
of the clan in 1314, received a letter from Edward II. 
in that year, in which he is styled by the King * Admily 
Mac Aengus, Dux Hibernicorum de Auohagh ' (' Chief 
of the Irish in Iveagh'). In writing to the King in 1314 
and 1315 he thus styles himself and seems to claim 
almost an equality with that monarch. 

The head of the family — circa 1600 — is thus de- 
scribed by Harris : — * Iveach (including both baronies) 
was otherwise called the Magennis's Country, as is 
said, and in Queen Elizabeth's time was governed by 
Sir Hugh Magennis, the civilest of all the Irish in those 
parts. He was brought by Sir Nicholas Bagnel from 
paying the Tribute called Bonaught to the O'Neils, 
and took his Lands by Letters Patent from the Crown, 
to be held by English tenure to him and his Heirs 
Male. He wore English garments amongst his own 
Followers every Festival Day ; and was able to bring 
into the Field 60 Horsemen and near 80 Foot.' i 

Henry VIII. conferred knighthoods on two members 
of the Magennis fajnily. In a letter (October 8, 1542) 
to the Lord Deputy and Council of Ireland, the King 
states : * We made McGuinez Knight, so as nowe 
he must be called Sir Dol. Guinez ; but we have given 
unto him no patent of his landes, but refer that to your 
certificate, because you wrote not specially of it ; and 
to him we gave in ready money 100 merkes. We have 
also made Arthur Guinez Knight, and given unto him 

' History of Down, p. 79. 


£50 in money ; and also granted his suite, that the Cell 
of Newry, as yet insuppressed, shall be converted to a 
college of secular prestes, and to be of our foundation.' 
This Sir Hugh signed his name ' H. Magenisse ' — which 
was doubtless the authentic spelling of the family name 
in his time. Sir Hugh was M.P. for Down in 1558. 

His son, Sir Arthur (who owned Ballytullaghmore 
in this parish in 1617) seems to have been a great 
favourite with King James I., who gave him (Sir Arthur 
Magennis of Eathfriland Castle) 57 tow^nlands (Patent 
Kolls of James I.), with the right to hold two fairs at 
Eathfriland — one on Trinity Monday and the two 
following days, and another on the Nativity of the 
Blessed Virgin and the day after. Sir Arthur was 
created Viscount Magennis of Iveagh, in the County 
of Down, July 16, 1623, by James I. 

The following parishes were in his gift- — viz. Drum- 
gath, Drumballyroney, Clonallon, and Seapatrick. 
He died May 7, 1629, and was buried in Drumbally- 
roney churchyard. He had issue j&ve sons : Hugh 
(the second Viscount), Con, Arthur, Kory and Donal ; 
and three daughters : Kose, Eveline and Eliza. The 
second Viscount (Hugh) was born in 1599. He married 
Mary, daughter of Sir John Bellew, of Castletown, co. 
Louth, and died in April 1630, leaving three sons — 
all of whom succeeded to the peerage- — one or other 
of whom was the ' Lord of Iveagh ' who owned the 
Four Towns property in this parish in 1641- — a portion 
of the Manor of Eathfriland. 

The Magennises took a prominent part in matters 
ecclesiastical, while several members of the family 
became notable bishops of the Church. It is to 


be feared, however, they were somewhat turbulent 
and rather disobedient at times to the ecclesiastical 
The powers. In a Primatial Denunciation 

Magenrises (Armagh, 1442) we find an unruly Magennis, 
re Matters a SOU of the Church, proclaimed, viz : ' The 
.cc esias ica -pgg^^jgj^^ ^j^^j sacrilegious Arthur McGunissa, 
Captain of his nation, w^ho during a vacancy in the 
See (Dromore) would not allow the Primate to 
exercise the rights he claimed as its Custodee, but 
perpetrated sacrilegious usurpations, occupations, and 
detentions of lands, rents, profits, rights, emoluments, 
belonging to the See ; and although subjected to sen- 
tences of Suspension, Excommunication and Interdict, 
the intolerable obstinacy of the said Arthur was such as 
to bid defiance for years to these spiritual terrors. We 
not only ordain that the secular arm be invoked, but 
also that all goods whatsoever belonging to him are to 
be dissipated as a common prey among the faithful 
of Christ's flock,' etc. ^ 

In the sixteenth century {circa 1540) Eugene or 
Owen Maginnes was Bishop of Down and Connor. 
He was consecrated in Rome by Pope Paul III. He 
made his submission, however, to Henry VIII. and was 
confirmed in his See and had his temporalities restored 
on May 8, 1542. He held in commendam (during his 
episcopate) the Archdeaconry of Down and the 
Benefices of Annaclone and Aghaderg. Arthur Magen- 
nis was appointed by the Pope Bishop of Dromore. 
He surrendered his Bulls, however, to King Edward VI. 
(1550) and swore allegiance to that monarch, declaring 

' King's Primacy of Armagh. 


that ' he would hold his See from his Majesty alone, 
and obey the law in all things.' 

In 1602 a pardon was granted ' to Murtagh Magenis, 
son of the Bishop '• — probably Arthur. 

It seems that about the year 1680 a controversy 
arose among the bards of Ulster as regards the race 
to whom by ancient right the armorial bearings of 
Ulster (the Ked Hand) belonged, when a person named 

Cormac claimed the right on behalf of the 
Magennises Clann O'Neill. He was promptly challenged, 
and the however, by Diarmait, the son of Loaigh- 
ofutster^"^ seal Mac an Bhaird (English —Louis Ward), 

who adduced * many historical reasons to 
prove that the Ked Hand of Ulster belonged by 
right to the UHdians of the Kudrician or Irian race, of 
whom MacEnis (or Magenis) of the County Down was 
chief. . . . Indeed it was openly and publicly asserted 
in the 17th century by writers of the Clann O'Neill them- 
selves, that the Ked Hand was the right of Magenis, 
but that the O'Neills wrested it to themselves, and 
have continued to usurp it to this day.' i 

The Magennis * war cry ' was Shanhodagh-aboe' — 
Sean-Chodach, signifying *the old churl,' may have 

alluded to the seniority of the Magennis 
??® . race, while Ahoe, or Ahu, which is derived 

Magennis „ . i x • i •, -r^ - -n ,^ \ • • r> 

* War Cry/ ^^^m the Irish word Buaidh (bo-ee), signifies 
* Victory.' Thus * O'Neill Aboo ' signifies 
' Victory to O'Neill.' ^ 

The following were the ancient residences of the 
Magennises : 

^ See O'Curry, Manners and Customs, vol. iii. pp. 264, 278. 
^ ' War Cries of Irish Septs,' Ulster Journal of Archceology (Old 
Seriet,), vol. iii. p. 203, and O'Hart, Irish Pedigrees, p. 347. 


New Castle (chief residence), built by Felix Magennis 
(1558), subsequently owned by Viscount Magennis, 

forfeited in the Rebellion of 1641, and 
^® . granted to William Hawkins of London, 
Cas^les; great-grandfather of Robert Hawkins 

Magill ; Castlewellan (known formerly as 
Castle- Vellen af»d subsequently as Castle- William), 
the seat of the Earl Annesley ; Green Castle on 
Carlingford Bay, of which the Bagnal family deprived 
them ; and Rathfriland Castle, forfeited in the 
Rebellion, and granted to WiUiam Hawkins. 

Doubtless not a few of those who now bear the 
honoured name of Magennis, can claim a valid descent 
from the great family whom we have so imperfectly 

sketched. Among such, we refer to the 
Iveagh present Lord Iveagh, who, according to 

O'Hart (an expert on Irish pedigree) and 
other authorities, is a hneal descendant of the 
Magennises. Lord Iveagh may well feel proud of his 
ancient lineage, historic title, and renowned family 
(renowned even amidst its turbulence and rebelUon), 
and all Irishmen may be justly proud of him — and, 
we would add, of his elder brother, Lord Ardilaun — 
whether they be thought of as the noble representatives 
of a great race, or as the peers 'par excellence of 
unbounded generosity and Christian philanthropy. 

It will be seen that Hans Hamilton became possessor 
of eight * townes ' — ' by certificate,' dated December 21, 

1662- — previously owned by Art Magennis, 
Hamilton ^^^ whom they were forfeited. At the 

subsequent enrolment of the grant * by 
certificate,' these townlands are thus enumerated 
(Patent Rolls, 19th Charles II.) : ' Sir Hans Hamilton 


Knight and Baronet, Corgary, Ballinlough, Ballybleagh, 
Loganare, Drumillere, Carrickkerovadie, Dromintreane, 
1,661 ac. 1 rd. 8 p. Lissenterine 178 ac, 3 rd. 38 per. 
Barony Upper Evagh, Down.- — Total quantity 1,860 
ac. Plantation (3,012 ac. 3 rd. 23 p.)- Total rent 
£25 2s. U. lii^K— Enrolled l^ih Afril 1667.' 

These eight townlands comprise what was known 
until recently as the * Glen Estate.' 

Hans Hamilton was son of John Hamilton, of 
Caronary, co. Gavan and of Monella, co. Armagh, by 
Sarah Brabazon, his wife, sister of Edward, Lord Ardee, 
and aunt of William, Earl of Meath. Hans Hamilton, of 
Monella and Hamilton's Bawn, co. Armagh, was 
created a Baronet in 1662 ; Privy Seal, "White Hall, 
March 29, patent, Dublin, April 6, 1662. He was 
nephew of James, first Viscount Claneboye, and of 
Archibald Hamilton, ancestor of the Kowan Hamiltons 
of Killyleagh Castle, co. Down — one of whom — Heriot 
Georgina — (authoress and philanthropist), daughter 
of Archibald Eowan Hamilton, married, October 2, 
1862, Frederick Temple, Marquess of Dufferin and 
Ava, a most brilliant and distinguished Irishman. Sir 
Hans Hamilton died in 1681 — when his estates passed 
to his son-in-law. Sir Kobert Hamilton (created Baronet 
July, 1682) of Mount Hamilton, co. Armagh — who 
had married Sarah, Sir Hans' only daughter and heiress. 
Sir Hans Hamilton, it would seem, never lived on this 
portion of his property, but must have let what was 
then the Manor House, Dromantine, to William Lucas 
(see infra). 

'By Certificate, dated 7th July 1668,' William 
Hawkins, Merchant, London, became owner of the 


forfeited estates in this parish of the Lord of Iveagh 
and of Aughuly Magenis. The property of the 

Lord of Iveagh comprised the townlands 
Grant to q{ Tullymore alias Ballyreigan (and alias 
Hawkins; Bally menagh), Tullymore alias Killassonne 

(Killysavan), and Bally manisb eg (Bally- 
macrattybeg) ; while that of Aughuly Magenis con- 
sisted of the townland of Knocknarney (Knocknanar- 
ney). These townlands, although in the parish of 

Donaghmore, formed, after 1688, portion of 
Rat^iLnd *^® Manor of Rathfriland, which was 

owned by the Hawkins family, having 
been forfeited by the Lord of Iveagh. 

These townlands passed to John, son and heir of 
William Hawkins, and from thence to Lord Clanwilliam, 

and other members of the Meade family 
HawkSs — ^^^^ ^^® exception of Knocknanamey, 

which subsequently became the property 
of the Brookes of Brookeborough. It will be seen 
that the original grantee was William Hawkins. 
He was succeeded by his son John (High Sheriff 
of Down, 1675). His son John, of Rathfriland (High 
Sheriff of Down, 1700), was the next possessor. 

Robert Hawkins (son of John Hawkins of Rath- 
friland by his wife Mary, sister of Sir John Magill, 

Bart. — formerly Johnston — daughter of 
HawkL Lieutenant William Johnston of Gilford, 
Magill; CO. Down) assumed the name of Magill and 

became Robert Hawkins Magill of Gill 
Hall (High Sheriff, co. Down, 1718, M.P. for Down 
1725-45). He married, as his second wife. Lady Anne 
Bligh, daughter of John, first Earl of Darnley, 


and of her (who married, secondly, Bernard Ward, 
first Viscount Bangor) had a daughter, Theodosia, 
who married, August 29, 1765, John, 1st Earl of Clan- 

william. Their second son. General the 
Clanwilliam ■^^^* I^o^^^^^ Meade, was father of the 

late John Meade, of Earsham Hall, 
Norfolk, who was father of Captain John Percy 
Meade, D.L., High Sheriff, co. Down, 1897, and of 
Elvira Adela, who married, 1891, Captain Koger Hall, of 
Narrow Water (formerly Mount Hall), the representative 
of another old and distinguished County Down family. 
The head of the Meade family is the present Earl of 
Clanwilliam, who served in the South African War 
as captain of the Horse Guards. He was mentioned in 
despatches, and on being invalided home, having been 
severely wounded, had the honour of being received by 
the late King Edward. He succeeded to the peerage 
on the death of his distinguished father in 1907. He 
was not born to the title ; but his elder brother, Ijord 
Gillford, who married a daughter of Lord Home, died 
in 190t5, leaving an only daughter. Lady Clanwilliam 
was the widow of Oliver Howard, when she married 
the Earl in April 1909. Lord Clanwilliam is exceed- 
ingly popular and has an interest in almost every 
class of sport. He and the Meade family generally 
are amongst the best landlords in the County of Down 
and are well known for their generosity to the Church 
and mdeed towards every good and benevolent cause. 
Lord Clanwilliam (as was his father) is a generous 
contributor to the funds of Donaghmore Church. 

The Manor of Glen (or Glynwood, as it was sub- 
sequently called) came into possession (by purchase) 
of the Innes family about the year 1740, and has so 


continued till the estate was sold (in 1908) to the 
tenants, the residence (Dromantine House) with 

demesne and other lands being retained. 

The last owner who held Manor Courts 
in Glen was Captain Arthur Innes of the 9th Dra- 
goons, who, when these Courts and other manorial 
rights were abolished, changed the name of his 
demesne from Glynwood to that of Dromantine. 

The Inneses are descended from the Lairds of 
Leuchars, Fife, Scotland, now represented by the 
Duke of Roxburghe. Alexander, second son of 
Alexander, Laird of Leuchars, married Mary, daughter 
of Sir Robert Jacob, Knight, Solicitor-General 
for L'eland. He died in 1646, leaving issue (among 
others) Charles or Gordon Lines, who married Jean, 
daughter of Robert Brice of Castle Chichester. Among 
the issue of the marriage was Joseph Lanes, merchant 
and shipowner, Belfast, and the Rev. William Lines 
of Bangor. William, son of the latter, was the first 
owner of Glen Manor, for whom it was purchased by 
his guardians (he being a minor) according to the terms 
of his uncle Joseph's will, dated September 9, 1734, 
and proved 1786. 

Captain Innes (9th Dragoons) High Sheriff of Down, 
1814, married Anne, daughter of Major Crow, of Tulla- 
more. King's County, a lineal descendant of the Rev. 
— Crow, private chaplain of King William III., who 
was with his Majesty at the Battle of the Boyne, and 
who, according to family tradition, gave much assist- 
ance to the wounded soldiers in that memorable contest. 
The late Arthur Charles Innes was son of Arthur 
Innes (Lieut. 3rd Dragoon Guards), J.P. and D.L., 
High Sheriff of Down, 1832, who married. May 15, 


1829, Mary Jervis, daughter of Admiral Wolseley, 
whose memoir {* Memoir of Admiral Wolseley '), 
written by his granddaughter, Miss Innes (now of 
the Anchorage, Kostrevor), displays rare literary 
ability, and contains very interesting and valuable 
information in regard to the Admiral and his 

Arthur Charles Innes, who was born November 25, 
1834, married July 15, 1858, Louisa Letitia Henrietta, 
second daughter of James Brabazon (a branch of the 
Meath family), of Mornington House, co. Meath, and 
had issue a daughter, Edith Clarence Brabazon, who 
died March 11, 1866. Mrs. Innes died January 27, 
1886. She was a warm personal friend of the writer, 
who received many tokens of her kindness and by 
whom her memory is cherished in fond remembrance. 

Mr. Innes married, secondly, September 21, 1887, 
Jane Beauchamp, only daughter of William Cross, 
J.P. and D.L. (Colonel, Armagh Militia), of Dartan, co. 
Armagh (whose name he subsequently assumed), and 
had issue : Arthur Charles Wolseley, born June 8, 
1888 ; Marian Dorothea (married September 7, 1912, 
Kichard Christopher Brooke, Scots Guards, only son 
of Sir Richard Brooke, Bart., of Norton Priory, 
Cheshire) ; and Sydney Maxwell, born April 29, 1894. 

Arthur Charles Innes was D.Tj. and J.P. for Down, 
and M.P. for Newry, 1865-8. He died April 14, 1902. 
He was ever the true friend and kind patron of the 
writer, by whom his memory is held in affectionate 
remembrance. He was a good and considerate land- 
lord, and always evinced a deep interest in the welfare 
of the tenants on the Glen Estate. 

Mrs. Innes-Cross married, seQOfi(ily, March 18, 


1907, Herbert Martin Cooke (member of an old York- 
shire family), of St. Vincent's, Eastbourne, who subse- 
quently assumed the name of Cross with that of Cooke. 
Mrs. Cooke-Cross died Thursday, November 16, 1911, 
and was buried in the parish churchyard on the 
following Tuesday. 

Arthur Charles Wolseley Innes is the present 
proprietor of Dromantine, he having attained his 
majority June 8, 1909, when addresses were presented 
to him by the tenantry and the Select Vestry of the 
Parish Church. He was educated at Eton and Trinity 
College, Cambridge. 

Dromantine is the well-known seat of the family. 
The house, handsome and imposing, is built of cut 

stone in the old Italian style of architec- 
Dromantme ^^j.^^ ^^^^ Contains many fine family paint- 
Demesne, iiigs, and some rare old tapestry. The 

large demesne contains much full-grown 
timber, and the beautiful pleasure grounds and 
pinetum a choice collection of shrubs and trees. 
There are two lakes within the demesne where wild- 
fowl abound, especially duck. 

William Lucas, to whom the Duke of Ormond issued 
a warrant in 1681 to * compass the capture or death * 

of Redmond O'Hanlon, resided at Droman- 
Lucas of ^^^® ^^ ^^^^ date, as a tenant under 
Dromantine, Sir Hans Hamilton, who also took an 
'warrant to active part against the great Tory and 
^h^capture Outlaw. Prendergast refers to an account 
or death ' of of Redmond O'Hanlon's death published in 
Redmond t ^ letter from a gentleman in Dublin to 

a person of quahty, his friend in the 
Country,' which * gives a copy of a warrant from the 


Duke of Ormond to Mr. William Lucas i of Dmmintyrie 
(Dromantine) dated the 4th March 1681, to compass 
the capture or death of Kedmond O'Hanlon, and Mr. 
Lucas's warrant to Art (or Arthur) O'Hanlon to take 
or kill Eedmond, dated 4th April, 1681.' ^ 

Besides the warrant to William Lucas and that of 
the latter to Arthur O'Hanlon, a proclamation was 
issued, offering £200 for Kedmond's head. Sir Hans 
Hamilton (the owner of Dromantine) was very actively 
employed in securing the Tory, for we find him writing 
a letter to the Duke of Ormond (December 18, 1680) 
complaining bitterly of Deborah Annesley's sympa- 
thies for O'Hanlon' and her secret plans for his escape. 
It seems both Mr. and Mrs. Annesley were in constant 
correspondence with Katherine O'Hanlon (Eedmond 's 
mother-in-law) and that the Bishop of Meath (Mrs. 
Annesley's father) had been a party in lending them 
his position and influence to secure the pardon of 

Lucas seems to have acted promptly and success- 
fully in securing his victim. In one month from the 
date of his warrant from the Duke of Ormond he had 
issued his own to Arthur O'Hanlon, and in three short 
weeks the deed was done, Eedmond having been 
treacherously shot through the heart by the same 
Arthur O'Hanlon, his own kinsman and fosterer in 
crime, whose payment for the job is thus recorded in 

* Francis Lucas, comet in the army, of Castle Shane, co. 
Monaghan (whose will is dated October 15, 1657, and proved De- 
cember 8 of the same year), married Mary Poyntz, and by her (who 
married secondly Robert Moore) had issue : Francis, William (of 
Dromantyne), Richard, and Charles. 

^ Ireland from the Restoration to the Revolution, p. 121, 


a State paper : — ' One hundred pounds paid to Arthur 
O'Hanlon, on May 6, 1681, for kiUing the torie, Ked- 
mond O'Hanlon.' It seems that Redmond (who was 
probably at the time ' in residence * at one of his 
haunts in the Mourne Mountains) had gone to a 
place near * Eight Mile Bridge ' (the bridge spanning 
the river Ban, close to the present village of Hilltown, 
and hence * The Ban-Bridge ' erroneously identified 
by Prendergast as the town of Banbridge, co. Down) 
where a fair was being held, his purpose being to rob 
those returning from the mart. He was accompanied 
by Arthur O'Hanlon and a man named O'Sheel, who 
acted as a guard on the occasion. While O'Sheel (who, 
it seems, was not a party to the treachery) was acting 
as sentinel at the door of the cabin where Redmond 
lay resting in sleep, Arthur O'Hanlon * fired the con- 
tents of his blunderbuss into Redmond's breast ' at 
2 o'clock P.M. on April 25, 1681. He died almost 
immediately, but before doing so he requested O'Sheel 
to cut off his head and hide it in a bog hole, lest it 
became ' the scoff of his enemies.* The headless body 
was taken to Newry, where we are told it was * pubhcly 
exposed ' for a couple of days under a guard of soldiers, 
while the head, which had been found, was placed 
over the entrance of Downpatrick jail. Redmond's 
mother mourned for her son in the following sad 
keene : 

' Dear head of my darling, how gory and pale 
These aged eyes see thee high spiked on their jail ; 
That cheek in the summer-time ne'er shall grow warm, 
Nor that eye e'er catch light but the flash of the storm.* * 
^ See Prendergast, Cromwdlian Settlement, p. 356. 

G 2 


Eedmond O'Hanlon and many others of his class, 
whose family estates had been either misspent or for- 
feited in the sixteenth and seventeenth cen- 
Idle^^ovr' *^^'^^^' having no visible means of support, 
and despising trade or work of any kind as 
too mean and base for gentlemen, became ' tories and 
outlaws.' With a band of adherents and fosterers, they 
took to the hills, mountains, forests and bogs, and 
swooping down on the new settlers of the lands once 
owned by their forebears— and, indeed, on any who 
had valuables — murdered, plundered, maimed, and 
took away everything movable and valuable. They 
were called ' Tories ' for the first time by the Duke of 
Ormond in a proclamation— September 25, 1650 — 
where they are termed ' Toryes or Idle Boys.' Accord- 
ing to Defoe, ' Tory ' is the Irish toruigh, used in the 
reign of Queen Elizabeth to signify a band of Irish 
robbers- — being formed from the Irish verb toruighim 
(to make sudden raids). From the signification and 
use of the word we have inherited the vile epithet 
designating a base fellow, viz. * tory-villain ' ; while 
the nickname ' Tory,' as appHed to a political party by 
their opponents about 1679, combined ideas most 
odious to the English mind at the time, namely, those 
associated with an Irish thief or Tory. Eedmond 
O'Hanlon was the most famous of the * Tories' of his 
day. He had not only his own immediate band of out- 
laws who did his bidding, but was himself commander- 
in-chief of all the Tories of the north for about ten 
years. His principal haunts were the Newry, SHeve 
GuUion, and Carlingf ord Mountains —while occasionally 
those of Mourne afforded the Eapparee a hiding- 


place' — and from thence he and his bandits sallied 
forth over the counties of Armagh, Louth, Down, 
and even Tyrone- — terrifying the entire population, 
and giving infinite trouble to those in authority. 
Many strenuous efforts were made by the lory 
Acts and otherwise to suppress Toryism by the 
capture of the outlaws ; but notwithstanding it con- 
tinued to flourish all through the Commonwealth, and 
even after the Kestoration. The Tory who killed a 
fellow-Tory was himself pardoned — by 9 William III. 
(Irish), Cap. 9. * Tory hunting and Tory killing ' was 
considered fine sport and pastime ! Hence the his- 
torical foundation for the well-known Irish nursery 
rhymes : 

***Ho ! brother Teig, what is your story ? " 
** 1 went to the wood, and shot a Tory : 
I went to the wood, and shot another ; 
Was it the same or was it his brother ? 

• I hunted him in, I hunted him out. 
Three times through the bog, and about and about; 
Till out of a bush I spied his head. 
So I levelled my gun, and shot him dead." ' * 

Kedmond O'Hanlon was a member of the sept of 
that name- — a fragment of the Clann Colla- — a great 
tribe which held the supreme place in Ulster at an 
early date. 

He is said to have been a descendant of Tirlagh 
Grome O'Hanlon, who in 1620 owned the townland of 
Aghantaraghan (close to the village of Poyntzpass), 

* See Prendergast, Cromwellian Settlement, p. 360. 


where it is supposed Kedmond himself lived — in a 
house occupying the site of Iveagh Lodge, the resi- 
dence of Mr. Heber Magenis, J.P. He served for a 
time in a continental army, where he was known as 
Count O'Hanlon. 

The ' O'Hanlon Country ' comprised the whole 

of the two modern baronies of Upper and 

^^f Lower Orior in the County of Armagh, 

Country.' extending from Jonesborough and Newry 

to Tanderagee, and containing 77,982 

statute acres. 

The seat of the O'Hanlon family was Ballymore 
(Tanderagee) Castle., now owned by the Duke of Man- 
chester. The chief at the time of the 
CTHanbn. Plantation of Ulster was Sir Oghie 
O'Hanlon' — then an old and infirm man. 
He was the hereditary Eoyal Standard Bearer of 
Ulster, and had frequently carried his banner at the 
head of the King's forces against rebellion, or other 
resistance to the lawful authority. Indeed, he 
remained a loyal subject of the King to the end, but 
he was compromised by his son (Oghie Oge O'Hanlon), 
a strong rebel, who fought under Sir Cahir O'Dogherty 
(his brother-in-law), and besides, he gave Oghie an 
asylum at Barrymore Castle for a night during the 
revolt. Sir Oghie (at this time) held his lands by 
grant from the Crown- — a provision of the deed being 
that should he or any of his heirs or assigns enter into 
rebellion the grant would become void. Although 
this deed was not claimed by Sir Oghie, yet it was 
considered that the lands therein conveyed were 
forfeited by Oghie Oge's having taken part in the 


revolt.^ In consequence the O'Hanlon estates were 
forfeited and the family translated to Connaught, and 
the loyal old chieftain granted a pension of £80 per 
annum in lieu of his barony of Orior ! The poor 
old man (who surely deserved a better fate in his 
declining years) did not live to enjoy the magnani- 
mous gift, but died of a broken heart— his grey 
hairs were literally ' brought in sorrow to the 

In those old times of rebelhon and bloodshed, 
probably in many cases wrongs were done to members 
of the ancient Celtic families, and a poHcy pursued by 
those in authority inimical to the peace, loyalty, and 
prosperity of Ireland ; and it is to be fondly hoped that 
in the recoil of modern times history will not repeat 
itself under any new regime which may be estabhshed, 
notwithstanding the assurances to the contrary of 

those who claim to speak in its name. Dr. 
Ir^^Manr' ^ahaffy, in his Introduction to Dr. K. H. 
and its Murray's volume on ' Revolutionary 
Settlement' Ireland and its Settlement,' tells us that 
Mahaff violence and injustice beget one another, 

and lead to a hereditary vendetta, and that 
even now the recoil from the penal laws is being felt ; 
that the long oppressed are rising rapidly in power, 
wealth, and influence — and ' it will be strange indeed 
if this recovered influence does not lead to acts of 
injustice and even to confiscation in some polite 
form, even though the days of massacre and armed 
rapine are over.' 

^ See Hill, Plantation of Ulster, p. 64. 


Glynwood (Dromantine) has long been noted as the 

scene of a dreadful massacre during the KebelHon of 

1641. It is described by Harris in harrow- 

* The 

Glynwood i^g terms, while other writers of repute 
Massacre' (particularly the late Dr. Fitzpatrick) 
according to represent it as an absolute myth. We will 
therefore give the evidence for and against, 
with honest comment, and allow our readers to judge 
for themselves. Harris tells us (in substance) that the 
parish of Donaghmore will ' ever be infamous for the 
merciless butchery ' of 1641- — in which ' upwards of 
1,200 defenceless Protestants ' were massacred ' in the 
Covert of a thicket ' ' at Glyn or Glynwood, an ancient 
manor of Magenis, now of William Innys '■ — west of 
the church.i 

The inhabitants of Donaghmore for upwards of 
two and a half centuries have given absolute credence 
to this ' inhuman butchery,' and have doubtless 
mournfully regretted its occurrence. We are now 
told, however, that the evidence upon which it is 
based is only ' hearsay,' and that the massacre is an 
'The absolute myth. Dr. Fitzpatrick, in his 

Massacre' recent volume,^ endeavours to show that 
according to the sole evidence of this supposed carn- 
tzpatric ^g^ ^g ^^^^ ^^ ^ £^^ ^^l^^j guards who 

were wont to while away the time by relating to a 
notable prisoner in their custody stories as to the 
prowess of the rebel arms, and the wonderful massacres 
that were taking place all over the country by their 

' See History of Down, pp. 85-6. 

* T. Fitzpatrick, LL.D., ' The Bloody Bridge ' and other Papers 
relating to the Insurrection of 1641. 


valiant brethren- — one of these bemg that at Gljoiwood. 
It is to be hoped that Dr. Fitzpatrick is correct in 
his conclusion, and that our parish will no longer be 
tarnished as the scene of such a ' bloody strife '• — even 
though our hopes are dashed of dweUing on a theme, 
which, however sad and gruesome, some readers, at 
least, might consider interesting ! Hence we cannot 
record even an * Irish shindy ' at Glynwood, or the 
free use of a few blackthorn sticks, but simply content 
ourselves by characterising the ' massacre,' in our 
author's words, as the ' Donaghmore myth.* 

Dr. Fitzpatrick certainly makes out a good case for 
the side which evidently has his sympathies, and for 
which he seems to hold a brief. He claims to write im- 
partially in elucidating the history of a period * about 
which men wrote as desperately as they fought ' ; 
but it is to be feared the words may in truth be used 
against himself, for, to say the least, he often writes 

* desperately.' Apart from his evident bias, he seems 
inconsistent, for the documents (' Depositions ') which 
he uses are considered good and trustworthy when 
he pleads the cause of the rebels, but far otherwise 
if they tend to tarnish their fair name. But if the 
depositions are good evidence in regard to massacres 
by those who fought against the rebels, surely they 
cannot be worthless when they describe the carnages 
of the latter. Doubtless it is impossible to find a 
writer on either side totally free from bias and in- 
consistency in regard to the RebelHon of 1641 — in- 
cluding even Harris and Temple— and, we might add, 
the smaller fry, however much they try, who pose as 

* parish historians ! ' 


Harris and others are blamed for using ' hearsay ' 
evidence, while Dr. Fitzpatrick excludes such in estab- 
lishing his conclusions ; and, besides, he claims to have 
had recourse to later and unpublished depositions not 
eiiiployed by the earlier writers- — viz. those before the 
Commonwealth Commissioners at Carrickfergus in 1653. 

In regard to the ' sworn evidence taken by the 
Koyal Commissioners (after the Kebellion) appointed 
by the Broad Seal of Ireland,' Dr. Fitzpatrick states, 
that having examined the depositions which are in the 
County Down volume, numbering over a hundred and 
twenty, he ' cannot find that any county Down man 
or woman knew or heard anything of the Glynwood 
(Donaghmore) massacre of 1,200 helpless Protestants.' ^ 

The High Sheriff of Down at the time (Peter Hill) 
was a deponent, and informed the Commissioners 
that ' he knows the county (Down) well,' and while 
he gives evidence as to certain atrocities committed 
by the rebels at the * Bloody Bridge ' and other places 
in Down, he never once refers to a massacre as having 
taken place at Glynwood in Donaghmore parish. 

The Eev. Patrick Dunken, Vicar of Donaghmore, 

was a prisoner in the hands of the rebels, in a house 

near Newcastle, and afterwards became a 

Dona hmore c^^P^^^^*' ^e was examined May 26, 1653, 

Deponent. ^^ Carrickfergus before the Commissioners 

' concerning the things transacted to his 

knowledge and hearsay in the County of Downe 

and thereabouts the first half yeare of the EebelHon, 

during which time, the said Mr. Dunfin (Dunken) with 

his wife, were prisoners with the rebells, having first 

^ Introduction, p. ^ix. 


robbed them of all their goods.' In the evidence as 
transcribed by Dr. Fitzpatrick, the Vicar of Donagh- 
more tells * what he knows about the Newcastle affair, 
and what he has heard about Lisnagarvey, Down- 
patrick, Newry, Mourne '• — and so on — ' but has not 
a word to say about his own Parish.' ^ 

According to Dr. Fitzpatrick the whole story of this 
supposed massacre is based on the evidence of the 
Kev. Dr. Kobert Maxwell, Mcar of Tynan, 
Doctor QQ Armagh, a prisoner in the hands of the 

Deponent, rebels at Kynard, ' who amused them- 
selves by telling him many horrible tales.' 
The following is a portion of Dr. Maxwell's deposition, 
taken August 22, 1642^(about eleven years previous 
to the deposition of the Kev. Patrick Dunken) : * In 
Glynwood, towards Donaghmore, there were slaugh- 
tered (as the Eebells tould the deponent) upwards of 
1,200 in all who were killed in their flight to the countie 
of Downe.' 

It seems somewhat strange that the rebel guards 
at Kynard should have singled out this particular place 
as the scene of a slaughter of such magnitude, if 
nothing happened of that nature. Glynwood is close 
to the two passes though which those in flight^pre- 
sumably from the direction of County Armagh- — must 
have entered this portion of Down ; and besides, the 
particular spot, a deep ravine in Dromantine demesne- — 
north of the lake^ — said to be the scene of the massacre, 
would in all probabihty be considered a safe hiding- 
place for fugitives. Again, the guards had nothing 
to gain by misrepresentation or exaggeration, and 

^ The Bloody Bridge, etc., p. 93. 


besides, it is to be presumed they were the best 
authorities regarding the rebel achievements. 

On the other hand their narrative certainly con- 
flicts with the depositions as quoted by Dr. Fitz- 
patrick, and this in itself is an important point in 
favour of his contention. Doubtless we do not know 
the whole truth of the matter, nor are we likely to be 
further enlightened. At any rate Dr. Maxwell, a man 
of high standing and great ability, evidently believed 
what ' the Eebells tould ' him, though for aught we 
know these worthies may have been simply * fooling ' 
the good divine ! 

Eobert Maxwell was a Doctor of Divinity of the 
University of Dublin, Eector of Tynan, and Arch- 
deacon of Down. He was consecrated Bishop of 
Kilmore in St. Patrick's, Dublin, March 24, 1643, and 
the see of Ardagh was granted him by Charles II., 
February 24, 1660. He held both sees till his death- 
November 16, 1672.1 

During the revolutionary period of our history, 
although the contending armies ' passed and repassed ' 
through the parish, we find no record of an 
&rJV^ ^'^d' ^^g^g^ment between the combatants, but 
doubtless nevertheless terror reigned in 
Donaghmore, and the inhabitants suffered privation 
and loss, as was inevitable in the circumstances. 

There was, however, during the period, almost 
' a battle royal ' at the old Four Mile House, the 
combatants on one side being Alexander Stewart and 
his wife (who kept the inn), James Hope (a prominent 
United Irishman and somewhat of a poet), and a friend 
^ Ware's Bishops, p. 243. 


named Dignan, of Newry ; while, on the other, were a 
few English soldiers and a horse ! The bloodless 
ccmbit is portrayed by Hope in his * Memoirs of '98.' 
It seems while he and Dignan were at the inn, two 
soldiers rode up, and having partaken of some drink, 
flung their empty glasses on the flags, and went off 
without paying for their * refreshment ' — a shabby 
trick ! Poor Mrs. Stewart and her husband were 
naturally irate, but their words are not related. Two 
other soldiers, we are told, just then rode up, one of 
whom * ran at Mrs. Stewart (who was standing at the 
door of the inn having a child in her arms) with his 
blade.' Happily the cowardly soldier was repulsed 
by the valiant Hope, who drew his sword in defence of 
the woman. The soldier's horse, however, was not 
to be outdone even by the brave Hope ; for it seems, 
before an immediate departure to Banbridge, the 
dauntless animal, with the willing consent of the rider, 
made a fling at the inn door with the hind legs — 
smashing it (we hope not) to atoms ! 

Towards the close of the eighteenth century (1778), 
owing to the critical condition of Ireland at the time, 

the Volunteer movement was inaugurated 
Volunteers — when Djuaghmore contributed its quota 

to the 100,000 men eventually enrolled in 
the four provinces as a Volunteer force. Unfortu- 
nately, owing to the loss or destruction of records, 
very little information is now available in regard to 
the Donaghmore Volunteers, of which there were two 
companies. The companies belonged to the Newry 
Infantry Kegiment, as did the Sheepbridge corps and 
that of Kathfriland. 


Among the ofl&cers of ' The First Donaghmore 
Company ' were Captain J. Arbucle and Lieutenant 
Samuel Martin. Captain Arbucle resided at Mary- 
vale, which he owned with the townland of Carnacally 
in which it is situated. Lieutenant Martin was father 
of John Martin, the well-known ' repealer,' and, of 
course, lived at the family residence — Loughorne. 
* The Second Donaghmore Company ' had, as captain, 
George Gordon. Captain Gordon was a brother of 
Captain William G. Gordon of Sheepbridge — members 
of the old and well-known family of that place — and 
now represented in the neighbourhood by the Gordons 
of Mount Kearney and Maryvale. 

Captain Carswell was an officer in one or other of 
the Donaghmore companies. We find him attending 
a review held at Eathfriland, October 19, 1792, 
accompanied by fifty of the Donaghmore Volunteers. 
Captain Carswell (who resided in Annaghbane) was 
a member of an old and much respected family — now 
represented by Joseph Carswell of Eockmount (Four 
Towns) and Joseph Carswell of Shankhill. The 
Carswells came originally from Scotland and settled 
in the parish early in the seventeenth century. 

An article in an old issue of the Down Becorder 
describes the uniform generally worn by the Volunteer 
force in Down — viz. ' a scarlet coat, with yellow, white, 
blue, or green facings ; white waistcoat and small- 
clothes ; white stockings and black gaiters, a black 
knee-band and a cocked hat.' A Fusilier corps in 
Downpatrick, it seems, wore a green uniform with red 
facings, short-skirted coat, and high cap with a red 


The origin of the Volunteers was as follows : In 1777 

the English were defeated at Saratoga, where the whole 

British army under General Burgoyne 

Or^inof the g^j^rendered to the Americans. The affairs 

Volunteers. . -n i i i -i i 

of England were desperate, while the out- 
look in Ireland was no less serious and critical. There 
were no troops left in the country, as all had been 
drafted off to fight the Americans. In 1778 the 
situation was still more desperate ; for the French 
united with the Americans and threatened to invade 
the British Islands. England seemed no longer able 
to defend and hold Ireland ; and besides, shoals of 
American privateers swarmed round the Irish coast, 
seizing British vessels and doing immense havoc in 
many ways. Notable among the gang was a certain 
Paul Jones (a Scotsman, in the American service), who 
in 1778 — at Carrickfergus — captured the Drake, a 
British brig. In the terrible predicament the Protes- 
tants of Ireland flew to arms. If England could not 
defend them against the foreign invader they would 
protect themselves by raising a force for home defence 
— so corps of Volunteers were rapidly enrolled through- 
out the four provinces, arms were procured and drilling 
went on in every parish. At the commencement the 
Volunteers were almost wholly Protestant Dissenters, 
but subsequently Churchmen and many Roman 
Catholics were enrolled in defence of their country. 
The Volunteers, as the name implies, were a purely 
volunteer force — and, we might add, an absolutely 
necessary force — considering the critical circumstances 
of the times. Alas ! although they had come to be 
called * the glorious Volunteers,' their career ended 


ingloriously. When the work for which they were 
raised had become a fait accompli, many of them began 
to suffer from ' swollen heads,' and manifested tenden- 
cies of a rebel nature — for example, a corps at Lough- 
brickland, which had to be suppressed. When deserted 
by their legitimate leaders and become the prey of 
irresponsible demagogues, they were simply a menace 
to the State, and forming themselves into secret 
societies and being drilled in arms, they caused much 
turmoil and alarm throughout the country. 

It is too tempting not to refer to one notable 
* swollen head,' and that too of a bishop ! (so expanded. 
The Bishop ^* ^^ *^ ^^ feared, that his mitre became 
of Derry useless). We refer, of course, to the 
and the eccentric Bishop of Derry (Frederick 
Volunteers, ^^g^g^^g Hervey— Earl of Bristol). His 
lordship conceived the idea in his noble brain that 
he was the ' unchallenged leader ' of the Volunteers 
(1783), and that in all probabiHty he was to be the future 
king of Ireland ! Froude tells us : * This absurd 
person still clung to the dream of a separate Ireland of 
which he was to be king, and his admirers in the North 
fooled him to the top of his bent.' As a simple pre- 
liminary to his kingly honours, the bishop arrived in 

A Volunteer ^^^^^^^ ^* *^® *^^® ^^ ^^® memorable 
Convention Volunteer Convention in 1788 (a kind of 
andG)rgeousParhament to 'command the destinies of 
Procession. ];j,gig^j^^ '^ accompanied by his suite — 

almost regal in its splendour and magnificence. 
The Cabinet had recommended that the Convention 
should be prevented, even by force if necessary ; but 
the Privy Council was averse to the idea of the Govern- 


ment interfering to prevent the meeting, so it was 
held. The ambitious bishop fully expected his 
election to the presidency of the ' Parliament,' and his 
elevation to the * High Kingship of Ireland,' but, alas 
for the poor man, neither honour came his way ! How- 
ever, for one brief space he doubtless enjoyed to his 
heart's content the rapture, at least, of clasping to his 
bosom honours which after all were not to be his, 
namely, while he sat in state as the central figure in 
the gorgeous procession which graced the streets of 
Dublin previous to the Convention. Froude thus 
graphically describes the scene : * He (as yet only the 
Lord Bishop, the Earl of Bristol) sat in an open landau, 
drawn by six horses magnificently apparelled in 
purple, with white gloves, gold fringed, and gold 
tassels danghng from them, and buckles of diamonds 
on knee and shoe. His own mounted servants, in 
gorgeous hveries, attended on either side of his carriage. 
George Robert Fitzgerald rode in front, with a squadron 
of dragoons in gold and scarlet uniforms, on the 
finest horses which could be bought in the land, a 
second squadron brought up the rear in equal splendour, 
and thus, with slow and regal pace, the procession 
passed on. Volunteers falling in, with bands playing 
and colours flying, the crowd shouting ** Long Ufe to 
the bishop ! " the bishop bowing to the crowd. Passing 
through College Green, the Right Reverend Earl paused 
at the door of the Parhament House. The dragoons 
halted. The trumpets were blown. The Lords and 
Commons, who had just finished prayers, came out to 
pay their respects, and gaze on the extraordinary scene. 
The bishop saluted ; the bishop's guard presented 


arms ; and the band struck up the Volunteers' March, 
and having thus, as he supposed, produced a proper 
impression, the august being waved his hand.' i 

As their subsequent history proved, ' the powers 
that be,' and the country, had enough of the Volun- 
teers, and consequently the government were obliged to 
r^, ,,.,. . revive the Militia, a crown force, to which 

The Militia. _ , . -i , i -, \ ,. 

Donaghmore contributed its quota of men 
and money. [In regard to local transactions re the 
MiUtia (1795-7), or events not recorded elsewhere, 
we beg to refer the reader to the vestry minutes — 
commencing 1772.] 

Possibly a few inquisitive readers may be solici- 
tous to know a little concerning the present inhabitants 
Present ^^ Donaghmore — if only through curiosity ; 
Inhabitants but it is extremely difficult to impartially 
of Donagh- portray ourselves, being an interested party, 
^^^^' and doubtless when we have done our 

best, having totally banished our natural bias in 
the circumstances, some old cynic, or jealous critic 
of a neighbouring parish, will be found to exclaim in 
the words of the rustic poet : 

O wad some Pow'r the giftie gie us 
To see oursels as ithers see us ! ' 

Donaghmore is a purely agricultural parish, and 

as such is considered one of the best in the county of 

Down. The parish has long been noted 
Pursuits. -.,.,,. • T, 1 

for its interest in agricultural pursuits 

and its successful farming operations, It had 

its farming society (a branch of the North-East 

Farming Society) so far back (at least) as 1835 ; 

^ TJie English in Ireland, vol. ii. p. 416. 


and here the reader will pardon our digression in 
reverting to a bit of ancient history. 

An * Annual Cattle Show and Plowing Match ' 
was held under the auspices of the Donaghmore 
Farming Society, after which the committee of manage- 
ment and their friends usually partook of a sumptuous 
^. dinner as a pleasant * wind-up ' to the pro- 

Agricultural ceedings of the day. One of these social 
Dinner-party functions, however, we regret to state, had 
* Wind-up. i^qqH a very unpleasant * wind-up ' (as 
we shall see), viz. that after a 'plowing match' at 
James Carsw ell's farm (Fourtowns), on February 16, 
1835. The dinner-party was given in the evening of 
the same day at the Five Mile House. Thomas 
Marshall (Buskhill) occupied the chair on the occasion, 
when the following toasts were proposed and duly 
honoured : * The Queen and Royal Family ' ; * The Lord 
Lieutenant and Prosperity to Ireland ' ; * The Health 
of Arthur Innes, Esq., the worthy and munificent 
President of the Branch, and speedy recovery and safe 
return home ' ; ' The Health of Trevor Smithson and 
Isaac Corry, Esqrs., the worthy and valuable Vice- 
Presidents of the Society.' About this stage of the 
proceedings (eight o'clock) the festive and peaceful 
scene was suddenly changed into one of alarm and con- 
fusion. According to our report, it seems a large 
crowd had gathered in front of the house, and without 
note or warning, made * an atrocious and wanton 
attack ' on the agricultural dinner-party — ' one man 
being killed and several desperately wounded.' The 
mob, with frightful shrieks and constant volleys of 
stones, kept up the attack till 9.30 o'clock, ' completely 
demoUshing the windows, sashes, and shutters of the 

H 2 


house.* The pohce by this time arrived on the 
scene, and having been obliged to use their rifles to 
quell the riot, one man in the crowd was shot dead. 
No reason whatever was assigned for the attack, 
which we are informed was * a premeditated and 
dehberately planned scheme.' ^ 

Legal proceedings ensued at Downpa trick (August 5), 
when eleven men were indicted for ' assault and riot ' 
— four of whom received twelve, and seven, six months' 

Donaghmore has no longer its Farming Society, 
Cattle Show, or * agricultural dinner-parties ' — nor 
even a riot ! — yet our farming operations and ' dining 
capacities ' are still fine arts. 

The principal crops grown in the parish are 
oats, flax, potatoes, turnips, hay, and (in Glen) wheat. 
We boast of a number of model farmers who possess 
very up-to-date agricultural implements, and who 
farm on the most approved principle ; but we forbear to 
mention names, not wishing to make invidious dis- 
tinctions. Owing chiefly to the expense of labour, 
and the scarcity of those who engage in such pursuits, 
a few of the farmers have turned their attention to 
dairying and stock-raising, including sheep, of the best 

Although engaged in these humble but laudable 
pursuits, and living far away from the * madding 
Charaoteris- crowd,' yet most of US entertain a fairly 
tics— Self- high opinion of ourselves, while we con- 
esteem. gj^Qj. ^Jjg^^ y^Q q^j.q qq^q^ « g^ CltlZeU Of nO 

mean city.' This good opinion of ourselves 

^ Neu^ry Telegraph, Febraary 20, 1836. 



(which doubtless others may misname self-conceit, 
though with us it is simply a form of self- 
respect) and of our ' dwelling-place ' enables us to 
comport ourselves accordingly, and to * carry a high 
head ' ! True, few of us were born to any great estate ; 
and certainly none of us (as yet) have had greatness 
thrust upon us, yet generally (with a few exceptions) 
we make the most of ourselves, considering it to be the 
aim of every one (in the words of Jean Paul Richter) 
* to make as much out of oneself as could be made 
out of the stuff.' Apart, however, from the * stuff ' 
with which Providence may have bountifully or other- 
wise endowed us, and while averse to the bad manners 
of ' blowing our own trumpet,' and chary of hurting 
the sensitive feelings of less favoured communities, 
it may be safely asserted, without fear of contradiction, 
that we are a highly intelhgent, hard-headed and 
industrious people, and withal very soft-hearted and 
extremely modest ! 

We are, moreover, a peaceful community among 
ourselves, and so far as the outside world is con- 
cerned we are dominated by the same 
O^alitiea Pacific Spirit — unless, indeed, the attack be 
one of aggression. We are totally obUvious 
of the * wars and rumours of wars ' which marked 
our territorial days. We have * clean forgotten * 
all we have heard of the * Glynwood massacre,' while 
old party and other feuds are largely effaced from 
our memories, and indeed would have been entirely 
obUterated, were it not for our anniversaries, held 
respectively on July 12 and August 15, or it may be 
the raking up of the chequered past by some petty 


chronicler. Our pacific intercourse is all the more to 
our credit, considering our differences racially, religi- 
ously and politically. We are truly a mixed race 

(both here and elsewhere in Ireland), the 
^ ^^® descendants of the successive invaders 

who conquered Ireland m past times, 
and hence there are no * real Irish ' in the parish — 
such (the aborigines) having been totally an- 
nihilated, we are told, soon after the flood, by a 
ferocious Grecian chief called Partholon. This cruel 
warrior and bis savage people held possession for about 
300 years, when the Nemedians came along, and made 

* short work ' of the Partholonians, and so on, with 
the Formorians, the Firbolgs, the De Dananns, and 
the Milesians, who in turn were conquered by the 
Anglo-Saxons. But notwithstanding our mixture of 
blood, or our inability to trace our descent from the 

* real Irish ' (probably a race of dwarfs and cave- 
dwellers, who are as dead as the dodo), or that we are 
only the sons of colonists of a remote or later date, 
we all are good Irishmen nevertheless, and uniting 
in fervent love for Ireland, however poor and dis- 
tracted or * distressful ' she may be, we heartily sing 
with the * immortal poet ' : 

'Sure an' this is Ireland, 
Thank God for Ireland ! ' 

In religion, again, most of us seem to differ almost 

as much as in race. In this respect, however, we are 

certainly more tolerant than in past times, 

and many of us, at least, are beginning 

to realise that the form is not the absolutely 


essential desideratum, and that (in the words of 
Lord Avebury) * Those to whom heaven is promised 
in the Sermon on the Mount are the merciful, 
the meek, the peacemakers, the pure in heart.* We 
are well supplied with churches — having in our 
midst two Roman CathoHc, two Presbyterian, one 
Church of Ireland, and a Methodist chapel (erected 
in 1839 and served by a Newry minister). We are, 
besides, favoured occasionally with a movable 
* ecclesiastical ' structure in the shape of a tent, 
accompanied by what is locally termed a * tramp 

These preachers, for the most part, seem quite 
horrified at our pagan condition, and consider it their 
solemn duty, as a mere preliminary, to anathematise 
with ' bell, book and candle ' the parishioners and their 
pastors in general and the rector in particular. Having 
set up their ' gospel-shop,* as it is called, they deal out 
a free and easy ' salvation * on the condition of * faith 
without works,* this ' faith * being supposed to act 
as a charm, by which the subject obtains * salvation * 
in the shape of a * fire-escape ' ! * The preachers ' 
(who have not favoured us with a visit for a 
long time) make but few converts in Donaghmore, 
while those * impressed ' generally * vert ' back to 

A Mormon missionary recently paid us a flying 
visit (or rather some of the good-looking girls of the 
parish, of which there is a vast number), but we have 
the proud satisfaction of recording that the Mormon 
went * empty away,* ere even we had learnt of 
his advent, otherwise we should have organised 


a Donaghmore Corjps of Volunteers to ' speed the 
parting guest ' ! 

We Donaghmore people are strong poHticians, and 
here we never * agree to differ.' Portion of us adopt 
the principles of King "William, Prince of 
Orange, others those of King James. The 
memories of these monarchs are still held in fond remem- 
brance in our midst — particularly that of King William 
— ^whose great battle at the Boyne is annually fought 
in mimic fashion in the neighbourhood, his forces 
fighting like Trojans, when the good King, notwith- 
standing the * shot and shell ' and the ' fierce onslaught ' 
of his Jamesite enemies, ever comes off the victor ! Not 
a few of us are quite ' advanced ' in our views on matters 
political, while others are supposed to lag ' behind the 
times.' The former glory in a new order which is fast 
giving place to the old, while the latter wistfully look 
back to a dying regime, and mournfully warble in 
notes of other days, lines long out of date : 

' God bless the squire and his relations, 
And keep us in our proper places.' 

To their credit be it told, the inhabitants of Donagh- 
more speak the * King's Enghsh ' remarkably well. 

Indeed, the Enghsh language is more cor- 
Language. ,11 • x i i n ■, 

rectly spoken m Ireland generally than 

it is in England by people of the same class. 

Of this any educated and unbiassed Englishman will 

soon be convinced, if, having visited Ireland, he 

will comfpare the Enghsh spoken by the Irish 

people generally with that, for example, expressed 

in * broad Yorkshire ' or in the dialect of Lancashire 


and other places. The people of Donaghmore have 
no ' Irish brogue ' in the proper acceptation of the 
term, nor have they any ' dialect ' pecuhar to them- 
selves. They certainly speak better and more cor- 
rectly than the people of North Down, or those in 
some portions of County Antrim. We have an 

* accent ' and intonation of voice not uncommon 
elsewhere in Ulster, while a few of us use expressions 
or words, at times, which are more or less in vogue 
all over, especially in the north of Ireland. But these 
words or phrases are frequently used only by way of 
accommodation, being to us very expressive. Very 
often such have no equivalents in the EngHsh language 
which properly express the meaning they convey to 
us, and hence we can only give an approximate 
signification — in some cases adopting that given by 
Joyce. 1 

* Back-jaw,' impertinent or abusive talk. 
' Blathers ' or * Blethers,' nonsense. * Bhnked,' over- 
looked with the * evil eye.' * Boast,' e.g. the hollow 
portion of a tree produced by dry rot is * boast.* 

* Bold,' forward. ' Brave ' (intensively), ' a brave big 
man '; or as denoting good health, in reply to * How 
are you ? ' (an old Enghsh usage), * Bravely.' ' Dry,' 
thirsty. * Cailey,' a friendly evening call. * Clash,' to 
carry tales. * Call,' a reason, e.g. * I have no call (reason) 
to do so and so.' * Coof,* a fool. * Clout,' a blow; 
also a rag. ' Cruel,' very ; e.g. * cruel kind ' means 
very kind. * Daily-goin,' nightfall, or just after twihght. 

* Didoes,' antics or tricks. * Ditch,' a raised fence. 

* Dour,' stem. ' Elder,' udder. ' Elegant,' anything 

* See English as we speak it in Ireland, cap. ^. 



good or excellent of its kind, e.g. ' an elegant watch,' 
and even * an elegant pig ! ' We have not heard 
the word used in Donaghmore in the sense applied by 
Lever- — but then we have no Bradys : 

* I haven't the janius for work, 
For 'twas never the gift of the Bradys ; 
But I'd make a most illigant Turk, 
For I'm fond of tobacco and ladies.' 

* Farl,' portion of a griddle cake. * Footer,' a 
clumsy workman. ' Free,' affable. * Galout,' a 
clownish fellow. * Galore,' abundance. ' Gawkish,' 
a tall, awkward person. ' Glower,' to stare at. 
' Hotherin ' or * Hothery,' untidy. * Gunk,' a take 
in, * sell,' or sudden disappointment. ' Income,' an 
abscess. ' Kitterty,' a vain, empty-headed creature. 
' Lusty,' corpulent. * Meela murder,' ' a thousand 
murders ' — a general exclamation of surprise, regret, 
or alarm — ^the first part being from the Irish word, 
mile (meela), a thousand (Joyce). * A knowin',' a 
very small quantity. * Nagyer,' a very miserly per- 
son. ' Newance,' novelty. * Ornary,' ugly. ' Pelt,' 
naked — ^without clothes. ' Quality,' gentry. Any 
imitation of such in dress, manner, or ' turn-out ' is 
called a * quahty touch.' * Ructions,' fights or rows. 

* Sconce,' an * eye-servant,' or person who shirks his 
work. * Scut,* a mean fellow. ' Sheeler,' a man 
who does women's work. * Sheuch,' a hollow place, 
generally alongside a fence and containing water. 

* Shore,' the ' sea-side ' — ^we call Warrenpoint * the 
shore,' and a * drain ' a * shore ' ! * Skelp,' a blow, 
to give one or more blows ; to cut off a portion of 


anyiihing ; to run swiftly, e.g. * I got a skelp ' ; * I cut 
off a skelp of wood ' ; * skelp off to school * (Joyce). 
* Skite/ a silly, thoughtless creature — one who * skites 
about ' talking nonsense, and hence a * Bletherum- 
skite * ! * Sonsy,' lucky and thriving ; also ' well- 
looking and healthy,' e.g. * a i&ne, sonsy girl ' — from 
the Irish word sonas^ luck (Joyce). * Spalpeen,' a 
scoundrel or rascal. * Stoure,' dust. * Thole,' to 
endure. * Through-other,* unmethodical. * Wee- 
men,' women. ' Wheen,' a few. * Whist,' be 
silent, * hold your tongue.' * Wit,' wisdom or sense 
— the original meaning of the word. We seldom make 
use of the following endearing epithets, and * more is 
the pity ' : Agra (my love), Alanna (my child), Aroon 
(my dear), Asthore (my treasure), CusJilamacree (pulse 
of my heart), Mavourneen (my love). 

The following terms or phrases are in frequent 
use : * Widow-woman ' and * widow-man,' for widow 
and widower. ' Boys, oh boys ! ' pronounced * boys-a- 
boys ! ' and often varied by the phrase * boys-a-dear ! ' 
a favourite ejaculation in Ulster — ^when anything 
wonderful is seen or has happened the * boys ' are at 
once called to witness, i.e. every male, for all are * boys * 
in the province, the aged man being only an * ould 
boy.' * We don't mind,' i.e. we don't recollect ; but 
there are two other meanings : (1) If offered a favour 
and we reply, ' we don't mind,' it means we assent. 
(2) If asked, do we wish the window shut in a railway 
carriage, and say * we don't mind,' it means we don't 
care. * Manys-the-time,' many times. * Man-alive ! ' 
an expression of wonderment. ' Be out of that with 
ye,' get away. * Run,' e.g. * run away to school,' 


which means simply ' go to school ' ; but we all * run ' 
in Ulster ! * Bad cess to you,' may ill luck betide 
you. * Cut your stick,' go away. ' I can't see a 
stime,' I can't see the least bit. We are also rather 
given to be redundant or excessive at times, and hence 
one says : ' I will do it, so I will,' or ' You can 
see it for yourself, so you can.' Nor are we above 
making a ' bull,' and so we speak of a man being 
* killed dead ' ; but we only wish to be accurate — that 
is all ! 

In regard to our Donaghmore manners, it may be 
safely asserted that, for the most part, they are de- 
cidedly Ulsterian, which means they are 
somewhat brusque and unpolished. Hence 
some may consider us a trifle blunt ; but this is 
largely owing to our downrightness, and what 
we are pleased to call our ' honesty and manly 
independence.' We mean, however, to be civil, and 
indeed polite, in our own way, with httle form 
or ceremony, while beneath what some may deem a 
rugged exterior there are warm hearts and strong 
affections. We regard with some indifference the 
outward form — ^the grace, dignity, and courtesy — 
which characterise what are called * people of refine- 
ment,' and consider that these gifts or acquirem^ents 
may be not only superficial but deceptive, and hence 
it is what is said or done, and not how it is said or 
done, that is alone deserving notice. Here, however, 
we may be, and doubtless are, wholly wrong. The 
bluntest of us must acknowledge that the charm of 
fine manners is irresistible, and that they are gifts 
and graces which it is absolute nonsense to depreciate. 


However much we decry them, they certainly charm 
and deUght us in themselves, while at the same time 
we are surely bound to consider them as the honest 
signs or symbols of something higher and deeper— 
viz. of character, feelings, and thoughts — ^which we 
have no right to call in question. Fine manners are 
inestimable, and have more to do with our happiness 
and that of others, and, too, our success in Hfe, than 
we are sometimes inclined to think. Lord Avebury 
reminds us of the old proverb that * Manners makyth 
man,* while he tells us it is * doubtless true that many 
a man has been made by his manner and many ruined 
by tl^e want of it.' In this connection the old words 
of Sterne are deep with meaning and significance : 

* Hail, ye sweet courtesies of hfe ! for smooth do ye 
make the road of it, Hke grace and beauty, which beget 
inclinations to love at first sight : 'tis ye who open 
the door, and let the stranger in.' 

In regard to our forms of salutation it should be 
stated that they are much the same, and are as cordial, 
as those of most country-folk of our hfe 
Sahuation ^^^ Station. Our ' hand-shake ' is hearty, 
and in many cases borders on a * squeeze ' 
— thus denoting our extreme warm-heartedness ! 
Most of us bow to our acquaintances, in the usual 
graceful fashion, while a few, if they move the 
head at all, suddenly jerk it to one side, and 
with the ' side-nod ' is bluntly uttered the kind 
wish, * Good-morrow ' — ^which doubtless includes the 

* to-day ' as well, and every * to-morrow ' afterwards. 

Of the two good forms of salute (if sitting) in vogue 
among our pohte ancestors, the Moycovians, to 


immediately ' stand up ' or * raise the knee/ in the 
presence of our superiors (though we seldom meet 
such), we adopt the former only, rightly considering 
it the more respectful, and besides, had we both, 
we should doubtless be obliged to make invidious 
distinctions ! 

Hence it troubles us Httle ' Who's Who ' — 
whether King or Bishop — a problem which deeply con- 
cerned our forefathers — especially those of them who 
were lawyers or Brehons. We may note, however, 
that these old legal luminaries completely solved 
the problem — ^at least to their own satisfaction and 
doubtless that of the Episcopate ; though probably 
some of the kingly array regarded the solution with 
disapproval, but gave way — on reUgious grounds only. 
The question is asked in the Brehon law tract, ' Crith 
Gabhlach,' and the solution duly recorded thus : 
' Which is higher, a King or a Bishop ? ' Answer : 
* The Bishop is higher, because the King stands up 
(to salute him) on account of religion ' ; and then 
follows the sentence — * A Bishop, however, raises his 
knee to a King.* In those good old times the Irish 
generally sat on very low seats — probably something 
resembUng Scotch * creepies ' (of which there are still 
a few specimens in Donaghmore), and thus in attempt- 
ing to rise they would naturally be obhged to draw in 
one foot, which had the effect of ' raising the knee.' 
This attempt to rise, and * raising the knee ' thereby, 
was considered a mark of respect, but to ' stand up * 
was deemed a much higher act of regard and 

^ See Joyce, vol. ii. p. 489. 


Most of us in Donaghmore doubtless believe that 
we are not superstitious ; and yet some of us have 

a vague belief which betrays a lurking 
ti ns"*^" anxiety that it is wise to be on the safe 

side when our luck is at stake. We also 
dread an * evil omen * and feel happier when such por- 
tends good — ^thinking that, after all, there may be 
something in it ! For example, we deem it unlucky to 
* flit ' on Friday — * a Friday's flit ' being ' a short sit.' 
We dread breaking a mirror, which is supposed to 
bring bad luck in all we do for seven years, while to 
hatch chickens under a * fairy-bush ' means death 
to the brood * one and all * \, We hke to fall * going 
upstairs,' for that is a sure sign of a wedding to the 
unmarried, though such were as old as Methuselah ! A 
marriage in May is fatal. It is an ill omen, on first 
occasions, to see the new moon through glass, or to 
hear the cuckoo before breakfast, the latter portend- 
ing death that year. It is a bad omen to see a single 
magpie, most of us prefer two or three ; as for four, 
well, it all depends on circumstances ! The old rhyme 
aptly expresses our feehngs in regard to the number 
we behold, though it fails to inform us that we must 
make a profound bow to one or more as the case 
may be : 

* One for sorrow, 
Two for mirth, 
Three for a wedding, 
Four for a birth.* 

The return of the swallow is an omen of good things, 
but woe betide the person who interferes with its nest. 


or, again, the house into which flies the innocent little 
robin redbreast. 

The howling of a dog at night is supposed to fore- 
bode death or other calamity — especially the former ; 
indeed this is a very old and widespread superstition, 
having a rabbinical origin : 

'In the rabbinical book it saith 
The dogs howl when, with icy breath, 
Great Sammael, the angel of death, 
Takes thro' the town his flight.' i 

Shakespeare's plays are full of the popular supersti- 
tions of his time, many of such being still with us. At 
the birth of the Duke of Gloucester we are told that : 

' The owl shrieked — an evil sign ; 
The night crow cried, aboding trickless time.' 

{King Henry VI.) 

Some of us consider the horseshoe a lucky posses- 
sion, especially if properly placed, so that the luck may 
* go up ' and not ' down.' In our peregrinations we 
noticed twelve of these precious relics, ' properly 
placed,' at the entrance to the Donaghmore Kectory 
House, and being curious to know the result, were 
curtly informed : ' effect — nil ' ! Again, some of us 
dread to be gazed upon by those who are supposed to 
possess what is called ' the evil eye,' which is sure to 
bring misfortune. It is a fortunate circumstance there 
is no such 'eye ' in Donaghmore, so far as we know ; but 
just in order to make sure, we prefer our acquaint- 
ances, when we meet, to wish us ' good day,' or should 

^ Longfellow, Golden Legend, iii. 


they inspect our cattle, to distinctly wish us * good 

luck,' for then, however evil the eye, the 'good luck ' 

goes out with the wish and cannot be withdrawn ! 

Akin to the power exercised by the * evil eye * is that 

possessed by the 'witch' — an evil creature, who, by her 

_. , , sorcery, bhghts almost everything she looks 
Witchcraft. j. \ t? i i.T_ 

on or touches. Formerly there were a 
number of these evil-disposed creatures in Donagh- 
more, but they are becoming beautifully less. Doubt- 
less they have betaken themselves to * pastures new ' 
through fright — one particular witch having met with 
a somewhat cruel death. This witch, it seems, worked 
untold misery on one poor woman, who informed the 
writer that * the good ' of her cows, and even her 
hens, had gone ! She tried every means possible to 
ward off the evil influence of the witch, but in vain. 
A cow doctor was consulted, various charms were tried, 
and even the Holy Book was read to the poor cattle, 
but all to no purpose. The witch, however, at last 
succumbed — thanks to the Newry Hunt ! It seems 
she had the habit of changing herself into a hare 
— the usual transformation of such creatures during 
their evil expeditions. On three successive occasions, 
while thus metamorphosed, she happened to encounter a 
fine pack of hounds, called the Newry Harriers — ^with 
the result, that, after good sport, on the third day the 
* hare ' was killed ! We must state, however, that 
being of a humane disposition, it was rather cruel of 
the harriers, being doubtless abetted by the Master of 
the Hunt, to kill even a witch ! The proper and more 
humane method in deahng with witches is to spare the 
Ufe, but deprive them of the power of sorcery ; and this 


can easily be done by a ' scratch,' which will ' draw the 
blood of a witch, and she is harmless.' Shakespeare 
knew the secret in his time : * Blood will I draw on 
thee ; thou art a witch ' (' King Henry VI.'). 

It would seem that the Donaghmore witches, in the 
day of their power, were never very punctilious about 
keeping the Sabbath — a, sorry contrast to a certain 
community of the craft in England, who, we are credibly 
informed, kept their Sabbath in a weird tavern, called 
the ' Devil's Kitchen,' at Stanton Harcourt in Oxford- 
shire. The poet Pope, who often visited Stanton 
Harcourt, hkened the kitchen to the forge of Vulcan, 
where it was believed the witches kept their Sabbath, 
and were once a year visited by the devil, who provided 
them with a feast of infernal venison — viz. a toasted 
tiger stuffed with tenpenny nails ! 

Witchcraft is fast dying out in Ireland and else- 
where, but it seems to have taken a long time to uproot 
the superstition. A certain Pope in 1484 issued a Bull 
against witches, but the edict must have had little or 
no effect, for since then no fewer than nine milHons of 
persons have suffered death for witchcraft. 

In regard to Donaghmore ghosts, we are happy 
to record that most of these spectres 
have ' clean forsaken ' us, while the few 
who remain are quite harmless. 

The * Church Koad Ghost ' was long the terror of the 
inhabitants. It nightly appeared in the shape of a 
black dog with its tongue of flame exposed, and emit- 
ting fiery sparks. We are glad to note that this 
ghost has not been seen for a long time, and hence 
must have departed ; but there is this peculiarity in 


the case, that it must have gone of its own accord — 
not having been * laid * ! 

Then we had the * Phantom Knock Ghost,' as it 
was called. This * spiritual ' gentleman usually an- 
nounced his presence by three loud knocks at the 
front-door of a certain house, which shook the whole 
dwelling, and caused the china and glass to rattle as 
though broken to pieces ; but no harm was done ! A 
servant usually opened the door in all due haste — for 
the knocking seemed imperative — as demanding an 
immediate entrance — but, lo and behold, nothing was 
to be seen ! The ghost had fled, doubtless in high 
glee that he had played such a fine trick ! 

Next, our parish had for a considerable time the 

* White Ghost ' — in the shape of a tall, graceful lady, 
usually seen marching to and fro on a certain avenue 
leading to a particular mansion — never speaking to the 
passer-by, but ever pacing in silence and sadness her 
wonted path. She, so long the terror of the nocturnal 
pedestrian, though perfectly harmless, has also de- 
parted. We are credibly informed that she and the 

* Phantom Knock ' apparition were * laid,* through the 
kind offices of the parish priest, about the same time. 

It seems what is called the ' Sneezing Ghost * 
remains with us, at least during the winter season ! 
though we have never seen him or heard his sternuta- 
tions. This gentleman, somewhat old and feeble, 
keeps to the same house and one particular room — 
and when he thinks the household fast asleep, he gives 
several loud sneezes — ^as though he were suffering, poor 
man, from a bad cold in his head ; but otherwise he 
gives no annoyance, which is a great matter. 

I 2 


But our Donaghmore spectres are poor things com- 
pared with what was called the * Edenmore Ghost ' — 
not far from here. This ghost was a terror while it 
flourished, and was, moreover, enormous in its pro- 
portions. On its expeditions it occasionally spread 
out its great wings and flew over Edenmore — ^like a 
huge aeroplane — which seemed to cover the whole 
townland, producing not only * deep darkness ' but 
a horrible feeling of suffocation ! This ghost, so long 
the fear and dread of ' all ranks and conditions ' in the 
important * town ' of Edenmore, was at length laid 
by * his Eeverence ' of the time, and has never since 
been seen or felt in the district. It seems passing 
strange that so few of our parsons have tried their 
hands in this respect, while ' his Eeverence ' seems 
to have been so successful, and at the same time getting 
all the credit. It is not, of course, from any inabihty 
on their part — at least according to the authority of 
an old woman who credibly informs us that * all the 
clargy have the power of putting down ghosts if they 
would only use it ! ' 

We have heard of one parson, at least, and that a 
certain Archbishop of York, who exorcised a ghost 
very successfully. He was staying at a great house, 
and having slept in ' the haunted room,' there was 
naturally eager expectation at breakfast next morning, 
to know what he saw. Sure enough his Grace laid his 
archiepiscopal eyes on the ghost — an old sallow- 
looking man with bent figure and long white hair, 
who knocked at his door shortly after midnight — 
and was politely invited to enter. The Archbishop 
immediately rose to receive his guest, whom he thus 


addressed : ' Do you belong to the house, and are you 
a parishioner ? ' — to which queries the ghost nodded 
assent. * Well, I am anxious to build some new schools/ 
added the most reverend prelate ; * will you give me a 
subscription ? ' when the ghost at once vanished, and, 
it seems, * for good and all ' ! 

A brave old gentleman — with longish legs — ^was 
determined to sleep in a certain * haunted room,* 
with his revolver under his pillow in order to despatch 
* the ghost ' if such appeared. After some time he 
looked, and behold, two strange * hands ' (as he 
thought) visibly appeared at the foot of the bed. He 
was naturally terrified, but calm and collected, so he 
gave the order : ' Begone, or I fire at once ! ' The 
ghostly hands never moved ; so he fired, and * lo and 
behold,' shot off his own two feet ! 

The following is vouched for as a true ghost 
story. The victim, we are told, was spending the 
Christmas of 1909 with his friends in the country, who 
informed him that he would have to occupy * the 
haunted room,' and being a man of poHte disposition 
and, moreover, of dauntless courage, he consented. 
Of course he saw — or rather heard and felt — the ghost. 
All went well until he was asleep, when, we are told, 
he was awakened by the door opening, and became con- 
scious that a figure had entered the room. Suddenly 
he felt a small hght-weighted object put on his legs. 
He held his breath, thinking a practical joke was being 
played. The figure retired an instant, and then 
returned, when another weight was deposited on the 
coverlet. This operation was repeated for half an 
hour, until he was covered with various objects of 


unknown specific gravity. From presence of mind 
or from frozen terror, he is unable to say which, he 
never stirred, though he remained awake for the rest 
of the night. When dawn broke he found that the 
butler, walking in his sleep, had laid the four-posted 
bed with a dinner-service of twenty-four converts ! 

Some very good people among us firmly believe 
in ghosts — while others as strongly protest that there 
are no such things. The writer has not expressed his 
opinion, though he has carefully weighed the evidence 
on either side. Addison tells us how certain people 
are ' terrified even to distraction at the figure of a tree, 
or the shaking of a buUrush,' and hence he looks upon 
* a sound imagination as the greatest blessing in life — 
next to a clear judgment and a good conscience.' 
And yet Addison beheved in the presence of spirits, 
though unseen ; for he goes on to say : * For my own 
part, I am apt to join in opinion with those who beheve 
that all the regions of nature swarm with spirits, and 
that we have multitudes of spectators on all our actions 
when we think ourselves most alone.' He further 
quotes Milton in confirmation of his belief : 

* Millions of spiritual creatures walk the earth 
Unseen, both when we wake and when we sleep.' l 

Although there may still be, even for this enlightened 
age, much superstition of various kinds among us, 
yet after all it is infinitely small (thanks to our Holy 
Faith), as compared with that of our pagan ancestors, 
who considered Ireland the special home of demons, 
ordinary ghosts and other spectres, and that the very 

* Spectator, No. 12 (Arnold), pp. 11, 12. 


atmosphere swarmed with all kinds of reptiles and veno- 
mous creatures, wounding both men and animals with 
their deadly stings. * What with De Dannan gods, with 
war-gods and goddesses, apparitions, demons, sprites 
of the valley, ordinary ghosts, spectres, and gobhns, 
fairies of various kinds — sheevras, leprechauns, ban- 
shees, and so forth — there appears to have been quite as 
numerous a population belonging to the spiritual world 
as of human beings. In those old pagan days, Ireland 
was an eerie place to hve in : and it was high time 
for St. Patrick to come.' ^ 

^ Joyce, Social History, vol. i. p. 274. 



DoNAGHMORE churchjard is a place of much historical 
interest and brings us back to a rude though interest- 

ing age in the annals of Ireland. As a 
ChuTChyard^ Cemetery, undoubtedly, in pagan times and 

during all the centuries of the Christian 
era ; as the centre of a large souterrain, the site of a 
huge rath, and the sacred spot where stands a fine 
old Celtic Cross, the symbol of our faith, it affords a 
rich mine for the antiquary and historian, and we are 
only sorry that another pen than that of an amateur 
has not been found to do it and other places of 
interest in the parish the justice they deserve. 

The large souterrain (or set of caves) has its centre 
in the churchyard, from which several branches extend 

in different directions. The hntel to the 
Souterrain. ^^i^ entrance is the large stone which 

forms the base of the old Celtic Cross 
which stands a few yards south of the church. 
Underneath the cross is the central chamber, which 
is sixty-two feet long, three feet wide, and up- 
wards of four feet high — ^with branches in the form 
of transepts about thirty feet in length. From these 
again, several sections extend for a considerable length 
into the precincts of the churchyard — south-east, south- 


west, and one due north terminating at the Glebe 
House (a distance of 200 yards) underneath the study 
floor, where, according to tradition, some rich old vicar 
in past times fashioned the extreme end into the 
dimensions of a wine cellar, which is still in perfect 
condition, though it has contained no * rehc ' of an 
alcohohc nature for * many a long day ' ! 

These branches vary in size, from upwards of five 
feet high by five feet wide, tapering to equal dimensions 
in height and width — viz. three feet — ^when the en- 
trance to another chamber is found, formed on a similar 
principle. One of these entrances in the northern 
section was opened and the branch explored some years 
since by the writer, when a number of people interested 
in antiquarian pursuits visited the place and were 
deeply impressed, though no rehc of any description 
was found in the cave. It is said that the section run- 
ning south-east, which was explored many years 
since, suggests a formation resembUng a tradesman's 
compass — while the branch in the south-western 
direction, examined at the same time, consists of three 
chambers which are zigzag, and resemble a staircase 
laid on its side. These caves are built entirely of 
unworked field stones without mortar or other 
cement. The upper rows sUghtly project in the 
shape of an arch, and are covered by slabs or large 
stones — one of which, when measured, was found to 
be four feet square. 

The souterrain and sections were discovered in 
August 1837, when workmen were employed in lowering 
a hill on the Church road adjoining the churchyard. 
It seems that several interesting relics were found on 


the occasion, and handed to Isaac Glenny of Glenville, 
who was fond of antiquarian research. A different 
story, however, is recorded on local authority to 
the effect that a Donaghmore knave, having been 
apprised of the antiquary's visit, arrived first on the 
scene, deposited an old defaced penny in one of the 
cavities, and pretending to find it during the inspection, 
handed it to the explorer as an ancient relic some 2000 
years old, from whom he received the handsome reward 
of a half-sovereign for the precious (?) metal. The 
Donaghmore churchyard caves are for the most part 
underneath the site of a great rath, perfectly flat, 
and somewhat oblong in form, the outhnes of which 
are now very faintly visible. Souterrains have also 
been discovered in the townlands of Ballymacaratty- 
beg ^ and Cargabane in Donaghmore parish. 

The late Eev. John Elliot of Armagh, formerly 

Presbyterian minister of Donaghmore, furnished the 

following account of the cave in the former 

Fourtowns ^Q^j^iand, and exhibited a relic found on 

Souterrain. ' i ^ i 

the occasion of its discovery at the Quarterly 
Proceedings of the Koyal Society of Antiquaries on 
August 6, 1884 : 

* The Eev. John Elliot exhibited a stone bearing 
inscribed scorings, found in a subterranean chamber, 
or earth house, in a lis or rath at Donaghmore. Though 
somewhat resembling Oghams, the scores are of that 
more ancient class of scribings to the meaning of which 
as yet no clue has been found. Mr. ElHot made the 
following remarks on the subject : "A farmer in the 
^ The ' Fourtowns ' district of the parish. 


townland of Ballymacaratty, parish of Donoughmore, 
county Down, removed a lis or fort from his farm 
during the time of my residence in that parish. 
It was one of the saucer-shaped earthen forts, hollow 
in the centre and surrounded by a ring. In this ring 
was a cave formed of stones, with a deep covering of 
earth. I was present at the opening and it afforded 
no appearance of ever having been tampered with 
before. The cave was thirty-six feet long, of course 
following the same circular incUnation as the ring of 
the fort. At the end, opposite, it was 4 feet 9 inches 
wide at the bottom, and 5 feet 6 inches high at the 
larger end, and decreased to 3 feet in height. The 
dry stones of which the walls were built, were inclined 
inwards till at the top they were about 2 feet apart, 
and the covering consisted of large flat stones laid over 
these. The whole cave gradually decreased in height 
and width till a single stone closed the entrance. The 
stone which I now exhibit to the Association was one 
of the foundation stones in this cave, with the scrapings 
exactly as they are on this stone now, and as they are 
represented in the accompanying engravings." ' i 

The cave in Cargabane townland was discovered 
about thirty years ago, when it was * explored ' by a 

few persons in the district. We are in- 
SoX^Ti^ formed by one of those who inspected it on 

the occasion that the souterrain varies in 
height and width from 2 feet to 2 feet 9 inches. One 
chamber runs due north from the entrance, and an- 
other south, while the stonework is inferior to that 

E^ract from B. S. A. Journal, vol. iv. 4th Series, pp. 370-1. 


found in caves of larger dimensions. It seems a relic 
was found in this cave when discovered resembling, in 
local phraseology, * a wee crock.' It remained in the 
possession of a neighbouring farmer for many years, 
and we are informed was eventually sold to a pedlar 
who was ' collecting for a gentleman ! * 

Doubtless there are many other ' caves ' in the 
parish of which we have no record, though the names 
of certain places seem to denote their existence, viz. 
' Cave (or Cove) Field,' ' Cave Knoll ' and ' Cave Hill.' 

Port chambers and other souterrains, where no 
rath exists, are found all over Ireland. In certain dis- 
tricts they abound as compared with others 
Souterrains — ^g^ f^j. example, the district round Connor 
Description, i^^' Antrim), which is said to be * honey- 
combed with souterrains.' Souterrains are 
generally built on the same principle, though they 
vary in shape, those south of Ulster being of a more 
circular and elaborate type — ^with corbelled roof. All 
seem, however, to possess some common charac- 
teristics. The entrance and doorways between the 
several chambers are generally small and somewhat 
cunningly concealed, while there is no trace of mortar 
or design in the shape of an arch, and the stone used 
is rough and unhewn. Souterrains are always found 
underground except where there is an earthen fort, 
when they are in the mound. In Donaghmore church- 
yard, however, the rath having no mound, the 
souterrains are of course underneath the flat surface. 

[Note. — In Ireland the popular name for subter- 
ranean retreats is 'caves' or 'coves'; in Scotland, 
* weems,' but the correct designation is souterram,'] 


It should be stated that souterrains are not always 
* rath chambers/ for * in many instances there is no 
evidence to connect them with forts.' ^ The cave of 
Firm McCoull, in Glenshesk, co. Antrim, is a type of 
such souterrain. Miss E. Andrews, who has minutely 
inspected this cave, informs us that there is no 
trace of a fort as having existed or any other inequahty 
to mark the spot.^ Mr. Westropp describes a very fine 
cave (with beehive-cell roof) which Hes under the 
graveyard of Killala Cathedral — being the souterrain 
of a large rath in which the church was founded .^ 
The cave in Donaghmore graveyard is similarly placed, 
while evidently the church was also founded in a rath, 
the centre of which was the main entrance to the 

Most probably some petty chieftain resided here 
in pagan times, and on his conversion and that of his 
family and retainers to Christianity — as was quite 
usual — the ' estabhshment ' became a sort of rehgious 
community, the church being founded within the 

The best authorities inform us that souterrains 
were human abodes or safe retreats in times of danger, 
and receptacles for the storing of food 
Souterrains ^^^ Other personal property. We read in 
Holy Scripture that Saul took refuge from 
David in a cave ; that Obadiah took an hundred 
prophets during the Jezebel persecution and hid them 
by fifty in a cave — where they subsisted on the 

^ Westropp, AncierU Forts of Ireland, p. 90. 
' • Traditions of Dwarf Races in Ireland,' Tlte Antiquary, October 
* Ancient Forts of Ireland^ p. 90. 


scant fare of bread and water, and that Elijah fled 
from Jezebel and hid in a cave in Horeb. 

These were probably natural caves, which we 
know abounded in the East. We have, however, the 
following particular instances specified where caves 
as abodes of security in times of peril were made by the 
hands of man :• — * The hand of Midian prevailed against 
Israel : and because of the Midianites the children of 
Israel made them the dens which are in the mountains, 
and caves, and strong holds ' (Judges, vi. 2). A Scan- 
dinavian record (* Landnama-bok ') informs us that 
about the year 870 a celebrated Norse chief named 
Leif went on warfare in the West. * He made war in 
Ireland and there found a large underground house ; 
he went down into it, and it was dark until light shone 
from a sword in the hand of a man. Leif killed the 
man and took the sword and much property.' ^ 

Harris cites Giraldus Cambrensis (' Conquest of 
Ireland,' lib. ii. c. 21) as showing that the Irish 
also hid their corn in caves .^ In the Dindsenchas 
we are told that Finn, having found certain raiders 
hidden in a cave, ' dug them out,' only one having 
escaped — ' for there is no destruction without at least 
one fugitive,' while Cormac's * Glossary ' informs us 
that Nede pursues Caier with dogs into a fort where he 
is secreted under a flag-stone.^ 

It will naturally be asked : Who were the builders 
of our souterrains found here and elsewhere ? Such 

* Quoted by chie, Fians, Fairies and Picts, p. 28. 

2 History of Down, p. 198. 

2 See Westropp, Ancient Forts of Ireland, p. 88. 


is an interesting question, to the antiquary at least, 
and one, too, of much speculation. Several writers 
of undoubted authority inform us of a primitive dwarf 
race of people who dwelt in hollow mounds or actually 
underground, and who, it is to be inferred, were the 
constructors of their habitations. Prominent among 
this school of writers we refer to Mr. David MacRitchie 
of Edinburgh — the author of a number of learned 
treatises on the subject. In his book * Fians, Fairies 
and Picts ' (supposed to be * wee people ') he regards 
the Picts only to be historical, the Fians as legendary 
if not mythical, and the Fairies to be absolutely unreal ; 
while he considers the popular conception of these little 
folk (the Fairies) as * simply the outcome of the imagina- 
tion, working upon a basis of fact ' (p. 1). Our author 
seems to consider the Picts to have been the builders 
of the Scotch souterrains — a small people who dwelt in 
houses wholly or partly underground. This dwarfish 
race spread over the whole of Northern Europe (and 
indeed other places) and are doubtless the dwarf tribes 
referred to by Pliny as inhabiting * the vague regions 
of the North, designated Thule ' (p. 26). 

The Scottish Picts were closely allied to the Irish 
De Dananns — being of the same Scythian family. 
The Dananns were, too, short in stature, and great 
builders. In all probabiHty they built habitations 
after the fashion of their kinsmen, the Scottish Picts. 
Subsequently the Scottish Picts colonised in Ireland 
in large numbers (known here as Cruithnechs), and 
we presume they constructed their houses here after 
the pattern to which they had been accustomed. 


On the ordnance map about twenty forts, including 
sites of forts, are marked as existing in Donaghmore 
at the time of the Survey. — 1834. Most of 
Fort?'^'''^ these are still in existence, though doubt- 
less in ancient times there were many more. 
Those we can trace are generally found on hills or 
elevations, often in groups, in range, and within 
sight of each other. Several of these forts are still 
marvellously preserved and in good condition, although 
the dwellers have gone for a long time, except of 
course ' the gentry ' ! 

We have already stated that Donaghmore Church 
was founded in a rath, which, it may be added, 
embraced the present graveyard and the 
For^^*'"^ adjoining paddock and knoU^about an 
acre and a half — but the outlines are now so 
faint that it is impossible to take measurements. In 
fact the place is little more than a mere site of what 
was once a large fort. 

By far the finest in the parish is ' The Mount ' — 
a fort (mote) in Drumiller townland, which in some 
respects resembles the great rath — 
J^^^ , ' Crown Mount ' — east of Newry, in minia- 
ture. This handsome structure was in all 
probabihty one of the residences of the King of Magh 
Cobha on the southern confines of his territory, another 
being at Dromore, the northern boundary of his ' do- 
minions.' The dimensions of this magnificent fort are : 
' The Mount ' (inside the rampart) is sixty feet in height 
(measuring the slope) ; the diameter on top is about 
sixty feet ; the fosse is twelve feet inside ; the ram- 
part is forty-two feet in height on the fosse side ; 


the outside slope on south is sixty-one feet ; the cir- 
cumference of the great rampart (measuring along the 
top) is 600 feet. ' The Mount ' forms a promontory 
on the south side, jutting into the Clanrye River — 
which flows around it on the east, south and west- — 
some yards distant. 

On the north the hill rises in equal proportion to 
that of the rampart, but evidently the south side was 
intended to be more defensive, overlooking (across the 
river) a territory other than that of Magh Cobha. 

The next rath in importance is that in Dromantine 
demesne — called * Cooley's Fort.' This is an im- 
mense fort, and still quite perfect con- 
Fort'^^^ sidering its age and so forth. It has two 
ramparts or rings, and there are some traces 
of a third. The diameter of the outer rampart is 
seventy-three yards, while that of the inner ring 
is forty-five yards. The fosse or ditch is about 
twelve feet wide and nearly fifteen feet in depth. 
No mound exists within the inner rampart. 

There was formerly a very large rath at Frankfort, 
but most of it is now defaced and used for agricultural 
Bv hi purposes. About seventy yards of the 

rampart is still standing, and the same 
length of the fosse, the breadth of which cannot be 
obtained as the ground falls away for a distance of 
some twenty yards, where there is a faint outline of 
a second rampart. The portion of the rampart in 
existence is close on six yards in height (measuring 
the slope). 1 

* Cunningham's Fort,' in Aughentobber townland, 

* These measurements and those that follow are approximate. 


is a neat little rath covering half an acre, and used 
* Cunning- ^^^ Cropping. It is quite flat in centre, 
ham's and has one rampart. The diameter is 

Fort.' seventy-six yards, while the rampart on 

the west side is about four yards in height. 

A small portion of ' Smith's Fort ' still remains in 

Derrycraw townland ; but, unfortunately, 

Fo^^ ^ scarcely enough for measurements. This 

fort was about sixty yards in diameter with 

one rampart and fosse, a portion of which remains on 

the western side. 

* Thompson's Fort ' in Ballymacrattybeg is a 
small rath in a fairly good state of preservation. 
*Thomp- Diameter, forty-three yards ; one rampart, 
son's inside, two yards in height, outside, five 
Fort. yards, where not effaced. The garth is 
cultivated, but the ' fairy bush ' still stands. 

* Goodman's Fort * in Eingohsh is a fine Httle 

rath. Diameter, about thirty-six yards ; 

Fort ' ^^^ ^ western portion of rampart six yards in 
height ; fosse four feet wide on west, but 

more or less obliterated on east. 

Annaghbane Fort is in a fairly good state of pre- 
servation, and contains one half-rood — 

ForT^^^*""^ cultivated. Diameter, forty-two yards ; 
rampart, inside, twelve feet high, outside six 

feet. The fosse is two yards wide and contains water. 
In Ardkeeragh townland, bordering Annaghbane, 

we find a large oval fort forty-six yards by thirty-six. 
The great thick rampart, in which are 

lorl!'^'*^^ two ' gaps,' is ten feet high. Evidently 
there was a fosse, but the ground is now 

cultivated up to the rampart. 


About eighty yards distant stands another (small) 
oblong fort, measuring thirty-five yards by twenty, 
Ardkeeragh "^^^^ rampart twelve feet high, and small 
* Bawn ' fosse. This was doubtless the hawn or * cow- 
Fort, keep ' in connection with the large oval 
fort. 'At a httle distance from the dwelling it was 
usual to enclose an area with a strong rampart, 
into which the cattle were driven for safety 
by night. This was what was called a hadhun 
(bawn), i.e. " cow-keep " — ^from ha, pi. of bo, a cow, 
and dun,' ^ 

* Kidd's Fort ' in Ringbane is a nice httle rath and 
well preserved. It has two ramparts, with deep fosse 
between, the width of which is much 
Fort ^ ^ greater than that of most forts of its size. 
The diameter of inner rampart is forty-four 
yards. The fosse is about twelve feet wide ; and on 
the east side the ramparts are some fifteen feet in 
height. The fosse was formerly planted with a double 
row of trees, of which few remain, and ' more is the 
pity ' ; otherwise it would have made a good circular 
' carriage- drive ' on a hot day ! 

There are several types of forts to be found in 
Ireland, and elsewhere — e.g. in England, Wales, 
Scotland and the Continent. The simplest 
^ g are those which we find in the parish 

of Donaghmore, consisting of a cir- 
cular or oval mound, with fosse or ditch, and 
rampart. Variants of this type have a number 
of ramparts up to seven, but two are the most 
found here. Among the various types of forts 
mentioned by Westropp are the walled island or 
' Joyce, Social History, vol. ii. p. 62. 



stone crannoge, the rock-fort, the rectangular or 
straight-walled type, the promontory fort, the mote, 
and so on.^ 

* Crown Mount ' or ' Crown Eath ' (Parish of Newry) 

is a fine specimen of the mote. It mea- 
jj °^, sures 579 feet round the base, and across 

the top sixty-three by twenty-seven feet, 
while the fosse is twenty-one feet in width, and the 
annexe 130 feet square. 

The number of forts found in Ireland is said to be 
about 30,000 — 4,283 being in Ulster ; but, of course, 

these figures furnish us with a very faint 
Num er o conception of the number that existed in 

ancient times, when the country was studded 
over with raths, most of them being now obliterated 
by cultivation. 

The names generally appHed to these structures 
are lis, rath, dun, and caihair — which was built of 
Names stones. Some writers are of opinion that 

applied to originally the rampart of the fort was 
Forts. called the rath, while lis was applied to 

the enclosure, though at present these terms are 

Forts were the fortified residences of the principal 
Uses of families and their retainers in ancient 
Forts— times when society was insecure, the ram- 
Residential. pg^j,j. g^^^ iosso being for defence in case of 

The house of the chief or lord {flath) was within 
the rath and built of wood or wicker-work. Several 
other houses were also within the enclosure for members 

^ Ancient Forts of Ireland, pp. 5, 6. 


of his family and retainers — built of the same material 
as that of the lord — all being thatched with straw or 
fern. * We have distinct statements in our ancient 
records that different members of the family had 
distinct houses (and not apartments) within the same 
rathj dun, lis, or cathair ; that the lord or master had a 
sleeping-house, his wife a sleeping-house, his sons and 
daughters, if he had such, separate sleeping-houses, 
and so on, besides places of reception for strangers 
and visitors.* ^ 

There was also the grianan, or summer-house, for 
the women, and frequently one for the lord 
ho^^'^' himself ; but all these houses and apart- 
ments were only found in connection with 
large forts or duns. 

A dun consisting of two ramparts, with a fosse for 
water, is said to be the residence of a King or Righ ; for 
Dun— resi- ^^ ^as laid down, by the ancient Irish laws, 
dence of a that * he is not a King who has not a Dun, 
^^- and it is not a Dun without a King.* A 

King was supposed to possess three such residences 
as seats, otherwise he was considered a pauper. 
* Every King is a pauper who hath not three chief resi- 
dences ; a King is to have, i.e. three houses or three 
duns.' ^ It should be stated, however, as a matter of 
fact, that others besides kings possessed duns, and that 
many old authorities applied the terms rath, lis, and 
dun to a fort of any description. The ancient law 
strictly defined a dun thus : ' Dun, i.e. two walls with 

* O' Curry, Manners and Customs, vol. iii. p. 70. 
^ See Introduction, O'Curry, Manners and Cuatmns, p. 


water,' and of course any person who could afford 
such a dwelling was at liberty to have it, though 
doubtless it would not be a true dun. 

If we are to believe some old Irish tales, not a few of 
these ancient residences were very magnificent abodes, 
but doubtless the magnificence only existed in the 
fertile imagination of the writers. O'Curry refers to a 
very ancient tale in the * Leabhar na h-Uidhre,' which 
set forth the magnificence of a great house (a dun) 
supposed to be at Dundrum, County Down, owned by 
a famous satirist, not inappropriately, as we shall 
see, called * Bricrind of the Poisoned Tongue,' who 
flourished in the beginning of the first century, and 
from whom, we are informed, Loch-Brier en, now called 
Loughbrickland, received its name.i According to the 
tale, ' Bricrind of the Poisoned Tongue had a great 
feast for Conchobar Mac Nessa (King of Ulster) and for 
all the Ultonians. A full year was he preparing the 
feast. There was built by him, in the meantime, a 
magnificent house in which to serve up the feast. This 
house was built by Bricrind at Dun-Kudhraidhe 
(Dundrum), in likeness to (the house of) the Eoyal 
Branch at Emain-Macha, except alone that his house 
excelled in material and art, in beauty and gracefulness, 
in pillars and facings, emblazonment and brilliancy, 
in extent and variety, in porticoes and in doors, all the 
houses of its time.' The house, we are informed, was 
built on the plan of the great banqueting house of 
Tara ; it contained nine couches from the fire to the 
wall ; each had a gold- gilt bronze front, thirty feet in 

^ * Bricren's Fort ' (his residence) still remains in the townland 
of Brickland (called after him), close to Loughbrickland lake. 


height. Above all the others was a ' idngty couch * 
built for King Conchobar in * the front part of that 
Kingly house . . . inlaid with carbuncles and other 
briUiants besides, and emblazoned with gold and silver 
and carbuncles, and the finest colours of all countries ; 
so that day and night were the same in it,' &c. This 
magnificent dun, however, well-nigh came to grief, as 
we shall see. The great house having been built and 
furnished and the princely feast prepared, Bricrind 
invited King Conchobar and the nobles of Ulster and 
their wives to partake of his repast — not, however, as 
we are told, * out of gratitude or hospitaUty but simply 
to gratify his mere love of mischief, and to work up a 
serious quarrel, if possible, by exciting such a spirit of 
envy and jealousy among the ladies, as would draw 
their husbands into war with one another.' Bricrind 
proceeded to Emain-Macha (the King's palace at 
Armagh), where the Ultonians were holding a fair, and, 
being well received, sitting at * Conchobar's shoulder,* 
he thus addressed him : * Come with me to accept 
a banquet with me.' * I am well pleased,' said the 
King, ' if the Ultonians are pleased ' — Conchobar 
doubtless wishing to purchase silence from the ' Poi- 
soned Tongue ! ' Fergus MacKoigh and the nobles 
of Ulster, however, answered : * We will not go, 
because our dead would be more numerous than our 
Uving after we should be set at variance by Bricrind ' ; 
to which the latter replied : ' That will be worse for ye 
then, indeed, which I shall do to ye if ye do not come 
with me.' Fearing the satirist, the invitation was 
finally accepted ; but, as a precaution, it was advised 
' to exact securities from him (Bricrind) ; and place 


eight swordsmen around him for the purpose of 
conveying him out of the house when he has shewn 
them the feast.' Bricrind gladly accepted the condi- 
tions. The whole party went forth from Emain-Macha 
(via Donaghmore, of course- — the direct route !) for 
Dundrum, and on the way thither Bricrind commenced 
his operations, which proved eminently successful ! 
Apart, and separately, he addressed the wives of the 
kings an4 chiefs with much the same flattering words, 
impressing each with the fact that she alone was the 
most beautiful, the greatest favourite, and the highest 
in rank and precedence* — though as regards two great 
dames in particular, if he extolled the one as the 
fairest of the daughters of Erin, he lavished doubly 
his plaudits on the other' — like the fair Helen 
of old, 

* She moves a goddess and she looks a queen.' 

Thus he addressed 'the Ever-blooming Fedelm ' : 'Well 
done this night, thou wife of Laeghaire Buadhach ; 
it is no nickname to call thee Fedelm (the ever-bloom- 
ing), because of the excellence of thy shape, and because 
of thy intelligence, and because of thy family. Con- 
chobar, the King of the chief province of Erinn, is thy 
father, and Laeghaire Buadhach thy husband. Now 
I would not think it too much for thee that none of 
the women of Ulster should come before thee into the 
banqueting house : but that it should be after thy heels 
that the whole band of the women of Ulster should 
come, (and I say to thee that) if it be thou that shalt 
be first to enter the house this night, thou shalt be 
queen over all the women of Ulster.' 


Bricrind next addressed Lendabair, daughter of the 
King of Farney, and wife of Conall Cearnach (the great 
champion), thus : * Well done, Lendabair, it is no 
nickname to call thee Lendabair (the favourite), 
because thou art the beloved and desired of the men 
of the whole world for the splendour and lustre (of 
thy beauty). As far as thy husband excels the warriors 
of the world in beauty and valour, thou excellest the 
women of Ulster.* It is to be feared this eulogy put 
the * ever-blooming Fedelm ' in the shade ! And so on 
in regard to the other dames of Ulster. The result 
was disastrous, and King Conchobar's foreboding — 
* This will be an evil night '• — proved only too true. 
Each chief was determined that his wife should be 
first to enter the house, with the result that there 
was a terrible melee and the poor dun badly damaged. 
The doors had to be closed, but so determined were 
these warriors (we are told) that they rushed suddenly 
at the wooden wall of the house, and knocking a 
plank out of it, brought in their wives, while another 
raised up a portion of the house * so that the stars of 
heaven were visible from beneath the wall ! ' Bri- 
crind's grianan (summer-house) was laid prostrate on 
the ground, while he and ' his wife were cast into the 
mire, among the dogs ! ' Bricrind requested the 
Ultonians to restore his house to its original position, 
it being inclined to one side. The Ulster champions 
tried their hands to restore its balance, but in vain. 
At length, however, the vahant Cuchulainn, we are 
told, by his own strength alone, restored the house to 
its perpendicular.! 

^ Manners and Customs, vol, iii. pp. 17-21. 


But to return to our subject, besides their main use as 
fortified residences, forts were used for other purposes. 

Much evidence is furnished by authorities 
Cemeteries ^^ showing that they were anciently used as 

cemeteries. Indeed, ' Burial in one's fort or 
house was an ancient and widespread custom.' Old 
documents record the burial of King Eremon in the 
fort of Tara, of Crimthan in his fort at Howth, and that 
the remains of 10,000 soldiers were interred in the rath 
of Cnamross — ^while the body of King Laegaire was 
* interred with his arms of valour, in the south-east of 
the external rampart of the Eath Laegaire at Temur 
(Tara).' ^ Eelics found in forts and their souterrains 
also point to their use as cemeteries. About seventeen 
Ogham inscriptions have been discovered in souterrains. 
One of these was recently found on the roofing stones 
of a cave at Carnacomb near Connor, the readings sup- 
posed to be ' Caig, son of Fobrach.' Close to a souter- 
rain, near Larne, we have the graves of two giants, the 
larger of which is thirty-two feet long, both graves 
doubtless having been within the enclosures of an 
ancient rath.^ An urn was found in the ' Dane's 
Mound ' (a mote) at Waringstown, when explored 
in 1684, while human skeletons and other traces 
of burial have been discovered in many of our 

Forts for the most part ceased to be used as ceme- 
teries after the introduction of Christianity, when it 

* See Westropp, Ancient Forts, p. 64, and Joyce, Social History, 
vol. ii., p. 551. 
^ Mrs. Hobson, Ulster Souterrains. 


became customary to set apart and consecrate burial 
places other than pagan. 

Funeral games, ParHaments, horse-racing, and 
Forts as ^^^^^ (^^ ^® ^^^® Seen) were held at forts in 
Places of ancient times — ^while they were, too, a 
Assembly, convenient centre for marriage and its 

Several large forts formed the centre of the great 
fair of Tailltenn (Telltown). This fair, it seems, 

which was the most famous of Irish aenachs 
T*'Ute ^^^ ^^^ sports, and lasted for three days, was 

attended by vast numbers of people from all 
parts of Ireland, and even Scotland. According to the 
Four Masters the last * official aenach * of Tailltenn was 
held A.D. 1169, when it is said that, apart from those 
on foot, the horses and chariots alone extended a 
distance of several miles. 

Joyce informs us that marriage was a special feature 
of this aenach. * From all the surrounding districts the 

young people came with their parents, 
Fortr— a bachelors and maidens being kept apart in 
Centre. Separate places, while the fathers and 

mothers made matches, arranged details and 
settled the dowries. After this the couples were 
married, the ceremonies being always performed at 
a particular spot.' ^ The same authority informs us 
that, according to Cormac's * Glossary,' a hillock there 
had the name of * the hill of buying,' now called the 
* marriage hollow.' ^ 

* History of Ireland, p. 90. 

2 Social History, vol. ii. p. 439. 


In Christian times certain forts became, in a sense, 

* religious establishments ' — the Eigh of such, having 

become a convert to Christianity, placed 

Religious himself and his community under the pro- 
Uses of . , • J. ,1 • • • -i 

Forts. tection of the missionary, i.e. as it was 

termed, * under his bell,' though * the 
character and organisation of the pohtical body ' 
were still preserved. 

* When a chief gave his Fort to an early missionary, 
the latter probably did nothing to alter the structure of 
the estabhshment. The monastery was organised on 
tribal hnes ; the great hall became a church ; rehgious 
observances took the place of festivity ; the huts of the 
retainers outside the Fort were filled with Catechumens, 
but, in other respects, the rude and simple life of the 
community probably differed little from that of their 
predecessors.' ^ 

In regard to the age of forts, it may be stated in 
general terms that their construction in all probability 
continued from a.m. 3,000 till the four- 
ge o or s. ^ggj^^j^ Qj. fifteenth century of the Christian 
era. Like our modern houses, while there was a contin- 
uous building, there was also a constant rebuilding ; and 
it should be noticed in this connection, that in the settle- 
ment of dates some writers have confused the latter 
with the former, and hence have arrived at conclusions 
which are unfavourable to the great antiquity of many 
of our forts. In this matter, as in many others in 
regard to ancient Ireland, no doubt myth and legend 
abound ; but, underlying all, there is doubtless a 
substratum of truth. 

* Westropp, Ancient Forts, p. 62. 


0*Curry informs us that, * according to all our old 
accounts/ the Eoyal Fort of Tara (in co. Meath) 
was first founded by the Firbolgs who 
STj^g^s""^ colonised Ireland a.m. 3246. Tara pos- 
sessed a whole group of forts, but doubtless 
some of these were constructed in more recent times 
—e.g. King Laegaire made a rath at Tara in the fifth 
century. The ancient city of Tara, once considered 
the capital of Ireland, was the residence of its supreme 
kings from time immemorial up till the sixth century. 
We may form some idea of its magnificence from an 
ancient poem in Trinity College, Dublin, which thus 
refers to this * Rath of the Kings ' at Temur (Tara) : 

' Seven duns in the Dun of Temur 
Seven score houses in each dun — 
Seven hundred warriors in each brave dun.' > 

Next to Tara in importance and historical associa- 
tions was the palace of Emain-Macha, or — in its 

Latinised form^Emania, close to the city 
Macha Rath ^^ Armagh, the residence of the Kings 

of Ulster for six hundred years. We 
are told that, ' according to the most ancient 
written Irish traditions,* this celebrated palace was 
founded three or four centuries before the Christian 
era. It was destroyed by the three Collas, a.d. 332 
(according to some authorities a.d. 321), and all that 
now remains of this famous palace consists of ' a great 
mound surrounded by an immense circular rampart 
and fosse, half obliterated, the whole structure cover- 
ing about eleven EngUsh acres.' ^ 

* See O'Curry, Manners and Customs, vol. iii. p. 8. 
' See Joyce, Social History, vol. ii. pp. 89, 90. 


The next great fort of historical interest and anti- 
quity was probably that of Aileach (co. Donegal), a 

cathair, with its four or five ramparts- — 
Aileach described in an old poem as * the senior of 

the buildings of Erinn,' which is said to 
have been constructed by one of the Tuatha De 
Danann kings (Dagda Mor) around the sepulchre of 
his son, circa B.C. 1700. This date, however, apphes 
only to the first building, there having been a 
much more recent erection; and besides there are 
records, we are told, which imply at least two 
rebuildings. * Grianan Aileach was destroyed by 
Finnsneachta, son of Donchad, King of Erin, a.d. 674, 
and demolished by the Danes in a.d. 937, and again by 
Murchad O'Brien in a.d. 1101.' i 

Doubtless most of our forts were erected by the 
Firbolgs, the Tuatha De Da nanus, and the Milesians, 

who conquered the Dananns, a.m. 3500, 
g°^, and possessed Ireland for a period of 

2,885 years. The Dananns are frequently 

confounded with the Danes of mediaeval times owing 

to the similarity of sound in the names, and hence 

we hear of * Danish forts ' by those unversed in such 

matters, though doubtless the latter built and repaired 

some of our forts. 

We are told that King Brian at the close of the 

tenth and dawn of the eleventh century strengthened 

the duns and the royal forts of Munster, that he built 

Cashel and Island forts at Lough Gur and elsewhere,^ 

while it is recorded that in a.d. 1242 Donagh 

Cairbreach O'Brian constructed raths. 

* Westropp, Ancient Forts, p. 61. 
' Ibid. p. 64. 


It was only gradually that our forts became deserted 
by their destruction or otherwise. Tara fell in the 

sixth century, and Aileach was deserted 
of Forts^ ^^ *^^ tenth, but of course these forts 

were occupied up till these periods. 
We have, however, much more modern instances 
of occupation recorded. In 1317 we are told that 
* Donachad O'Brien before the battle of Corcomroe 
(co. Clare) summoned to his army all the men 
living in * ooams ' (caves) — such being of course rath 
chambers. In the ' primitive district of the Burren 
(co. Clare) the forts of Bally ganner and Caheran- 
ardurrish were inhabited, at any rate, till 1840, and 
the Caher of BalUny, not far away, is inhabited 
and Hkely to continue so even in the twentieth 
century.' ^ 

After the desertion of the forts for more civihsed 
abodes, it is interesting to note the names applied to 

the forsaken dwellings by the inhabitants — 
Fort Names ^ames in Irish appHcable to the new uses. 
Desertion. Westropp refers to a number of these, 

among them : Lisndbo, a lis for domestic 
animals ; Lissacurkia, where the garth was cultivated ; 
Lisnacroghera, when the gallows was erected on 
its height ; Lisnagor'p, when used as a burial-place. 
' In some cases, in its utter loneUness, people 
fancied that it had become the haunt of evil spirits ; 
the "corpse candle" was seen in its fosse, and it 
was named Lisnagunniel ; the ghost and phuca cried 
in its desolate houses, and the shuddering peasantry 
called it Lisananima, Lissaphuca, Caperaphuca, or 

^ Westropp, A-ncient ForU, p. 51. 


Lisheenvicknaheeha, '* the little fort of the son of 
the night." *i 

Much superstition has existed in connection with our 
forts and souterrains in bygone days, and even yet 
^ . . , lingerins traces are to be found among 

Origin of ^, '^^ • •, 1 Ti/r r 

Fairy Super- those who recogmse it as such. Much 
stitions in of this Superstition had doubtless its origin 
^^-'^b^F ^^° in the dispersion of the De Dananns who, 
it seems, after having been defeated 
by the Milesians in two great battles, held a secret 
conclave, and arranged that their chiefs and others 
who survived should henceforth take up their abodes 
in the ' elf -mounds ' and other secret haunts in 
' pleasant hills,' where we are told they built them- 
selves * glorious palaces all ablaze with light and 
glittering with gems of gold.' Joyce refers to a 
different account contained in an old tale of the 
eighth or ninth century (in the ' Book of Leinster') 
which recounts that after two decisive battles, a 
Milesian brehon was appointed to divide Erin 
between his own people (the Milesians) and the 
Dananns, ' and he gave the part of Erin that was 
underground to the (spiritual) De Dananns, and the 
other part to his own corporeal people, the sons of 
Miled ; after which the De Dananns went into the hills 
and fairy palaces,' and, we are told, became gods.^ 
Being deified they became objects of worship, were 
supposed to possess supernatural powers, and as 
their habitations were in the side (shee) i.e., in ' pleasant 
hills,' a male fairy was called a fer-side (fer, a man), 

^ Westropp, Ancient Forts, p. 14. 
^ Social History, vol. i. p. 252. 


while a female fairy was designated a hen-side or Ba7i 
Shee — a woman from the fairy -hills.' ^ 

The Dananns were a Ught, gay, and joyous race — 
elements in their character which, it is said, the Irish 
of to-day have largely inherited. They were much 
learned in the arts of necromancy and enchantment, 
and consequently became famous as experts in sorcery, 
charms, and the * black art.' Hence the superstitious, 
in after ages, imagined that they still haunted the 
raths and souterrains as fairies or * wee people,' and 
were ever ready to visit with condign punishment any 
who interfered with their abodes. 

The Dananns, however, were not the first to become 

* earth-gods ' and receive divine honours in Erin, nor 
TV were they the last ' spiritual ' beings. We 

Dananns ^ r o 

and other are told that there was a much older race 

* Earth- of ' earth-gods ' in Ireland with whom the 
8<^*- Dananns eventually became confounded — 
while, again, not a few of the Milesian chiefs, hke 
their predecessors — the Dananns — were in turn 

* deified ' and became fairies.^ 

The fairies were supposed to be gentle folk, and not 

at all evilly disposed or mahcious, unless they or their 

abodes were attacked or disturbed, when 

d*^"ibed *^®^^ wrath was kindled and dire vengeance 

meted out to the culprit. 

Shakespeare (' Merry Wives of Windsor ') marks 

their colour and nightly carousals thus : 

• Fairies, black, grey, green, and white, 
Moonshine revellers, and shades of night.' 

1 Social History, vol. i. p. 262. - Ibid. pp. 263, 261. 



Dodsley gives us minute information in regard to 
their size, tint of cap, and diversion : 

' Fairies small, two feet tall, 
With cap red on their head, 
Dance around on the ground.' 

In Ireland fairies are generally supposed to wear 
red clothing, but we are credibly informed that in 
County Antrim they dress in green, though they are 
said to have red or sandy hair — but perhaps these 
* wee people ' are of Scotch descent, and adopt the 
fairy dress (green) of their kinsfolk — while the * sandy 
hair ' seems indigenous to all Scots — ^whether 
' corporeal ' or * spiritual ' ! 

Not a few lady fairies (Banshees) had magnificent 
palaces in the ' fairy-hills ' where they became famous 
as * fairy queens,' ruling in state and with 
Q^ a high hand the ordinary fairies ; such 

notably, we read, were Banshee Aine, who 
had the temerity to cut * clean off ' a king's ear, 
Banshee Clidne, the potent queen of all the fairies in 
South Munster, and the beautiful (as the name 
signifies) Banshee Aibell, who ruled her race in the 
northern portion of the same province.^ 

The modern banshee no longer reigns as a queen, 
though she still possesses some grand notions ; for she 
never condescends to visit ordinary mortals, 
but only associates herself with the great 
houses where she presides as a sort of domestic 
spirit, taking a deep interest in family welfare and 
intimating disaster or death by her sad keening or 
wailing cries. 

* See Joyce, Social History, vol. i. pp. 262, 263. 


We are informed on good authority that we have 
one such lady in Donaghmore parish whose mournful 
keen was heard some years since, and we fondly hope 
it will not be again heard for a long time ! 

Fairies have not been seen in the parish for some 
years, but it seems there are still a number of these 
* gentry ' about ; at least we must so conclude 
FaS^'''^ since many of us fear disaster or death if 
we demohsh a rath, cut down a ' fairy 
bush,' or in any way interfere with a * fairy well.' 
Some foolhardy person tampered with the * fairy 
well ' in the ' glebe lawn ' many years ago, when 
it dried up, and never a drop of water since ! What 
dire disaster happened to the criminal we are not 
informed. In the same grounds still remains the 
* fairy bush,' and long may it flourish ! 

If all we hear be true, frightful catastrophes have 
happened in Donaghmore in past times, owing to fort- 
razing operations — a science in which many 
C tSt h 3 ^^ ^^® ^^^ inhabitants were experts. We 
are told that in several instances these 
operations had to be stopped, owing to the * pains 
and penalties ' inflicted on the workmen or their 
masters — hence it is that so many of our forts 
are only half obliterated ! As an instance — one fort 
in the parish was totally demohshed a great many 
years since, but the penalty exacted by the fairies was 
dreadful — cattle died, there being a ' very grievous 
murrain,' people lost their lives, and others became 
cripples or went mad, while one poor man took 
' information (inflammation) of the head ' and died 
in three days ! 

L 2 


They seem to have been a merry lot, these Donagh- 
more fairies in the olden times, notwithstanding their 

vengeful spirit. On certain state occasions 
J"^^ al ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ carousal in the raths, 

danced, fiddled, sang, and laughed con- 
vulsively, and, it is said, even made and drank 
foteen ! 

We regret to record, however, that some of * the 
gentry ' (as they were frequently called here) had not 

the best of manners. One poor old woman 
airy (long deceased) was occasionally obliged 

to pass close to a rath, when the fairies 
* lined the ring — laughin' and jeerin' ' at her. 
Such behaviour certainly seemed very reprehensible 
and unpardonable in this particular case, since 
the inoffensive creature had been excessively kind 
to these same * wee people ' — in having frequently 
gone to the fort, when they were asleep, and left them 
little shirts, children's socks and some of the * native ' ! 
Of course it may have been a case of * mistaken 
identity ' on the part of ' the gentry,' or possibly the 
woman's forebears had been ' fort razers ' ! 

We think it cannot be too widely known that in 
case of attack on the person by Irish fairies the very 

best thing to do is to immediately change 

the 'Fairy- oi^^'s coat or other outer garment; or better 

struck ' still, as a preventive, never partake of fairy 

*^^ food ; otherwise, one is subject to * fairy 

Preventives. , , , , t i> 

power for seven long years ! In case of 

actual personal injuries by fairies an infallible cure is 

assured us in an old Irish treatise on Materia Medica — 

cited by Joyce — though we regret in copying the 


' perscription ' he has omitted the ingredients. A 
translation of the treatise by the late Dr. O'Longan is, 
however, in the Royal Irish Academy, where we are 
sure all * fairy-struck * sufferers may freely consult 
this important medical work ! This authority pre- 
. . scribes twenty-five herbs to be taken : 
* * while pulling' them certain prayers are to 
be said. Boil them in the water of a spring well (not 
the water from a running stream). Be careful not 
to let a drop of the mixture fall, and not to put it 
on the ground, till the patient has drunk it alV ^ 

It is said prevention is better than cure ; hence it is 

well to know some of the Scotch preventives, which are 

considered very effective against fairy power 

Fa°rit. —^^ ^®^^* ^^ *^® Highlands. The Highland 
and other Scotch fairies generally dress in 
green, which seems the national colour. They are 
said to be an industrious race, hirmg themselves 
out as ordinary servants and pursuing many 
other calUngs. They are good tradesmen, and are 
quite willing to impart their skill to mankind. Their 
principal pastime is music and dancing, accomphsh- 
ments in which they are said to excel even the mortal 
Scot, who, in imitation, has invented the * Elfin Waltz ' ; 
but it is a very poor performance in comparison to the 
first fairy edition, when executed by the elves them- 
selves to the sweet strains of their favourite instru- 
ment — the bagpipe ! The Scotch fairies are very 
powerful both for good and evil. They are great 
borrowers, while their thieving propensities are 
abnormal. Oatmeal, beautiful babes, and other 
* Social History, vol. i. p. 624. 


* commodities ' are never safe if a fairy is about — 
even the very horses in the fields at night are ridden 
to death by these same ' wee people.' 

The Highlanders seem, however, well able to cope 
with these little rascals by a few simple expedients, 
one or other of which might be well worth 
Preventives ^^^^^ ^^ *^® Emerald Isle by those in 
against * mortal terror ' of the Irish ' gentry.' If 

A*"^t ^ little oatmeal be carried in the pocket 

and dusted over one's clothing, no fairy 
will venture near. Cold iron, too, in any shape 
or form is a powerful preventive. ' Touch 
cauld iron,' the Scot tells us, and the fairies fly 
for their lives. It seems Scotch robber-fairies fre- 
quently travel on their journeys in * wind eddy ' 
chariots ; but one has only to throw his left shoe at the 
coach, and instantly the booty is dropped, whether it 
be a tradesman's compass, a sack of the Scotch favourite 
oatmeal, or a handsome Highland baby ! A Scotsman 
is never safe in the presence of * fairy women,' but if 
he carry about him a pearl wort plant there is no danger. 
On certain occasions, it is said, holly is a sure pre- 
ventive, especially for houses ; and we would venture 
to suggest, where personal attack is feared, that a 
hollyhock worn as a button-hole would have the 
effect of scaring away even a fairy host ! 

It is interesting to note that portion of * The Great 
Wall of Ulidia,' commonly known as the ' Dane's Cast ' 

* The Great ^^^ ^^^o as the * Glen of the Black Pig,' 
Wall of and said to be the most remarkable early 
Uhdia.' earthwork in Ireland, runs through the 
western extremity of the parish of Donaghmore, 


almost in a parallel line with the Newry Canal. 
This great rampart, according to some of our best 
authorities, extends from Lisnagade, near Scarva, 
to Sheve Gullion mountain in the County of Armagh' — 
a distance of about twenty miles. It 
* wSi; ° enters Donaghmore parish from that of 
Aghaderg at Killysavan townland, close 
to Poyntzpass. Between Killysavan and Droman- 
tine, where there was formerly a lake, the ' Cast * 
ceases, but it can be traced at the * Cracked 
Bridge ' in the latter townland. It is again traced at 
Knockanarney Hill, where about forty yards of the 
west rampart are distinctly visible. From thence 
it passes through the townlands of Carrickavaddy 
(near Jerretspass), Lurganare, and Drumiller (east 
of Goraghwood) — where it passes out of the parish of 
Donaghmore into the County of Armagh — when it 
runs through the old parish of Killeavy, and after- 
wards into County Louth — in the direction of Drogheda. 
At Scarva this wall (according to Westropp) * con- 
sists of two mounds, forty feet apart, with fosses 
eight feet wide and six feet deep ; the mounds, 
four feet above the fields, and measuring fifty-four 
feet over all.' ^ The * Cast ' at other places has 
a ditch or fosse eighteen feet wide and eight feet 
deep, but doubtless originally the depth was much 

Proper Some authorities inform us that the 

Designation proper designation of this huge rampart 
of WaU. ig * The Great Wall of Uhdia.' 

It was and is still called by many the * Glen of the 
' Ancient Forte, p. 138. 


Black Pig '■ — this designation having arisen, it seems, 
from the following tradition. In far-away times 

many people were supposed to be skilled 
of the Black ^^ *^® ' Black Art,' whereby they worked 
Pig '—Origin enchantments of various kinds. A certain 
of the Name schoolmaster at Drogheda, for example, 
Cast^' ^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ adept in the art that by his 

magical powers he was able to convert his 
pupils into pigs. This he did one day during ' play- 
time,' and, it seems, for mere devilment, when a 
mighty huntsman, bearing the fine name of O'Neill, 
came along' — who, to the utter astonishment and 
dismay of the schoolmaster, set his hounds on the 
playful and jolly little pig pupils, who instantly 

* flew like mad ' in all directions, rooting and 
throwing up entrenchments of earth with their 
little snouts. A black contingent ran north in the 
direction of Scarva (probably on July 13 !) passing en 
route through Killeavy and Donaghmore^ — tearing up in 
their careering frenzy the ground all along the journey 
at a most terrific rate, and mirabile dictu, the result of 
their gigantic efforts was ' The Glen of the Black Pig ' ! 
It was a most fortunate circumstance that it did not 
occur to the pedagogue to * ring ' his httle pigs, other- 
wise we would never have had this great rampart ; 
but probably, if it did enter his mind, he considered it 
rather cruel to do so, as it certainly was on the part of 
Huntsman O'Neill to set his hounds on them. 

This great earthwork is popularly known as the 

* Dane's Cast,' but this is an absolute misnomer, as 
the Danes had nothing to do with it, it having been 
built long before their incursions. It was, it seems, the 


settlers under the Ulster Plantation who first called it 
the Dane's Cast — knowing Httle about the history of 
Ulster, and hearing of the Danes as mighty warriors 
and builders, they imagined this great wall must have 
been their handiwork. 

The various writers on the ' Great Wall of Ulidia ' 
do not always seem in complete accord, especially as 
Origin and regards its origin and use, but doubtless 
Use of one of our best authorities is Canon Lett, 

♦ Wall. M.A., M.K.I.A. (whose views we have given), 
whose able and interesting article on the subject in the 

* Ulster Journal of Archaeology ' has the imprimatur of 
a writer of such weight as Westropp, who speaks of it 
as * the only detailed and careful description ' of the 
rampart, while O'Curry, Bishop Reeves, and other 
eminent authorities are in accord. 

The origin of the * Wall ' according to these 
authorities was as follows. About the year a.d. 832, 
when Muredach was the Ard-Righ or Chief King of 
Ireland, the Ultonians (whose king's residence was in 
the great earthen fort called Navan, a mile and a half 
west of Armagh) gave trouble. Whereupon Muredach 
led a force to chastise them, the fight that ensued lasted 
for a whole week, the Ultonians were routed and driven 
from their district, and their king's residence of Navan 
where their kings had reigned for 700 years — from b.o. 
452 to A.D. 332 — ^was burned, plundered, and destroyed. 
The Ultonians were thenceforward confined to a 
district now represented by the counties of Antrim 
and Down ; Antrim was sufficiently protected on its 
west by the River Bann and Lough Neagh, and to make 
themselves doubly secure they formed the earthen 


wall or trench known as the ' Dane's Cast/ which runs 
from Lisnagade to near Meigh. It is quite evident 
from the He of this great earthwork that its makers 
lived to the east of it. The Ultonians flourished in their 
reduced territory till a.d. 637, when they were crushed 
and their leaders slain in the battle of Magh Kath, or 
Moira, in the County Down. 

A different account of the Dane's Cast — especially 
in regard to its origin and dimensions — ^is afforded us 
by other excellent authorities, particularly Mr. de 
Vismes Kane, M.A., M.E.I.A., in his article entitled 
* The Black Pig's Dyke : The Ancient Boundary 
Fortification of Uladh.' i 

Mr. Kane contends that this entrenchment was 
constructed to mark the boundary of Ulster about the 
year a.d. 160, which previously to this date was marked 
by the Boyne river, and stretched from the north of 
the Boyne to the south-eastern extremity of County 

But previously to that year Tuathal (King of 
Ireland) cut off portions of Connaught, Leinster, and 
Ulster, to form a mensal territory, which was 
called Meath or the Middle Province. When this was 
accomplished the southern boundary of Ulster was 
pushed back, and followed the marches of the counties 
of Armagh and Monaghan as far as the Wattle Bridge 
on the Upper Erne, and from thence on through 
Cavan, Longford, and Leitrim almost to Bundoran. 
Mr. Kane informs us that he has traced the Dyke all 
along this Hne, and, in fact, right across Ireland, by 

* Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, vol. xxvii. Section C, 
No. 14. 


discovering portions still remaining, or, where 
obliterated, finding the country people famihar with 
its existence at some period. He maintains that the 
position — that the Ditch was the boundary or ' Great 
Wall of UHdia,' which was made to confine the Ulster 
men after the burning of Emmania by the three Collas 
in 332, when they were restricted to the present counties 
of Down and Antrim — is untenable : 

(1) Because the conclusion is based on John 
O'Donovan's opinion, which he subsequently aban- 
doned, founded on a reference in a manuscript 
(in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin), 
which is as follows : * On the hither side of Gleann 
Kighe (the Newry Valley) the boundary of Gleanne 
Kighe was formed from the Newry upwards between 
them (i.e. The Clann Colla and the Clanna Rudhraighe), 
and the Clanna Rudraighe never returned across it 
from that time to the present.' But it seems, according 
to our author, that 0' Donovan himself afterwards 
admitted that his theory was untenable. 

(2) Because, according to this hypothesis, the 
Dyke would have been useless as * a defence against the 
defeated race of Ultonians, or as a means of confining 
them to the Hmits of Down and Antrim,' unless it had 
continued along the bank of the Newry river * north- 
ward by the boundary of UHdia to Lough Neagh, and 
thence from the north shore of that lake by the Bann 
to the sea.' ^ 

(3) Because those authorities who advocate this 
view were not aware of the existence of the Dyke 
beyond Armagh, whereas Mr. Kane claims to have 

^ See The Black Pig's Dyke, p. 311. 


traced it right across Ireland. Hence, according to 
this theory, the portion which runs through Donagh- 
more parish forms part of the eastern terminal of the 
boundary of the new Ulster, which can be traced 
right to Donegal — all across Ireland. Those who hold 
that the ' Ditch ' was the ' Great Wall of UHdia ' con- 
sider that the original construction is maintained at 
Scarva, where it consists of ' one fosse with a Vallum 
on each side,' while Mr. Kane advocates ' the possibility 
of the former existence of two side fosses and a central 
Vallum ' at that place. 

Donaghmore Church having been founded in a 
pagan centre and ' establishment,' when the chief 
and his retainers adopted the Christian faith 
S'oss^^^*''' under the teaching of St. MacErc, the first 
Bishop of Donaghmore — ^what more natural 
than that their descendants at a subsequent period 
should erect on this historic and hallowed spot ' St. 
MacErc 's Cross,' the symbol of the pure gospel he 
taught, and which had been the means of their salva- 
tion from sin unto holiness of life ? 

The Celtic Cross stands twelve yards south of the 
church — ^while its base (as we have seen) is the large 
stone which forms the Hntel of the main entrance to 
the central chamber of the souterrain. Here the Cross 
stood for centuries — without crack or flaw — till some 
ruthless and sacrilegious hands half demolished it, 
breaking the beautiful shaft right across, while the 
top portion — the cross with perforated collar — was 
hurled from its position, and left sunk in an adjoining 
grave. Unfortunately in this state it had lain for ages, 
probably since the time of Cromwell. 

The Donaghmore Celtic Cross. 


In 1891 the rector of the parish summoned a 
meeting of the select vestry, when it was unanimously 

resolved to have the Cross completely 
oUhe^^s ^^s^^^^d- The work of restoration was 

perfectly executed, and in a manner con- 
sonant with the antiquity of the monument. i In 
addition to local subscriptions, the Belfast Natm*ahst 
Field Club, through the kind offices of Canon Lett, 
gave a Hberal grant towards the work of restoration. 
According to a popular tradition in the parish its 
semi-demohtion was the work of King William III., 

who, seeing the Cross, on his march from 
Kijjg "" Loughbrickland to Newry, ordered his army 
William to halt and fire a cannon ball at it ; but 
and local ^q g^j,^ g^j-g ^j^^^ thosB of the inhabitants 

iconoclast. ■, « xi i • • ■, 

who revere the glorious, pious and 
immortal memory ' of that good monarch will be 
slow to beheve that he would be guilty of such a 
dastardly act of sacrilege. Another local tradition is 
to the effect that the foul work was accomphshed by 
an individual in the vicinity — ^an iconoclast — who 
afterwards went raving mad, and with his latest breath 
kept calling out * that Cross ! that Cross ! ' and 
so went to his reward. 

The Celtic Cross of Donaghmore is held on the 
highest authority to be the most ancient perfect 

Christian monument in the County of 
The Celtic Down — while it is said to be upwards of 
deswibed ^"^^^ years old. The Cross is ten and a 

half feet high, and is composed of three 

' A few years since an old cross in County Down was re-erected 
(in a new position) with the inscription : ' Erected by the Town 
Commissioners ' ! 


blocks of granite, a three-stepped base, the shaft, and 
the cross proper. The design is Irish or Celtic, the 
limbs being connected by a perforated collar or wheel, 
while the entire surface was originally covered with a 
series of subjects illustrating the Bible history, and 
where there was no room for figures, the carving is of 
beautiful Irish interlaced work or patterns. Not- 
withstanding the atmospheric action of so many cen- 
turies, these carvings are wonderfully distinct, and 
many of the figures can be easily traced. Amongst 
the designs introduced on the west face of the Cross is 
the Crucifixion, the Tree of Forbidden Fruit with 
Adam and Eve beneath it, the Cherub with his flaming 
sword, and Noah's Ark in the waters of the Flood. In 
these we have a short summary of the entrance of sin, 
and the way of salvation through the Sacrifice of the 
Cross. On the east face the carvings are more injured, 
and difficult to decipher, but it is generally supposed 
that they represent Christ seated in the centre and 
surrounded by the angels and saints at the Last Judg- 
ment in glory. On the south face of the shaft is a most 
interesting panel representing a figure who holds a 
somewhat triangular object, which is taken to be 
David with a harp, chanting the praises of Him who 
on the Cross hath redeemed mankind. The whole is 
most interesting, and historically valuable, not only 
as exhibiting an excellent work of art, executed so 
many centuries ago, but also in that we have here 
afforded us a brief epitome of the Gospel and a record 
in stone of the pure simple faith of the ancient Irish 

It is said our old Irish crosses were erected for a 


twofold purpose, as being partly commemorative, 
and also as marking the bounds of * the hallowed 
Twofold ground.' An early Irish synod enacted 
Purposes of that the bounds of holy places should 
Erection. }xQ,Ye their Hmits marked out by the 
sacred symbol, and an injunction was added in 
the following words : * wherever you find the Cross 
of Christ do not do any injury.' Many authorities 

consider that our ancient crosses were also 
Crosses as ^g^^ j^j. jUugtrated teaching purposes by 
Centres. preachers at open-air services from the 

ninth to the twelfth centuries — when few 
books were to be had, and none could read except 
the Clergy — and even at a much later period we find 
the practice continued. 

The sculptures of the Crosses were ' iconographic,' 
that is to say, * they were intended to bring home to 
the minds of the unlettered people the truth of rehgion 
and the facts of scripture history by vivid illustration.' i 
Many crosses doubtless became great preaching 
centres in past times, notably that of St. Paul's, 

London (recently restored), which in 1887 
St. Paul's ^ag noted as the place * where the word 
London. ^^ ^^^ "^^^ habitually preached to the 

people.' These open-air services were 
not always conducive to the health of the congrega- 
tions — especially on rainy Sundays, and it is greatly 
to be feared that nowadays the attendance on such 
occasions would be extremely small — at least in Don- 
aghmore, were we to preach at St. MacErc's Cross ! 
But doubtless the ardent spirits who Hved here in 

^ Joyce, Social History, vol. i. p. 567. 


bygone times were never absent on that score. Bishop 
Latjmer complained for reasons other than that of the 
inclement weather — ^indeed the ' dog days ' of summer 
and the presence of not a few of ' the unwashed ' in 
the great concourse, may have contributed to the cause 
of his murmur. He tells us : * Many a man taketh his 
death in St. Paul's Churchyard, and this I speak of 
experience ; for I myself when I have been there in some 
mornings to hear the sermons, have felt such an 
ill-favoured unwholesome savour that I was the worse 
of it for a great while after.' We can form some con- 
ception of the immense numbers who flocked to St. 
Paul's Cross to hear the preachers from the following 
portion of a letter of Jewell to Peter MartjT : * You 
may now sometimes see at St. Paul's Cross, after the 
service, 6,000 persons, old and young, of both sexes, 
all singing together and praising God.' Even Eoyalty 
attended at times, and had the temerity on an occasion 
to reprimand the preacher. Queen EUzabeth was 
present on a certain Ash Wednesday when the preacher 
did not seem to Her Majesty quite orthodox on the 
subject of images. * Leave that alone ! ' shouted the 
Queen ; * to your text, Mr. Dean ! ' 

The Irish Celtic cross differs from the Greek and 
Latin crosses in the pecuHarity that the limbs are 
I ■ h Celti connected by a perforated collar or wheel. 
Cross dififers This particular design of cross was early 
from Greek developed in Ireland, and was the only 
and Roman. ^^^^^ adopted by the Irish Church till 
the twelfth century. Our ancient Celtic crosses, 
of which there are about fifty-six in Ireland, 
bear strong testimony to the skill and workman- 


ship of Irish stone-carvers in the early centuries, 
and while no longer used as illustrative preaching 
centres, they are still in a sense commemorative, 
and besides mark out the * sacred precincts.' They 
are also eloquent, though silent, witnesses to the 
Scriptural gospel taught by the clergy in the early 
centuries, while, at the same time, they bear their 
constant testimony to the fact that the ancient Irish 
Church was independent of either the Greek or Eoman 
Communion. * These Irish crosses are of a type quite 
distinct from either that of the Latin or Greek crosses ; 
and as their form is pecuHar to Ireland, they stand 
silent witnesses to the fact that the Irish Church was 
equally independent of both the Eastern (Greek) and 
Western (Roman) Churches during the time of their 
erection, which took place probably from the seventh 
to the twelfth century.* i 

Among the MS. letters in the Royal Irish Academy ,2 
containing information relative to the county of 
J , Down, collected during the progress of the 

O'Donovan's Ordnance Survey in 1884, there is one 
Visit to from John O'Donovan, LL.D., the cele- 
Donaghmore. j^j^c^^g^ Irish, scholar, who was employed to 
collect and ascertain the correct place-names, dated 
from Newry on April 10 of that year, in which is the 
following reference to the parish of Donaghmore : 

* I travelled yesterday through the Parish of 
Donaghmore and discovered one of the aborigines 
100 years old and on the point of death. He is bHnd 

^ Macbeth, Story of Ireland and her Church, p. 96. 
' Ordnance Survey MSS. 



and though in the most feeble state he retains his 
reasoning powers in a most surprising manner. He is 
intimately acquainted with every field in the Parish of 
Donaghmore, where he was employed for half a century 
as a Baihff. He was able to give me the ancient name 
of every townland in the Parish in the most satisfactory 
manner. I travelled through fields and frequented 
ways until at last I discovered him in a little cabin 
lamenting his transgressions and preparing for death. 
When I mentioned the name Mr. Glenny, he attended 
to me with the most profound respect and seemed for 
a short time to forget his impending dissolution. 
I certainly was very shy in disturbing him, but as 
there was no substitute for him I made bold to 
examine or not whether he had sufficient- discern- 
ment to understand what I was about. He 
understood me immediately and answered the 
questions I proposed him with great readiness. 
Several persons of whom I enquired the way to 
his house told me that he was dead *' this many 
and many a year." I had to return in the dark, 
and being far off the main road to Newry it was 
with difficulty I made my way back. I tore my 
trousers across with the brambles.' 

It will be seen that the only reference O'Donovan 
makes in his letter to anything of an ' antiquarian ' 
nature on the occasion of his visit to the parish is that 
in the shape of a centenarian, but evidently his 
province did not go beyond the collection of correct 
place-names. At any rate, the souterrains were not 
discovered till three months after the date of this 


letter; and besides, he did not visit the western 
portion of tlie parish, through which runs the Great 
Wall of Ulidia, while probably he never set eyes 
on the Celtic Cross — then in its semi- demolished 

M 2 



The Church of Ireland, founded by St. Patrick, has 
now existed for almost fifteen centuries, and is still 
jT- ^ • 1 the same identical Church that she was in 
Continuity the beginning. During all her varying 
of the fortunes and eventful history, her historical 

^^° ' continuity has remained unbroken, her 
ancient episcopate has been preserved in one unbroken 
line of succession from the first, and especially was 
such guarded and maintained in the sixteenth century, 
when the liturgy, as set forth in the Book of Common 
Prayer, displaced the Latin Service Book ; for it must 
be remembered that all the bishops of the Irish Church 
at the time (with but two dissentients, who were 
deprived, and their sees filled by bishops who con- 
formed) acquiesced and took the Oath of Supremacy. 
These bishops, numbering about twenty, remained in 
their several sees, and from them the present bishops of 
the Church of Ireland have * derived their order.' i 
Hence, holding the apostolic commission, and being 
built upon the found-ation of the apostles, the Church 
of Ireland has continued in their faith and fellowship, 
and remains a branch of the Holy CathoHc Church. 

^ See King's Church History of Ireland, p. 761. 


In Donaghmore there is a special bond of unity of 
the church of to-day with that of the past. God is 
worshipped on almost the same hallowed spot on 
which the first humble temple in the parish was 
dedicated to his service so many long centuries ago. 

According to Bishop Reeves, the eminent Irish 
scholar, antiquary, and ecclesiastic, Donaghmore 

church was founded about the middle of 
Century *^® ^^^^ century, and hence is one of the 
Foundation oldest churches in Ireland, i Authorities 
of the inform us that all churches in Ireland 

a Rath ^^ (about forty) that bear the name of Domnach 

— or, in the anglicised form, Donagh — were 
founded by St. Patrick, who marked their foundations 
on the Lord's Day, and hence we may conclude that the 
Irish Apostle was the founder of Domnach-mor (the 
* great church '). The church was founded in a rath, 
which was of large dimensions and doubtless a great 
pagan centre. St. Patrick would naturally take advan- 
tage of the circumstances by preaching the gospel to the 
chief and his retainers, for whom, on their conversion, 
he founded the church in their midst. According 

to Aengus the Culdee, St. Mac Ere was 
' the first Bishop of Domnach-mor, which 
must have been about a.d. 450. Bishop Mac Ere 
was brother of the celebrated St. Mochey of Aendmm, 
or Inis Mochey (Mohee Island in Strangford Lough), 
who died a.d. 497 (we are told) at an advanced age. 
Hence he was a member of the family of Milcon to 
whom St. Patrick was in bondage in the valley of the 
Braid, near Slemish mountain, in the county of Antrim, 

^ Ecclesiastical Antiquities of Dotvn, Connor and Dromore. 


and doubtless owed his conversion to the patron saint 
of Ireland. His parentage and kindred are noticed 
by Aengus in his tract ' De Matribus Sanctorum 
Hiberniae,' quoted by Bishop Keeves, as follows : 
* Bronach, daughter of Milcon, with whom Patrick 
was in bondage, was the mother of Mochae of Aendrum, 
or of Aendrum of Loch Cuan : and of Comraire of 
Uisneach, in Meath : and of Manchan of Liath Man- 
chan, in Dealbhna Beathra : and of Colman Minlinn 
of Daire Chaechain in Dalriada : and of Bishop Mac 
Ere of Domnach-mor of Moy Coba,' &g.^ It should 
be noted that Bishop Mac Ere must not be confounded 
with the St. Mac Ere who flourished at Slane, co. 
Meath, and was a native of that place. It will thus be 

observed that Domnach-mor had its own 
^Tt* h bishop ; but this was not unusual in the old 
Episcopacy. Celtic church owing to its monastic and 

tribal character. Some of our readers 
may doubtless be a Httle surprised to find that Donagh- 
more should have been honoured with a bishop, while 
other churches at the time were less favoured in this 
respect, and hence we may briefly explain the condition 
of things which gave rise to what some might consider 
an anomaW. Indeed the ancient Irish church presents 
us with a curious phase of religious society, which it 
is to be feared many misunderstand, because ignorant 
of the social and political institutions of the time, 
and of their effect upon early church organisation in 
Ireland. It must, however, suffice to state, that the 
organisation of both church and monastery was entirely 
modelled on the civil system of the time, which was 
^ Ecckaiastical Antiquities, p. 189. 


of course tribal, and consequently tribal customs 
pervaded all ecclesiastical arrangements. As there 
was the tribe of the chieftain, so there was modelled 
on it the tribe of the saint ; and both chieftainship and 
saintship ran in families, the famihes themselves 
expanding into tribes. Hence in Ireland episcopacy 
adapted itself to the civil conditions it found in the 
country, just as it did in the Latin church, where it 
was modelled after the Roman civil organisation — 
which, of course, did not prevail here, the Romans 
never having conquered Ireland. Hence the early Irish 
bishops were not diocesan (a much later development), 
but rather monastic and tribal, having been attached 
to the monasteries, the tribes, and to the cathedral 
centres. Indeed, monastic and tribal episcopacy pre- 
vailed in Ireland down to the commg of the Normans, 
and even afterwards made strenuous and successful 
efforts to assert itself ; as, for example, in the case of 
Glendalough, where, we are told, the Celtic bishops 
(the bishops of the O'Bymes and the O'Tooles) 
held on in defiance of either King or Pope, and 
continued unsuppressed till the close of the fifteenth 

Domnach-Mor was what might be termed a 
* monastic church,' and hence had its bishop ; but 
its monasticism at first was probably of a very 
_ , primitive and incipient type : for as yet 

Donaghmore f, , , ^ t lu l 

a Monastic ^^® development of the system, as 
Church: we find it in the sixth and seventh 
?"^^ . . centuries, had scarcely even commenced. 
In fact, at first, although there were 
monastic institutions of a sort, St. Patrick and his 


missionaries were (as Archbishop Healy remarks) 
* too full of missionary labours to be given to the 
government or foundation of monasteries.' i The 
early Irish monasteries had scarcely anything in 
common with those of modern times. St. Patrick in- 
troduced the system into Ireland, borrowed from that 
of Gaul and Britain with which he had been familiar, 
but in a modified form, to suit the condition of the 
country, which was mostly pagan at the time, notwith- 
standing the fact of there having been an Irish pre- 
Patrician Christianity. Hence the system adopted here 
was different from that which obtained in countries 
which were largely Christian, where sanctity of life 
was the chief consideration. Pagan Ireland had to be 
converted to Christianity, and while personal holiness 
was of no less moment on the part of those forming the 
Community, yet combined with it was another prime 
consideration, viz. the conversion of the Irish, and 
their instruction in the principles of the Christian faith. 
The primitive Irish monasteries were great missionary 
and educational centres as well as establishments where 
good men devoted themselves to the cultivation of 
personal holiness and sanctity of life. ' The early mon- 
asteries in Ireland partook somewhat of the character 
of a college of canons, a cathedral chapter responsible 
for missionary work and priestly functions in the 
surrounding districts. They were centres of Hght 
and civilisation amidst the prevailing darkness of 
paganism.' 2 

It would be a mistake, however, to suppose that at 

' Ireland's Ancient Schools and Scholars, p. 146. 
' Macbeth, Ireland and Tier Church, p. 57. 


this early stage missionary work was carried on solely 
by the monastic bishops and those associated with 
them. Indeed it would seem that the clergy who, 
during this period, laboured to spread the gospel had 
for the most part no connection whatever with the 
monasteries, viz. the clergy of district churches (there 
were no parishes) and their bishops — i.e. the tribal 
bishops. Dr. Joyce, who probably knows as much 
about the matter as most people, though not an eccle- 
siastic, thus informs us : ' During the century and a 
quarter following St. Patrick's arrival, i.e. from a.d. 482 
to about 559, the clergy who laboured to spread the 
faith among the people appear to have been for the 
most part unconnected with monasteries.' i These 
ecclesiastics, as our author further explains, corre- 
sponded to our modern parochial clergy, while their 
bishops were those connected with the tribes. 
Hence a tribal bishop would have all the district 
churches in the country occupied by the tribe 
under his jurisdiction — a tribal arrangement, by 
the way, which ' contained the germs of diocesan 

For aught we know, St. Mac Ere was both bishop 
and abbot of Domnach-Mor — the two offices being 
frequently combined in the same person. 
Bishop of i^ g^gQ |.jjQ offices were held by different 
HJqj individuals, the abbot ruled (though at the 

time he was not obliged to be even in priest's 
orders), but the bishop was superior in respect of 
the episcopal and other spiritual functions, such as 
ordaining, &c. 

^ Social History, vol. i. p. 319. 


It may be noted that besides Domnach-Mor, other 

churches of a hke character (now in the diocese of 

Dromore) had formerly bishops. The fol- 

Bishop and jQ^j^^g ^g ^ list of bishops of such churches 

Churches » . i • i i i- 

incorporated Subsequently mcorporated with the diocese 
with the of Dromore : 450, St. Mac Ere, of Domnach- 
Drom^re^* Mor ; 540, Colman, of Dromore; 803, 
Thomas, of Linnduachaill (Magheralin) ; 
972, Maolbrigid MacCathasaigh, of Dromore ; 1101, 
Eigan, of Dromore.^^ 

We find a tradition to the effect that Donaghmore 
church was owned by the Culdees — an ancient 
Order of the church that flourished and 
Donaghmore j^g^^j ^ college at Armagh. The tradition is 
the Culdees. undoubtedly founded on fact ; for, accord- 
ing to the ' Book of Armagh,' every church 
and place which * Dominicus appellatur ' (which in- 
cluded Donaghmore) belonged to the special society of 
St. Patrick and his cathedral at Armagh. The special 
society of St. Patrick at Armagh was the Dean and 
Chapter of the Cathedral, which constituted the 
college, and owned the several churches (and properties) 
connected therewith. Possibly this prior Culdee owner- 
ship accounts for the fact that Domnach-Mor church 
(although in the diocese of Dromore), and the church 
lands, were connected with the See of Armagh up till 
the disestablishment of the Irish Church. Bishop 
Eeeves informs us that ' The manor of Donaghmore 
in the County of Down, and Diocese of Dromore, with 
the Kectory and Advowson of St. Mac Erc's church 
thereon, has been connected with the See of Armagh 

* See Ewart's Handbook, United Dioceses, p. 13. 


from time immemorial, and is probably one of the 
earliest endowments of it.' ^ Possibly some Arch- 
bishop of Armagh may have seized this property on 
the demise of the Culdees, for himself and his successors 
who held it up till the year of our Lord 1876. In 
regard to these lands (which of course included the 
church) Bishop Reeves tells us that they became 

* Episcopal property, as was usually the case with 
churches which were the seats of Bishops, and for 
some reason now unknown, were annexed, not to the see 
of Dromore, but to that of Armagh.' 2 The late Canon 
Scott of Belfast, a good authority on Church property, 
gives (letter to writer) the following reason for the 
annexation to the see of Armagh, namely : that 

* Armagh had special claims to St. Patrick's churches 
(and their properties) all over Ireland, and in many 
cases got them.' At any rate the Primate became the 
possessor of this property, which was subsequently 
created into the ' Manor of Donaghmore, contayning 
twelve townes and one Rectorie.' We are sorry for the 
poor diocese of Dromore having been ignored in the 
matter. This property would have added consider- 
ably to its income (which in the latter part of the 
fifteenth century was only about £40 !) and induced 
its early bishops to remain in the diocese — many of 
whom, it seems, owing to its poverty never saw it ! 
It is to be hoped the rich Primate did not fare so 
sumptuously in those days as did a certain Archbishop 
of York (certainly the poor Bishop of Dromore did not !) 
who gave a dinner party in 1468 — of which the 

^ The Primacy of Armagh, p. 9. 
- Antiquities t p. 306. 


following are the details : 300 quarters of meat, 830 
tuns of ale, 10 tuns of wine, 1 pipe of spiced wine, 8 fat 
oxen, 6 wild bulls, 1004 sheep, 3,000 hogs, 300 calves, 
3,000 geese, 3,000 capons, 300 pigs, 100 peacocks, 200 
cranes, 200 kids, 2,000 chickens, 4,000 pigeons, 4,000 
rabbits, 204 bitterns, 4,000 ducks, 400 herons, 200 
pheasants, 500 partridges, 4,000 woodcock, 400 plover, 
100 curlew, 100 quails, 100 parrots, 200 roes, 400 
bucks, 5,506 venison pasties, 5,000 dishes of jelly, 
6,000 custards, 300 pike, 300 bream, 8 teals, 4 por- 
poises, 400 tarts ! There were 1,000 servitors, 62 cooks, 
and 515 scullions engaged. We are still more sorry 
for the poor parish of Donaghmore which, in truth, 
had the best claim to its own ecclesiastical property, 
given it, at an early period, by some pious chief or 
native prince for the purpose of maintaining the church 
and its teaching in this particular place ; and to divert 
it from the use for which it was intended was simply 
a violation of the conditions of the gift, while the aliena- 
tion, so far as the Donaghmore church is concerned, 
was nothing short of an act of confiscation. But the 
church here did not suffer alone in this respect. Parish 
churches in bygone times were robbed both right and 
left, even with the consent of the ecclesiastical authori- 
ties, and their endowments taken from them to enrich 
the cathedrals, the bishoprics (when diocesan episco- 
pacy was introduced), and the religious Orders. 

It may be asked who were the Culdees, who owned 

the church of Donaghmore and its lands ? Bishop 

Reeves derives the name from the Celtic 

Cele-de, Servus Dei — (anghcised, Culdee), 

which Blunt informs us was afterwards corrected, 


in the Pope's style, into Servus Servorum Dei. The 
latter authority tells us that ' their tendency was 
to secularise religious offices and endowments rather 
than to keep up strictness of Hfe ' ^ ; while, according 
to Dr. Joyce, they were * distinguished for unusual 
austerity and hohness of life.' ^ 

Surely we must be convinced of this ' unusual 
austerity ' when we think of St. Domangard (St. 
Donard), who belonged to the Order, early 
in the sixth century, building his little 
stone hermitage on the highest peak (subsequently 
called in his honour ' Sheve Donard ') of the mountains 
of Beanna Boirche (now the Mourne Mountains), where 
amid winter's snows and summer's heat, for many 
long years, in * awful solitude he lived and communed 
with God ' ; though we consider this holy man would 
have exhibited a much purer type of rehgion, if, while 
keeping himself * unspotted from the world,' he had 
come down from his lofty retreat and condescended 
to ' visit the widows and fatherless in their 
affliction ' round about the mountains of Beanna 
Boirche ! 

There is a popular behef that the monks of later 
history * ate and drank well ' ; but we must not accuse 
St. Donard of either delinquency, if we are to 
judge from the simple fare to which he treated the 
congregation of his church of Maghera (close to 
Slieve Donard) every Easter Tuesday, viz. *a 
pitcher of ale and a larac or leg of beef with its 

^ See * Culdees,' Dictionary of Sects. 
^ Social History, vol. i. p. 357. 


The Culdees undoubtedly believed in and practised 

austerity in every sense of the term. Bishop Mac Ere 

of Slane, who was a Culdee, dined every 

Bishop evening on ' an eas and a half, and three 

Mao Ere • i. .i <. .1 -r^ , -r, . 

of Slane. sprigs of the cresses of the Boyne. It is 

to be feared His Grace of York (to whom 
we have referred) would have ' turned up his nose ' 
at such unsumptuous fare ! Bishop Mac Ere of Slane, 
however, was probably satisfied with his modest fare, 
of which he was not unmindful that there should be a 
plentiful supply (so far as eggs were concerned), for, 
according to an old legend, the good man ' kept a flock 
of geese to lay eggs for him,' which by the way reminds 
us, that much depends upon the size oi the egg in com- 
puting the dimensions of the Saint's dinner ! 

There were seven or eight other Culdee establish- 
ments in Ireland besides that at Armagh, but the 
latter seems to have been the most important. In 
920 Godfrey, son of Ivor the Dane, plundered Armagh, 
but he spared the Culdees, their oratories and the sick 
(' Annals of Ulster '). It is Hkely that Donaghmore 
was eventually reduced to a simple benefice in connec- 
tion with the Dean and Chapter at Armagh, which 
could be held on certain conditions by any member of 
the Order, as we find from a sentence (quoted by 
Ussher) of an Archbishop of Armagh, in 1445, to 
the effect that, * the office of prior or an inferior Culdee 
not being accounted a cure of souls, may be held with 
any other benefice, provided the holder keep due 
residence in the church of Armagh.' 1 The Order 
continued to exist, though of much diminished im- 

^ See Blunt' s Dictionary of Sects. 


portance (acting in the inferior capacity of vicars 
choral of the Cathedral), until the time of Archbishop 
Ussher, who informs us that in his day the vicars 
choral of Armagh and those of the collegiate church of 
Cluanguish (Clones) were Colidei, and that the chief 
of them (the Prior) served as precentor of the 

Donaghmore church was originally dedicated 
to St. Mac Ere, who was practically its founder, 
inasmuch as he laid the foundation of 
Dedications *^® Spiritual Superstructure and built it 
up. It was the rule in the Celtic Church to 
dedicate to the local saint, as in the case of Bishop 
Mac Ere, and hence such dedications were more than 
mere memorials. They were footprints, indicating that 
where the church is, there, as a rule, the saint had 
been, and so his name was naturally and rightly 
linked with the church he established. It seems 
such local dedications were generally discouraged 
where the Roman Communion prevailed, conse- 
cration to the Apostles or the Blessed Virgin being 

But we cannot ' throw stones ' at that Communion, 
for our own did worse. It actually, in two instances 
at least in the diocese of Dromore, in dedicating anew, 
erased the name of the local saint— altogether forgetting 
his memory and his work. The reason of the change 
is to us wholly inexplicable, while it is to be deeply 
regretted. When the present church edifice was 
consecrated in 1741, the title of the church of St. 
Bartholomew was substituted for that of St. Mac Ere. 
We wonder what St» Bartholomew ever did for 


Donaghmore ! The cathedral church of the diocese 
(Dromore) has been affected in the same way. It was 
originally called St. Colman's after its founder and 
first bishop, but subsequently took the name of the 

* Cathedral of Christ the Kedeemer, of Dromore.' 

The original church of Donaghmore stood about 
sixty feet south of the present edifice, which must have 
been in close proximity to the spot where 
The Original ^y^q q^^ Celtic Cross was erected in memory of 
Edifice of St.MacErc. Nothing is now known in regard 
Donagh- to its proportions or architecture, save what 
more : Early j^g^y j^g learnt about Irish churches gener- 
Architecture. ^% ^^ ^^^ time. All St. Patrick's churches 
were, it seems, marked out on a uniform 
scale, and measured from sixty to one hundred feet. 
Primitive Irish churches generally were built after the 
same model, though chapels for private or family uses 
were much smaller, as e.g. St. MacDara's little church, 
on the island called after that saint, off the coast of 
Galway, the interior of which measures only fifteen by 
eleven feet. Donaghmore church being founded in a 
rath, was built of wood, as were the other buildings 
within the enclosure or rampart. Indeed it was 
customary to construct all churches of this material 
after the fashion of the country at the time. Camp- 
neys, who is undoubtedly one of our best authorities 
on Irish ecclesiastical architecture, informs us that 
the earliest Irish churches were built with a pair of 

* crucks ' or bent timbers joined to form an inverted 
fork at either end of the building, and united to each 
other by a ridge beam ; they were walled with wattles 
or boards, and thatched with reeds, rushes or straw. 


Stone churches (our author teUs us) were for a long 
time most exceptional in Ireland, the * Irish ' as 
opposed to the * Roman ' fashion being to * build in 
wood.' According to The Venerable Bede, St. Finan, 
an Irish monk of lona, erected a church at Lindisfame 
in 652, which though, he tells us, fitting for the see of 
a bishop, ' was built entirely in the Irish fashion, not 
of stone but of cut oak, and thatched with reeds.' 

The early churches in Ireland were rectangular, 
never cruciform in shape, which, we are told, became 
a * national tradition there for churches small or 
large,' while owing to the material and shape there 
were no apses, the east end being square. ' In England 
there was a long rivalry between the apse (derived from 
Italy) and the square-ended form of church introduced 
by the Irish missionaries.' i It is said on some 
authority that the roof-shaped top which surmounts 
the Celtic Cross in the churchyard was the pattern 
of the ancient Irish church-roof. If so, we can 
form some conception, as regards shape, of the 
covering of the sacred edifice where the gospel was first 
preached in Donaghmore. It was almost universally 
the custom from the time of St. Patrick onwards to 
build the churches east and west (as at Donaghmore) 
and very seldom north and south. As an example of 
the latter — north and south — it may be noted that 
the very first church in which St. Patrick celebrated 
divine service — viz. 'the sahall (saul) or barn given him 
by Dichu at Saul, happened to be in this direction. ' 2 

* See Arthur Champneys' Irish Ecclesiastical Architecture, 
pp. 27-8. 

^ See Joyce's Social History, vol. i. p. 368. 



The primitive wooden churches of Ireland had no 
aisles, and were very simple and unpretentious ; 
but after a time large and imposing edifices were built 
of stone, often elaborately adorned with rich carvings 
in stone and wood — the yew tree being in request — 
a species of wood on which Irish carvers exercised their 
art in the highest perfection (see iyifra, Armagh 
Cathedral). According to Champneys, the ' first 
definite authentic mention of a stone church ' that 
he knows of belongs to the year 789, when the ' Annals 
of the Four Masters ' record that in a fight at Armagh 
a man was killed * in the door of the stone oratory.' i 
We read of ' the stone church ' at Armagh being 
burnt in 840, in 996, and again in 1020 — when ' Ard- 
Macha was all burned ' — including ' the great Damliac 
(stone church).' ^ 

A description of this venerable historical church 

(Armagh Cathedral, founded by St. Patrick) as it 

appeared in the early portion of the thir- 

Armagh teenth century may interest some of our 

Cathedral in , * < • i • , , , 

13th Century J®^^®^^* ^ curious and important poem 

by a distinguished Ulster poet (' Book of 
Tearan Connaill ') who flourished between the years 
1220 and 1250 thus describes it : 

*The church of Armagh, of the polished walls, 
Is not smaller than three churches ; 
The foundation of this conspicuous church 
Is one solid, indestructible rock. 

^ Irish Ecclesiastical Architecture^ p. 36. 
^ Annals of the Four Masters. 


* A capacious shrine of chiselled stone, 

With ample oaken shingles covered ; 

Well hath its polished sides been wanned 

With lime as white as plume of swans. 

* Upon the arches of this white -walled church, 
Are festooned clusters of rosey grapes, 
From ancient yew profusely carved ; 
This place where books are freely read.' * 

The early church towers were round, and detached 
from the church edifice. The * Eound Towers ' of 
Ireland were really ecclesiastical in their 
Church origin, and, as such, served as * church 
Towers: towers.' The wildest theories have been 
'Round jjgi^j jjj regard to these structures in past 
times — such, e.g., as that they were pagan 
and of enormous antiquity. They were considered 
tombs, pagan temples, minarets from which were 
proclaimed druidical festivals, etc. The best and latest 
authorities, however, have conclusively shown that 
the ' Irish Round Towers ' had an ecclesiastical 
origin, and that * they have, or have had, invariably 
a church or churches near them.' It is now generally 
agreed, that these towers were first built about 

A.D. SOO. 

(1) They were — defence-refuges, where the clergy 
might flee, taking with them their books, church 
plate, etc. 

(2) They were used as watch towers — though 
probably not primarily intended for that purpose. 

' See O' Curry's Manners and Customs, vol. iii. p. 58, 

N 2 


(3) They served as ' land-marks, to guide persons 
to the church or monastery.' 

(4) Though probably not at first intended — they 
gave ' unity and dignity to the ecclesiastical establish- 

(5) They were ' bell-houses.' When ' Ard-Macha 
was burned ' in 1020 — not only was the * stone church ' 
burnt, but ' the Cloicthech with its bells.' Cloicthech 
it may be noted, signifies in Irish a ' bell-house,' and 
is now applied to the Eound Towers. i 

The present church edifice of Donaghmore is a 
comparatively modern building. It was erected in 
1741, and consecrated on Tuesday, Sep- 
Present tember 8 of that year, under the title (as 
Edmce ^^ ^^^® seen) of the Church of St. Bartholo- 
mew. ' It was built by the Encouragement 
and Bounty ' of Archbishop Boulter, Primate of All 

The following item appears in the Parliamentary 
Returns, 1739 — ' The Parishioners of Donaghmore 
have presented £80 to be levy*^ to build a new 
church in four years, and said Primate (Archbishop 
Boulter) has promised to give timber to roof the 
church and ten guineas to finish it.' The church 
possesses no particular architectural design, except 
that the windows are Gothic. The vestry was built in 
1826, and a handsome square tower was 
®^ ^^' added in 1829, ornamented with buttresses, 
pinnacles and finials. The cost was defrayed by a 
sum levied off the parishioners, and by voluntary 

' See Champneys' Irish Ecclesiastical Architecture, pp. 40-52. 


The former bell was erected in the church tower 
in 1829, at a cost of £160, levied off the landholders 
of the parish in 1827 — the amount to be 
* spread equally over that and the two suc- 
ceeding years. This bell bore the inscription — 

* Cast at Gloucester by John Euddell— 1829.' 

Extensive improvements were made in 1879 — 
including the erection of a chancel, a 
stained east window, new pews, etc., at a 
cost of £242 195. 9^?. 

During the present rectorate further improvements 
were made, and embellishments added. In 1883 two 
' Tablets,' on which are inscribed the Creed, 
Improve- the Lord's Prayer and the Ten Command- 
Embellish ^^^^ts, were placed on the walls on either 
ments. side of the chancel arch — presented by the 

late Arthur Charles Innes of Dromantine. 
In 1885, two handsomely carved oak scrolls were 
erected, one on the wall beneath the east window, 
and the other on the chancel arch, on which are 
respectively the texts in gilt letters, in relief : — ' Holy, 
Holy, Holy, Lord God Almighty ' — * It is a good 
thing to give thanks unto the Lord.' These were 
gifts of Mrs. Innes (first wife of Arthur Charles Innes), 
as were the two exquisitely wrought banners which 
adorn the chancel walls, the beautiful alms basins, and 
brass pulpit desk. The alms basins, which are of solid 
brass, bear the monogram I.H.S., and the words (inter- 
spersed with shamrock leaves and Maltese crosses) : 

* It is more blessed to give than to receive.' ' Lay not 
up for yourselves treasures in earth.' The pulpit desk, 
which is of a very chaste design, bears the monogram 


I.H.S. as does the handsomely carved oak desk on the 
Holy Table, presented by Mrs. Todd, wife of the Kev. 
Henry Todd, Kector of Camlough, who for ability 
and scholarship has few equals in the Irish Church. 
The church was renovated and new choir stalls added 
in 1887. In 1905 the sacred edifice was again renovated 
and heated with hot water at considerable cost. 

A new bell was erected in the church tower in 1905, 
cast by the Messrs. Taylor of Loughborough, which 
bears the following inscription : * Eev. J. D. 
T^^^^"' Cowan, LL.D., Rector, 1905.' The bell 
was dedicated, October 11 of that year, by the Bishop 
of Dromore (Dr. Welland). The following are the 
words of dedication : ' We dedicate this newly erected 
bell to the glory of God, and to the Benefit of His Holy 
House, in the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and 
of the Holy Ghost.' 

The church possesses a handsome marble font on 
which is engraved the date, 1726. The carvings 
are conventional in pattern, and not very 
The Font : elaborate. The memorials of the dead 
the Dead, consist of two mural (marble) tablets, on the 
north and south side-walls of the church. 
That on the north, over the rectory pew, bears the 
inscription : ' In loving memory of Rev. John Camp- 
bell Quinn, M.A., Rural Dean, who for forty years 
laboured in this parish of Donaghmore as Curate and 
Rector, and departed this life November 15th, 1882. 
" The Lord is my Shepherd." ' On the other tablet, 
over the Innes pew, are engraved the words : * To 
the glory of God, and the dear memory of Arthur 
Charles Innes-Cross, of Dromantine, J.P. and D.L. 


for the County of Down, and formerly M.P. for Newry. 
Born November 25th, 1834. Died April 14th, 1902. 
Aged 67 years. '' Blessed are the merciful, for they 
shall obtain mercy." Erected by his wife.' The 
tablet is surmounted with the Innes- Cross arms, 
crest and mottoes : * Be Traiste ' and * Certavi et 

Donaghmore was never a * fat * living, and especially 
in its mediaeval days, as may be seen in the Eccle- 
siastical Taxations of 1306, 1422 and 1546— 

Donaghmore *^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^'^^^ ^^'^^ explain. 

Living in in substance, as given by Bishop Reeves. i 
Mediaeval The Kings of England and France in 1188 
^^^^' imposed upon their respective subjects a 

tax (called * Saladin's Tenths ') of one-tenth of their 
movables and annual income for ' the rehef of the 
Holy Land,' i.e. its recovery from the Saracens. Sub- 
sequently the tax became limited to the clergy, and 
continued to be imposed, notwithstanding the fact 
that the term crusade had lost its original meaning. 
Both King and Pope seem to have become jointly 
concerned in levying the tax, and in appropriating 
the proceeds, as the case might be, according to their 
respective necessities — which were generally rather 
urgent ! In order to compute the amount payable 
by the clergy, valuations of ecclesiastical property 
were made at different times — that for Ireland being 
completed in the beginning of the fourteenth century 
— about the year 1806. 

In the Ecclesiastical Taxation for the Diocese of 
Dromore the following entry occurs : 'The Church 

' Introduction, Ecclesiastical Antiquities. 


of Donnachmore — 205. — Tenth, 25.' Thus the annual 
income of the Vicar of Donaghmore in 1806-7 was the 
handsome sum of twenty shiUings ! That, however, 
was a large income as compared with the lowest in the 
dioceses of Down, Connor and Dromore which was 
forty pence, as in the case of the chapels of Enacha 
(Aghagallon); Thanelagh (Tamlaght), Acheli (Aghalee), 
and Eosrelick. The richest benefice at the time was 
that of Bile (Billy) — worth £36 ; while among the 
moderate incomes were those of ' The Abbot of Viride 
Lingnum ' (Newry) and ' The Bishop of Drummore ' 
— each receiving * 20 marks ' annually — i.e. £13 65. Sd. 
Two further valuations of the parishes in the diocese 
of Dromore were made, one in 1422 and the other in 
1546, both of which are among the tables of procura- 
tions payable to the Primate in his Provincial Visita- 
tions. In that for 1422 the following entry occurs : 
* Ecclesia de Domnaghmore — 3 marc ' — i.e. £2. It 
will thus be seen that the benefice had doubled in value 
since 1306 — a circumstance which must have been 
highly gratifying to the O'McCrelas — one of whom 
was the vicar at the time. In the taxation of a similar 
nature of * all the benefices of the Diocese of Dromore ' 
in the year 1546, the value of Donaghmore has again 
increased. The entry is ' Kector of Donnoghmore — 
5 marc,' i.e. £3 95. Ad. At this date Peter O'Mackrell 
was in all probability Vicar of Donaghmore — having 
succeeded his brother Donald, who died in 1534. 
Donaghmore at the time seems to have been a kind 
of * family living ' — the O'McCrelas or O'Makrells 
having held it for upwards of a hundred years. 

Doubtless the position of the O'Makrells as here- 


ditary herenachs of the manor had much to do in 
obtaining for Peter, the Vicar, the princely annual 
income of £3 95. id. ! 

The Royal Visitation Report (Marsh's Library) of 
1622 is very meagre in regard to the parish — viz. 

' Donogh — Rectory appropriate to the 
vvtation Archbishop of Armagh. — Proxies — 6-6. — 

The Vicarage presentation : endowed with 
the third of all the tithes.' It may be noted that 
Proxies or Procurations were the fees due to the Arch- 
deacon for Visitation. They were originally so 
called because the clergy visited were obliged to 
procure meat, drink and provender for the Archdeacon 
and his train when visiting. They were afterwards 
allowed to be compounded in cash and payable by the 
Rector or Vicar. 

In the Parliamentary Returns (Public Record 
Office, Dublin) we find the following item in the 

return of the diocese of Dromore : — 
Parliament- « Donaghmore, a Vicarage, the rectorial 
1768. ' Tythes in the Primate, has a small Glebe, 

no house on it, and a church in tolerable 
condition, served by a curate, the vicar (George 
Vaughan) not resident, nor through infirmities capable 
of serving. — January 1768.' 

In 1828 it was resolved by the vestry (particulars 
in vestry minutes) to bring the parish under the 

operation of the Tithes Composition Acts. 
of^TiUes^^^ The annual composition of the rectorial 

tithes was assessed at £251, and that of 
the vicarial tithes at £200. The parties concerned 
gave their assent to the composition — viz. the Primate, 


John Vaughan (the lessee of the manor), and the 
Vicar — Marshall Joseph Mee. 

There had been much opposition in the parish 
to the payment of tithes, especially during the in- 
cumbency of Kev. J. Mountgarrett, when 
A^'tation ^^ ^^^ found necessary to institute legal 
proceedings for their enforcement. So far 
as we can learn there was no valid reason for the 
opposition in Donaghmore other than a grievance, 
real or supposed, on the part of some outside the 
church, that they should be obliged to pay towards 
its support. If we are to believe Froude, it is to be 
feared such cannot be said of all parishes in Ireland. 
At the time (and indeed since 1786) a great anti-tithe 
agitation was raging in Ireland, which culminated in 
what is known as the ' Tithe War ' — commencing 
about 1830, by which a large number of the clergy 
and their families suffered great privations, amounting 
in many cases to destitution. The agitation, at least 
in the beginning, was not so much directed against the 
clergy, as against the system of extortion resorted to 
by some of the tithe proctors and tithe farmers w4io 
became exorbitant in their exactions, and hence, as 
often happens, the innocent suffer, while the sins of 
the few are visited on the many. Froude is a preju- 
diced writer ; but probably his strictures on the tithe 
proctors and tithe farmers in many cases are justifiable 
— even towards the close of the eighteenth century. 
Our author informs us that as the century waned the 
tithe proctor became more grasping and avaricious. 
He exacted the full pound of flesh, and as his trade was 
dangerous he required to be highly paid. * He handed 


to his employer (the Parson) perhaps half what he 
collected. He fleeced the flock and fleeced their 

There were gradations in the profession. * A tithe 
farmer in active practice of his profession held of 
another who held of a proctor, who held of a clergyman 
who did not reside.' Their * abominable extortions 
furnished a tempting opportunity to the apostles of 
anarchy,' who made the most out of every real or sup- 
posed grievance. The Whiteboys in 1786 took up 
the cause of the tithe payers, and made war with the 
tithe proctors. In cases where Captain Right con- 
sidered them cruel, they were sentenced to death and 
executed. Where their offences were judged by the 
same authority as only moderate they were * carded,' 
which meant, ' they were stripped naked and tied with 
their faces downwards, while a strong tom-cat was 
dragged up and down their backs by the tail.' The 
clergy, who had been * distinguished for kindness and 
liberality ' suffered, and, as * the symbols of a tyrannical 
system,' came under the condemnation of lawless 
combinations. * Men 'of the purest and most inoffensive 
manners were torn from their beds at midnight. 
Their wives and children were driven naked out of 
doors, themselves rolled on dunghills, and hardly 
suffered to escape w^th life.' Lord Luttrell told in 
Parliament of a friend of his, who, riding out of 
Carhngford, overtook a clergyman whose head was 
bound in a napkin and seemed in great pain. On 
being asked if anything was the matter the poor cleric 
replied : ' Did you not see, sir, as you rode through 
the town, two ears and a cheek nailed to a post ? 


They were mine.' i All this was previous to the actual 
' Tithe War ' of 1880. 

The condition of things during the * Tithe War ' is 
thus graphically described by Lecky : * The state of the 

country was frightful, as O'Connell himself 
,^ ® , ^ ^ said — most respectable men could not get 

their grass cut because they paid tithes. 
The mail contractors could not get their coaches 
horsed for the same reason. Repeated collisions took 
place between the police or yeomanry and the peasants 
in attempts to collect tithes. In one of these, which 
took place at Newtonbarry in June, 1881, it was stated 
that at least seventeen persons were killed and many 
others seriously wounded. On another occasion not 
less than eighteen police, including their commanding 
officer, were killed, and not a single conviction followed. 
The law was utterly paralysed. The clergy, deprived 
of their lawful incomes, were thrown into the deepest 
distress. Government came to their assistance by 
advancing £60,000 in 1882 for the clergy who had been 
unable to collect their tithes in the preceding year, 
and it undertook to collect the unpaid tithes of 1881. 
The attempt w^as a signal failure. Ihe arrears for that 
year were £104,000 ; and of that sum, after fierce 
conflicts and much bloodshed, the Government re- 
covered £12,000 at a cost of £15,000 ! In a great 
many districts scarcely any one ventured to defy the 
popular will by paying tithes. It w^as with difficulty 
that the ordinary legal process of distraint was executed, 
and when the cattle or crops of the defaulters were put 
up by auction, no one dared to buy them. A lawless 

^ See Froude's The English in Ireland, vol. ii. p. 494. 


combination sustained by the consciousness of a real 
grievance completely triumphed. A hundred and 
ninety-six murders were committed in the year 
1832.' 1 

Tithes were not an institution of the ancient Irish 
Celtic Church. Indeed they were almost unknown till 

1172. In that year Pope Alexander III. 
Tithes °^ informed King Henry II. that the Irish 
Ireland. P^^^ ^^ tithes, while Giraldus Cambrensis 

makes a similar statement. True, the 
Council of Kells (1152) had imposed them ; but, not- 
withstanding, such were not generally paid till they were 
enjoined by the Synod of Cashel (1172) — its decrees 
having been ratified by King Henry. Bishop Doyle 
(a Roman Catholic), in a letter to the Marquis Wellesley 
in 1823, states : * Tithes in this country should always 
have been odious, they were the price paid by Henry 11. 
and the legate Paparo to the Irish prelates, who sold 
for them the independence of their native land, and 
the birthright of their people. Until that period tithes 
were almost unknown in this country. And from the 
day of their introduction we may date the history of 
our misfortunes ; they were not the only cause, but 
they were an efl&cient cause of all the calamities which 

But to come back to the Parliamentary Returns, 
which inform us of * a small Glebe ' with * no House 

on it.' The Glebe House was erected in 

anfL^dr 1'^^^ (^^^® ^^ *^® ^^S* g^^^^)» out-offices 

built, and other improvements made at a 
cost of £588 195. Old. Towards payment of this 

^ Leaders of Public Opinion, vol. ii. p. 130. 


amount the Commissioners of First Fruits granted the 
sum of £100. The house (an old-fashioned structure 
of three stories, the under story a basement with 
kitchens and pantries) was built during the last year 
of Francis Johnston's incumbency. In his will (1789) 
he specifies certain mo ies due him in respect to the 
erection of the house — namely that he was ' entitled 
to £250 for so much of the cost of building the Glebe 
House as his successor was to pay.' In 1816 extensive 
repairs were executed in connection with the house at 
a cost of £46 15s. lOd. A study was added in 1826 — ■ 
the work being completed February 15 of that 

The amount opposite ' Dilapidations and Repairs ' 

on the appointment of Marshall Joseph Mee as Vicar, 

in 1824, was £175 155. 6d. Mr. Mee had 

Dilapidations. « i -i t ■, , • i i • 

a buildmg charge agamst his successor 
for £64 12s. M., and also a certificate (dated January 
25, 1834) for £183 12s. 2d., ' expended by him under 
memorial.' On the appointment of his successor in 
1858, the amount claimed towards dilapidations 
amounted to £217 9s. 6d.^ 

After the Act of Disestablishment, which confis- 
cated all ecclesiastical property (except the church 

edifices and the graveyards attached there- 
Purchase of to, which did not come under the Act of 
Re^ctorv^ spohation) the Representative Church Body 
House. purchased, for the parish, 13a. 8r. 6p. of 

the original glebe, together with the rectory 
house and offices (a double set) — the government 
valuation of which is £37. The amount to be paid by 

* Papers, Diocese of Dromore, Public Record Office, Dublin. 


the parish in the transaction was £460 175. Id. which 
remained as a debt due to the Church Body — while 
the rector paid the interest on the amount as * rent.' 
In the Spring of 1898 an effort was made by the 
parishioners to clear off this indebtedness — when a 
bazaar was held (April 14 and 15) for that purpose — 
the amount reahsed being £200. The Representative 
Church Body and the Glebes Purchase Committee 
of the diocese generously advanced, respectively, 
the sum of £100 — thus leaving a balance due of 
£60 17s. Id. By a further grant of £28 175. 7d. from 
the Glebes Purchase Committee, and a local advance 
of £32, this balance was paid the Representative Body 
on July 19, 1909 — thus leaving the rectory house 
and glebe lands free of * rent.' We may state in this 
connection that the annual value of the * small 
glebe ' (60 acres) mentioned in the Parhamentary 
Returns was estimated in 1828 at £105, as portion of 
the clerical income — the vicar receiving besides (as 
we have seen) £200 per annum from ' Tythes under 
the Composition Act.' 

The value of the benefice was considerably in- 
creased in 1858 — when the vicarage was endowed 
_ ^^. with the rectorial tithes. * Primate Beres- 
age endowed ^^^^ ^7 ^^^^ of May 1858, with the consent 
with the of the Dean and Chapter (under Act 14 
Tithi'''*^ and 15 Victoria), conveyed to the Rev. 
John Campbell Quinn, Vicar, the Rectorial 
Tithes, hitherto appropriate to the See of Armagh — 
endowing the Vicarage with these Tithes arising from 
the townlands of ; 






Half Carrickrovaddy 




Half Carrickrovaddy 




Killysavan ) 

Tullymore ) 


Moneymore > . 

Aughintober J 


Held by Arthur Charles Innes 
at rent ch. (less 25 per cent.) 
of £85 25. Qd. 

. Kep. James Savage, £4 16s. 2ci. 

\ Earl of Clanwilliam, £21 1 9s. 2d. 

. John Heron, 16s. Sd. 

. Eepts. Gen. Meade, £31 15s. M. 

Isaac Corry, £18 2s. Od, 

. Fr. Colgan, £12 2s. 10^. 

Total— mi Us. Qd.' 1 

At present the total value of the benefice is only 
about £200 annually, and although we are not actually 
Present ' Starving on the meagre income, yet we are 
Value of in better financial position than were the 
Benefice. gQ^s of the old herenachs of the manor — 
the fifteenth-century vicars, even considering that 
during their long regime there was never a Mrs. 
O'McCrela at the vicarage ! It should be stated, how- 
ever, that the comparative value of money, say in 
the fifteenth century and now, is totally different. 

^ Churches of the Diocese of Armagh in MS., by Bishop Reeves 
(Armagh Library \ 


Donaghmore church has never been highly favoured 
in regard to benefactions. The only bequests we 

are able to record are two small legacies — 

' one from Mrs. O'Hara (nee Innes) of O'Hara 
Brook, CO. Antrim, and another (1909) from Mrs. 
Kidd (n4e Mathers), wife of George Ejdd of Buskhill. 
It will be noticed by the census of 1911 that there 

are only 141 Church of Ireland persons 
The Church in the parish, but that number does not 
^j^J^^^°" represent the Church congregation, which 
1911. is composed of many besides, from the 

parishes of Aghaderg and Newry, who 
reside in the vicinity. 

In the Pubhc Record Office, Dubhn, there is a 
long list of persons (upwards of fifty) excommunicated 

in the parish of Donaghmore, for about 
Excommuni. ten years from 1735, and of these only one 
Penances. ^^ recorded as belonging to the parish 

church — viz. a churchwarden (for not pay- 
ing parish money and making up his account), who 
has left no representative in the parish bearing his 
name. Opposite the names of the persons excom- 
municated are the various crimes of which they were 
guilty — three of whom we notice were exconomunicated 
for * prophaining the Sobbath.' There is no record of 
penances in these cases, but doubtless there were such. 
In regard to * penances ' we note in particular a case 
in this diocese, in 1832, where the penitent was 
' placed in the most conspicuous place in Dromore, 
Maralin, and Donaghcloney the three Lords' Days 
next,' and that he * shall stand barefooted and in a 
white sheet during the time of divine service in said 


churches/ thus publicly confessing his actual sin in 
the presence of God and the congregation, etc. 

There are several old Service Books, formerly in 
use, which are safely kept in the Glebe House. The 

oldest Book of Common Prayer in our 
B^^™ possession has on the front cover the 

following words, engraven in gold letters : 

* Chapel of Armagh House — 1796 ' ; but this date is 
evidently that of a rebinding. Unfortunately the 
title-page is missing and the first three months of the 
Calendar, with the Table of Lessons, and hence we 
have no date ; but there is evidence in the * Table of 
the Moveable Feasts ' that the book was published in 
1765. The State Prayers are for King George (George 
III.), Queen Charlotte ; George, Prince of Wales, 
and the Princess of Wales. The book is artistically 
bound, in brown leather with gold stencillings and 
fieurs de lis, and is in a fairly good state of preservation 
notwithstanding its age. It contains * The Order for 
Morning and Evening Prayer, Daily to be said and used 
throughout the Year ' ; ' The Litany or General 
Supplication ' ; the Collects, Epistles and Gospels ; 

* The Order for the administration of the Lord's Supper 
or Holy Communion ' ; ' The service for Holy Baptism ' ; 

* The form of solemnisation of Matrimony,' and the 
Catechism. On a fly-leaf are written in pencil the 
words ' Nobody owns this Book,' but the statement 
is incorrect ! The next Prayer Book in point of 
antiquity is dated 1828 and was printed at the 
Clarendon Press, Oxford, by * Samuel Collingwood 
and Co.' It contains the usual services, also ' The 
Articles of Religion,' and ' Constitutions and Canons 


Ecclesiastical.' * The Psalms of David,' by Tate and 
Brady, are given, and ' An alphabetical Table shewing 
how to find any psalm by its beginning.' 

Another Book of Common Prayer, which is dated 
M.D.CCC.XLVI, was * Printed by George and John 
Grierson (Dublin), Printers to the Queen's Most 
Excellent Majesty.' It contains, besides the Services, 
the Psalms (Tate and Brady) and * Constitutions and 
Canons Ecclesiastical.' There are two copies of ' The 
book of the Administration of the Sacraments, and 
* other Rites and Ceremonies of the Church, according 
to the Use of the United Church of England and 
Ireland ; together with the Form and Manner of 
Making, Ordaining, and Consecrating of Bishops, 
Priests, and Deacons.' These books are dated 
MDCCCLX and were * Printed by George E. Eyre and 
WiUiam Spottiswoode,' London. They are artistically 
bound in leather, and bear in gold letters on the front 
cover : ' Donoughmore Church, 1863.' 

The Holy Bible formerly in use contains, at the 
beginning of each book, a very good small engraving, 
in which is placed artistically the first letter of the 
opening chapter. The title-page is missing, but that 
of the New Testament affords us the following informa- 
tion in regard to printer and date : ' Dublin : printed 
by George Grierson, Printer to the King's most excel- 
lent majesty, at the King's- Arms and Two-Bibles 
in Essex Street, M.D.CC.XLI.' 

The Bible now in use bears on the front cover 
in gold letters the date 1845. It was printed at the 
Pitt Press, Cambridge, M.D.CCC.XXXIX, by WilUam 
Parker, University Printer. 

o 2 


The Service Books in use are dated MDCCCCI. On 
the front binding of each are engraven in gold 
letters the words : ' Donaghmore Parish Church, 

The church plate consists of a paten and chalice 
of solid silver — both of which are very fine and heavy. 

The former has the Irish hall-mark for the 
Plate^^'''''^ year 1724, and the latter for that of 1825. 

There are besides a flagon and large plate — 
both of plated ware. The following is the inscription 
on all four : ' Parish of Donoughmore — Kev. Marshall 
Mee, Vicar, 1825.' 

In this connection we will give the Eural Dean's 
report in 1824 — the Kev. Marshall Mee, Vicar — ' Foho 

Bible— bad, very bad. Three quarto Prayer 
Report of Books very bad. A pewter Chalice and 
1824 ' P^^*6 — ^^d- Surplice tolerably good, but 

no napkin.' (Eural Deans' Eeturns, Public 
Eecord 0£&ce, Dublin). 

Owing to the loss or destruction of records it is 
impossible to give more than a few of the Vicars of 
Vi rs of Donaghmore in mediaeval times, but un- 
Donaghmore. doubtedly the following held the Benefice : 

A.D. 1408. — John Mccrela was presented by the 

Primate to the Parish church of 

A.D. 1440. — John Mckerrell, ' Eector of Dompnach- 

mor ' died. 
A.D. 1440. — Gelacious McKerrell was appointed 

John's successor. 
A.D. 1487. — * John Omakrell, Eector of Dompnachmor.' 


A.D. 1584. — Donald Omakrell, Vicar of Donaghmore, 

A.D. 1584. — Peter Omakrell was appointed Donald's 


Bishop Reeves, to whom we are indebted for the 
above information,^ observes that the reason for the 
same name prevailing in these appointments 
^^ ' was owing to the position this family occu- 
pied as hereditary herenachs of the manor of Donagh- 
more. In consequence of the tribal organisation of the 
Irish Church there was a tendency to family succession 
in ecclesiastical and semi-ecclesiastical offices. The 
office of bishop and abbot frequently ran in families, 
as did the position of herenach, and hence we find the 
latter often hereditary, as in the case of the O'Makrells. 
A herenach was at first the superintendent of the 
church lands and the hereditary warden of the church. 
Originally, whoever founded a church was obhged to 
endow it with certain possessions for the maintenance 
of those who were to attend God's service therein, 
nor could such be consecrated till the instrument of 
donation was delivered by the founder. The endow- 
ment consisted chiefly of lands (and, as in Donaghmore, 
* lands next adjoining ' unto the church) * with servants 
appertaining thereunto, free from all temporal im- 
positions and exactions.' In order that those who 
ministered in holy things might dedicate themselves 
*onely to praier and the service of God,' herenachs were 
appointed to ' manure and occupie those landes,' as 
managers or stewards. They were originally clergymen, 

' Ecclesiastical Antiquities^ p. 112. 


and belonged to an order of archdeacons. Indeed 
* Archdiaconus and the Herenache have in the Irish 
tongue both the same name.' The deacons had the 
special care of the poor and strangers and the dis- 
posal of ecclesiastical monies, but the archdeacon (not 
the order of archdeacon of higher rank, who exercises 
jurisdiction under the bishop) was Herenach of the 
church lands. Subsequently the office fell into the 
hands of laymen, who with the Coarhes, the successors 
of the church-founding saints, privately enriched them- 
selves and their families by not only appropriating to 
their own uses profits intended for the church benefit, 
but by taking actual possession, in many cases, of the 
old church lands as absolute owners — out of which 
they were good enough to pay certain contributions, in 
money or kind, towards ecclesiastical purposes. When 
diocesan bishops were introduced in the twelfth 
centur^^ it was decreed that every ' corbe or herenagh 
should give unto the Bushopp (within whose diocese he 
lived) a yerely pension, more or less, according to his 
proportion out of his entire erenachie.' To this decree, 
we are told, the ' corbes and herenages submitted 
themselves, but hold their herenagie free for ever, and 
could not be removed by any of the temporale or 
spirituale lords, or other person whatsoever.' 

In the dioceses of Derry, Eaphoe and Clogher a third 
part of the ecclesiastical property in the herenach' s 
hands was assigned to the bishop for his support, the 
other two-thirds being allotted to church repairs, 
keeping of hospitality and the maintenance of the 
herenach. In Connaught the bishop had a fourth 
part, etc. In the several dioceses different customs 


prevailed for the distribution of church revenues. It 
may be noted that long after this old order of things 
had grown everywhere out of use it still remained in 
vogue in the north of Ireland. ^ 

But to return to the Vicars of Donaghmore. 

1634. — In this year Richard Pudsey, Vicar of 
Donaghmore, died. 

1634. — August 12, Patrick Dunken was appointed 
to the parish with that of Garvaghy. He was made 
Prebendary of Dunsport (or Dunsfort) in 1640. He 
seemed to have figured prominently at the time of the 
Rebellion, and was afterwards a * Deponent.' The 
following reference to him is taken from the Common- 
wealth MSS. in the Public Record Office, Dublin : 
* 26 September 1660, ordered that he (Rev. Patrick 
Dunken) should enjoy the Preb. of Dunsport, County 
Down, and Vicarage of Donaghmore, County Down, 
which he held before the rebellion, and from which he 
and his family were driven by the rebels.' ^ 

1661. — John Coffin was Vicar. 

1667. — October 26, Henry Harrison was appointed 
by the Primate to the Parishes of Kilbroney and 

1669. — March 25, Michael Matthews was appointed 

1682. — September 21, Jeremiah Radham was 
appointed to the parishes of Seapatrick, Donaghmore, 
and Aghaderg (Diocese of Dromore) with Donegore 
and Kilbride (Diocese of Connor) by faculty. It is 

' See Ussher's works, vol. ;xi. pp. 419-445 ; King's Holy Catholic 
Churchy p. 461 ; Reeves' Antiquities, p. 161. 

* According to some authorities Patrick Dunken was expelled 
from Dunsfort by the Cromwellians and not by the Rebels. 


to be hoped that the reverend gentleman faithfully 
discharged the spiritual duties of his little 
' diocese ' ! 

1690.— November 8, John Wetherby, F.T.C.D., 
was appointed Vicar of Donaghmore. In 1710 he 
was made Archdeacon of Connor, Prebendary of 
Dromara, and Dean of Emly, and in 1713, Dean of 
Cashel. He was Scholar, T.C.D., 1687 ; B.A., 1689 ; 
M.A.,1693; Fellow, 1 694 ; B.D.,1700 ; andLL.D.,1706. 
Dean Wetherby died at his lodgings. Fade Street, 
Dublin, Tuesday July 14, 1736, and was buried on 
the 21st at St. Nicholas Within, Dublin. On his 
resignation of the Vicarage of Donaghmore, Oliver 
Gardner was appointed. 

1734. — Oliver Gardner, Vicar of Donaghmore, 
died. B.A. (T.C.D.), 1682, and M.A., 1685. 

1734. — March 13, Paul Twigge was appointed 
Vicar. He was instituted April 3, 1735, and resigned 
in 1740. B.A. (T.C.D.), 1721, and M.A., 1724. 

1740. — August 8, Alexander Naismith became 
Vicar. He was instituted August 20, and inducted 
by William Eowan, Vicar of Seapatrick and Maghe- 
rally, on 22nd of that month. At the Visitation, 1740, 
he was appointed * to preach next visitation sermon.' 
He died 1758. 

1758. — April 18, George Vaughan was presented to 
the living and inducted May 26. He became B.A. 
(T.C.D.), 1732, and was some time Kector of Dromore 
and Annaclone. He was second son of John Vaughan, 
B.A. (who was also Kector of Dromore and Annaclone), 
by Anne ,his wife, sister of the Right Reverend Ralph 
Lambert, D.D., Bishop of Dromore. He married 


Margaret Smith of Clontibret, co. Monaghan. 
He died May 14, 1794. His second son, George, 
married Anne, daughter of Alexander Montgomery 
of Bessmount Park, co. Monaghan, and was grand- 
father of George Montgomery Vaughan of Quilly, 
CO. Down, J.P., B.A. (T.C.D.). He married Frances 
St. Laurence, daughter of General Hon. Arthur 
Grove-Annesley, third son of Richard, second 
Earl Annesley, and by her had issue (surviving) : 
Rev. George Vaughan, M.A. (Camb.), now of Quilly, 
and Rector of St. Michan's, Dublin ; Francis Warden 
Arthur Annesley ; Ernest Llewellyn ; Alice Katherine, 
who married the Rev, Joseph Quinn, M.A., Rector of 
Annalong, co. Down, and Margaret Beatrice, who 
married Ralph de Seton Dudgeon, 25th Bombay Rifles. 
1769. — March 14, Thomas Sacheverell (curate of 
Ballymore) became Vicar, and was instituted April 6. 
He was second son of Henry Sacheverell and his wife 
Elizabeth of Ballinteggart, co. Armagh. He was 
educated at Armagh under Mr. Martin, entered T.C.D. 
June 15, 1719, aged 18 years. B.A., 1724. He 
married Elizabeth, daughter of William Crozier of 
Stramore (who survived him). In his will, dated 
April 23, 1775, and proved July 15 following, he desired 
to be buried at the north side of the church of Donagh- 
more, opposite the steeple, as privately as possible. 
He bequeathed property in Tandragee to his widow and 
legacies to his niece Hester, daughter of his brother 
William, and the children of his nephew Meredith 
Atkinson, and appointed Thomas Kelly, Richhill, 
executor. He was descended from Francis Sache- 
verell (son of Henry Sacheverell of Reresby, 


Leicestershire, and his wife Gertrude, daughter of John 
Hunt of Lyndon, co. Eutland) by his wife Frances, 
daughter of William Gilbert of Lockboe, Derbyshire. 
Francis Sacheverell, who was born 1574, obtained 
in 1611 (9th James I.) from the Crown a grant of 2000 
acres then called MuUalelish and Leggacorn, co. Armagh 
(now known as the Kichhill Estate), which, on his death, 
descended to his eldest son Francis Sacheverell (men- 
tioned with his brothers Henry and William in the 
Muster Eoll of Ulster for 1631, the other brother, 
Eev. Clarence, being Eector of Eeresby), on whose 
death in 1649 the estate passed to his only child Ann, 
by his wife Dorothy, eldest daughter of the Eight Hon. 
Sir John Blennerhassett, P.C, Lord Chief Baron 
of the Exchequer, and his wife Ursula, daughter of 
Edward Duke. Ann Sacheverell married Major 
Edward Eichardson, M.P. for co. Armagh (Foster's 

* Funeral Certificates of Nobility and Gentry ' and 

* Ulster Inquisitions '). 

Eev. Thomas Sacheverell's sister Lettice married 
Thomas Woolsey (Settlement December 1, 1722), and 
from her the late John Buckby Atkinson and Andrew 
G. Sloan of Portadown are descended. 

1775. — July 19, Francis Johnston was collated per 
mortem Thomas Sacheverell. He appears at Visitation, 
August 15, 1775. A * Francis Johnston ' was Scholar 
(T.C.D.), 1735, and B.A., 1736. Francis Johnston 
(younger son of James Johnston of Tremont and Car- 
rickbreda, and grandson of the first Presbyterian 
minister of Donaghmore) married (Settlements dated 
December 17, 1780) Anne, daughter of John Martley of 
Bally fallon, co. Meath, by Clementina his wife, daughter 


of the Rev. Robert Meares, Rector of Almoritia, 
third son of Lewis Meares of Meares Court, co. West- 
meath. Francis Johnston had a son James and 
daughters Clemena and Eleanora, who married in 
1831 Hubert Kelly Waldron, J.P., D.L., of Drumena, 
CO. Leitrim, and Ashfort, co. Roscommon (High 
Sheriff, co. Leitrim, 1832), and had a son — Captain 
Hubert Kelly James John Johnston Waldron, 31st 
Regiment. Francis Johnston's will, dated April 25, 
1789, was proved June 27 of the same year. He died 
June 13, 1789. 

1789. — October 20, Brabazon Smith, M.D., became 
Vicar. Dr. Brabazon Smith, formerly of Limerick, 
married a daughter of Dean Hoare. He died in Newry, 
AprU 9, 1816. The following entries occur in the 
register of burials : * Sarah, wife of Rev. Brabazon 
Smith, M.D., Vicar of Donaghmore, was buried July 30, 
1796 ' ; ' Rev. Michael Smith, D.D., Precentor of the 
Diocese of Dromore, Rector of the Parishes of Maralin 
in the Diocese of Dromore, and the Parish of Tynagh 

in the Diocese of Clonfert, Prebendary of in said 

Diocese, and Chaplain of his Majesty's Garrison of St. 
Vincent in America, was buried August , 1796.' 

1816. — March (April 7 ?), John Mountgarrett was 
appointed to the benefice — having been promoted from 
the curacy of Drumbanagher, where he was held in 
high esteem. We take the following reference to him 
from the local Press : ' Mr. Mountgarrett has for nearly 
half a century distinguished himself by a pious and 
exemplary discharge of his duty as curate of Drum- 
banagher church in the Parish of Killeavy. A strong 
proof of the respect and attachment of his late flock 


has been evinced by their voluntary proposal to plow 
and harrow his present glebe containing 40 acres. 
In the preferment of this venerable gentleman, his 
Grace, the Lord Primate, has given additional proof of 
his earnest desire to reward merit, and still further 
exalt the character of the estabhshed church.' i The 
parishioners of Drumbanagher presented him with an 
address, April 23, 1816. He died at the Glebe House, 
March 1, 1824, and was buried in Drumbanagher 
churchyard. His tomb bears the following inscription : 
* Here lie the remains of the Kev. John Mountgarrett, 
Vicar of Donaghmore, who died the 1st March, 1824, 
aged 82.' Mary, his widow, died September 30, 1828. 
His younger son Warren, senior captain of the Armagh 
Militia, died January 31, 1851. 

1824. — March 1, Marshall Joseph Mee was appointed 
Vicar by the Primate. The Mees were a County Cavan 
family. From a Chancery Bill ('Nixon versus Mee,' 
entered June 12, 1772) we find that John Mee lived 
at Butler's Bridge, co. Cavan. His eldest son, 
Marshall Mee, married in 1743 EHzabeth, daughter 
of Edward Eeilly of TuUyco, co. Cavan, and was 
drowned October 1758, on his passage from England, 
where he had been on business about his lands in 
Leicestershire, leaving, with two daughters, an only 
son, George Mee. Mrs. Marshall Mee married, secondly 
(Licence Bond December 6, 1769), Matthew Nixon, 
J.P., CO. Cavan, second son of the Eev. Andrew 
Nixon, of Nixon Lodge, near Belturbet. Marshall 
Joseph Mee was a a son of the above George Mee. 
He entered Trinity College, Dublin, on March 7, 
1796, aged seventeen. Scholar, 1798. B.A., 1800. 
* Newry Telegraph, April 9, 1816. 


(Wrongly given in Dr. Todd's * Catalogue of Grad- 
uates ' as James Marshall Mee.) He was a curate 
of Tynan, co. Armagh, when appointed Vicar of 
Donaghmore. On his promotion the parishioners of 
Tynan at a largely attended meeting, April 19, 1824, 
passed a number of resolutions of a highly com- 
plimentary character regarding him and his work in 
that parish, one of which was as follows : 

* That the thanks of the Parish are justly due and 
are hereby given to him for his zealous and effective 
discharge, for the twenty-two years that he has lived 
among us, of the several important duties attached 
to his late office, which will long be remembered by the 
inhabitants of this extensive and populous district 
with grateful and reverential affection.' 

He died July 20, 1857, and was buried in Donagh- 
more parish churchyard. His wife, Susanna, died 
March 31, 1831, aged 55 years. 

1857. August 18, the Lord Primate appointed 
John Campbell Quinn Vicar of the Parish. Mr. Quinn 
was ordained by the Bishop of Kildare, August 10, 
1834, for the Curacy of Bally gawley, co. Tyrone. 
He became curate of Drumbanagher, co. Armagh, in 
March 1836, and curate of Donaghmore in December, 
1842. He was Kural Dean of Aghaderg, and a member 
of the Diocesan Council. 

He was second son of John Quinn of Newr5% and of 
Drum, CO. Monaghan, by his wife Mary, daughter of the 
Bev. William Campbell, D.D., Vicar of Newry, who was 
brother of theKev.Thomas Campbell, LL.D., Chancellor 
of Clogher, the well-known historian and friend of 


Doctor Johnson, mentioned in Boswell as ' the Irish 
Dr. Campbell.' He was born in 1811, and was 
educated at Dr. Henderson's School, Newry, and 
at Trinity College, Dublin (B.A., 1832, and M.A., 
1839). He married October 18, 1837, Mary Stuart, 
youngest daughter of Trevor Corry of Abbey Yard, 
Newry, J.P. and D.L., by whom he had issue (among 
others), viz. John Thomas Campbell Quinn of Tower 
Hill, J.P. (deceased) ; James Quinn ; Kev. William 
Quinn, Vicar of West Bradley, Glastonbury ; Mary 
Louisa, married Eev. J. T. Kingsmill, D.D. (T.C.D.), 
Kector of Hockering, Norfolk ; Norah Anne Elizabeth, 
married Eev. Eichard Plummer, D.D. (T.C.D.), Eector 
of Ashfield, co. Cavan ; and Alice Eva Jane, married 
Eev. Walter G. Morgan, B.A. (Durham), Vicar of St. 
Stephen's, Norwich. Mr. Quinn died at Eostrevor, 
November 15, 1882, and was buried in St. Patrick's 
churchyard, Newry. His widow died at Bath, 
November 27, 1891. 

1882. — November 24, the present Eector was 
appointed by the Board of Nomination, and was 
instituted on December 12 following by the Bishop. 
The writer is informed by a competent authority that 
it is not considered correct to make any special reference 
to himself. It may be stated, however, that he 
married April 30, 1901, Edythe Huntington, youngest 
daughter of the late Eev. Eobert Whitaker, M.A., of 
Trinity College, Cambridge, and Eector of Scorboro- 
cum-Leconfield (East Yorkshire), and Mrs. Whitaker 
of Figham House, Beverley, and granddaughter of 
Commander Whitaker, E.N., and William Duesbery 
Thornton-Duesbery of Skelton Hall and Gransmoor 


Lodge, J.P. and D.L. for the East and North Ridings 
of Yorkshire. 

The following were curates of the Parish of 
Donaghmore : 

1725.— Skelton. 

1727.--Henry McCullough. 

1728. — Thomas Barton, licensed October 1. 

1 729. — Samuel Burgess , M . A . , Hcensed September 27 . 

1732. — Henry McCullough, M. A., Hcensed December 
26 ; Scholar, T.C.D., 1726 ; B.A., 1728, and M.A. 1781. 

1785. — James Dickson, licensed September 22 ; 
Scholar, T.C.D., 1719 ; B.A., 1721. 

1742. — James Dixon. 

1758. — Mordaunt Hamilton. A *Mordaunt Hamil- 
ton' was Scholar, T.C.D., 1724; B.A., 1726, and 
M.A., 1729. 

1759. — Haskett, or Hacket. 

1764.— John Martin. 

1768. — George Howse— who was probably a son 
of the Archdeacon of Dromore (1742 . He may have 
been the Rev. George Howse who became Vicar of 
Kilbroney (Rostrevor), August 18, 1768. 

1769. Lindsay. 

1789.— John Price, B.A. (T.C.D.), 1779. 

1790. — John Mountgarrett. 

1791. — William Henderson. 

1795._William Leslie, B.A. (T.C.D.), 1788. 

1796. — James Glass. 

1801. — James Anderson. A 'James Anderson' was 
B.A. (T.C.D.), 1796, and M.A., 1882. 

1823.— James Rigg. 

1 888 . — Norman Johnston . 


1842. — John Campbell Quinn, subsequently Vicar, 
and later Eector. 

1858.— George Brydges Sayers, B.A. (T.C.D.), 
Senior Moderator (Math.), 1853 ; Div. Test., 1854 ; 
Deacon, 1854, Priest, 1855. Curate of Dunluce, 1854-8 ; 
Donaghmore, 1858-65 ; Bally willan, 1866-9 ; Vicar 
of Templecorran and Kilroot, 1869-76 ; Eector of 
Islandmagee, 1870-6 ; Vicar of Ballinderry, 1876 
(which position he held till the time of his death); 
Prebendary of Kilroot, 1875 ; Eural Dean of Lisburn, 
1876. He died June 16, 1903. His widow (Sarah 
Jane) died November 4, 1912. 

1866.— William James Askins, B.A. (T.C.D.), 1865 ; 
Div. Test. 1866; M.A., 1869. Deacon, May 27, 
1866 ; Priest, December 21, 1867. Curate of Donagh- 
more, 1866-72 ; Eector of Dunany, co. Louth, 1872, 
where he remained till his death in April, 1895. He 
married Jane, daughter of Francis King, D.D., Arch- 
deacon of Dromore and Eector of St. Patrick's, Newry. 

1870.— Eibton McCracken— Div. Test., T.C.D., 
1872 ; B.A., 1873 ; M.A., 1881 ; Deacon, 1870 ; Priest, 
1871 ; Curate of Donaghmore, 1870-83 ; St. Nicholas, 
Carrickfergus, 1883-6 ; Christ Church, Belfast, 1887 ; 
Portadown, 1887-92 ; Eector of Jonesborough, co. 
Armagh, 1892 ; Eural Dean of Creggan, 1895, and 
member of the Armagh Diocesan Council. He married 
Julia Maria Gray, daughter of the Eev. Edward 
Edmond Brett, Eector of Eathmackmee, co. Wexford. 

The appointment to the benefice since Disestab- 
lishment rests with a Board of Patronage, 
Nominators ^^^^^ consists of three parochial and a 
similar number of diocesan nominators, 
with the Bishop. 


The first record in the vestry minutes (which are 
missing from 1869 till 1876) of the appointment of 
Parochial Nominators is that dated July 26, 1876, when 
the following were chosen to the office : Arthur 
Charles Innes, Samuel Gordon and William Glenny. 
At a vestry meeting, April 23, 1878, Joseph Patterson 
was chosen nominator in the place of William Glenny 
(deceased). From 1879 till 1902, Arthur Charles 
Innes, Samuel Gordon and Joseph Patterson were 
trienially elected to the office. On the death of Mr. 
Innes-Cross (1902), George Gordon was appointed 
in his place. In 1903 Colonel Carden, Samuel 
Gordon and Joseph Patterson were elected, and 
continued in office till 1911, when Arthur Charles 
Wolseley Innes-Cross was appointed in the place 
of Colonel Carden (deceased). In 1912 these 
persons were reappointed, as were (for the first 
time) the following Supplemental Nominators : 
George Gordon, James Johnston Robinson, M.B., 
and William Mathers. 

Samuel Gordon of Mountkeamey and Curley 
House has been a Parochial Nominator, Hon. Secretary 

and Parochial Treasurer since 1876. The 
Go^Tn church owes him a debt of gratitude for his 

successful efforts during all these years, 
both in regard to its finances and all that con- 
cerns its welfare. He is a graduate of Trinity 
College, Dublin, and a magistrate for the County 
of Down. He married Georgina, daughter of the 
late Rev. Edward Edmond Brett, Rector of 
Rathmackmee, co. Wexford and has had issue, 
George Annesley, Percy Herbert (deceased) and 
Arthur Charles. 


William Glenny of Glenville was second son of 
Isaac Glenny, the antiquary, whose father and 

grandfather (both named Isaac) resided at 
William Glenville, now owned by James Swanzy 

Glenny, J.P. William Glenny died 
January 3, 1878. His brother, the Kev. Isaac 
Glenny, B.A., was for some time curate of St. 
Mary's, Newry. 

Joseph Patterson has been a Nominator since 
1878. He has always evinced a deep interest in the 

welfare of the church and has been a 
Patterson g^nerous contributor to its funds. He 

is a member of a much respected family, 
the Pattersons of Ballykeel. His father, WilHam 
Patterson, married Fanny, daughter of Hill Wills 
Maginnes (a lineal descendant of the great family 
of that name), whose not distant forbears owned a 
portion of the Maginnes property, viz. the townlands 
of Ballykeel, Cullen and Lurgancahone. 

George Gordon of Maryvale (brother of Samuel 
Gordon of Mountkearney) has been for many years 

the warm and constant friend of 
George Donaghmore Church, which is indebted 

to him for many acts of kindness and 
generosity. He married (as we have seen) Mary 
Alice Eden, daughter of Edward Smithson Corry, by 
whom he had issue, Sydney George, physician, 
Nottingham (married, November 191 2, Muriel, daughter 
of the late Lieut. -Colonel Finnis), and Edward Corry 
(deceased). Mrs. Gordon died February 1, 1906. She 
was a loving wife, a fond mother, and an estimable 
Christian and Churchwoman, and her demise continues 


to be keenly felt not only by the members of her 
family, but by the writer (who received from her many 
tokens of friendship) and the large and admiring circle 
who had the pleasure of her acquaintance. 

Colonel Henry Parry Carden was both Nominator 
and Rector's Churchwarden. By his death in the 

hunting field, December 19, 1910, the 
CaMen church lost an ardent lover, and the 

writer a true and constant friend — whose 
demise he deeply laments. Colonel Carden was a son 
of Colonel Carden of Knightstown, Portarlington, 
and grandson of Sir Henry Carden, Bart., of 
Templemore. He served in the Egyptian War of 1882, 
and for his services he received the Khedivial Star and 
third-class Medjidie. He also took part in the Nile 
Expedition in 1884-5, and for his conduct in the field 
was mentioned in despatches, and was granted the 
rank of brevet-major. On his return heme he was 
appointed to the command of the Duke of Cornwall's 
Light Infantry, stationed at Newry, and subsequently 
Commandant of the Discharge Dep6t at Fort Brock- 
hurst, Gosport. He filled this onerous and important 
position with distinction for five years, when (August 
1904) he retired from the army with the rank of 
colonel. He was a magistrate for the County of Down. 
He married, August 26, 1897, Mrs. Greer of Savalmore 
(granddaughter of John Boyd, M.P. and D.L.), widow 
of Edward Nugent Greer. He is survived by Mrs. 
Carden and two children, Catherine Constance and 
Sybil Parry, and tw*o stepchildren, Eleanor Beryl 
and Araby Mona. These good young people presented 
the church, as a Christmas gift (1907), with an 

p 2 


exquisitely worked set of markers for the Service Books 
(for Festivals). Accompanying the gift were the 
words : ' To the Glory of God, and for use in Donagh- 
niore Church— These six markers were worked by 
Dona de Winton (cousin) and given to the church by 
Beryl, Mona, Kitty and Sybil.— Christmas 1907.' 

James Johnston Kobinson, M.B. (T.C.D.), is the 

second son of the late Kev. George Kobinson, M.A., 

Eector of Tartaraghan, co. Armagh, by 

J.^J. Robin- j^-g ^.fg Augusta, eldest daughter of 

the Honourable Andrew Godfrey Stuart, 
son of the Earl of Castlestuart. He married, 
October 23, 1889, Katherine, daughter of John 
Lindsay, J.P., of TuUyhenan, co. Down. Dr. 
Eobinson contributed the generous sum of £50 
towards the Auxiliary Fund of the Church of Ireland 
—which was the largest amount subscribed in the 

William Mathers is descended from a family who 
have had a long and honourable connection with 

Donaghmore Church, and have supplied 
M there ^^® parish with many churchwardens for 

upwards of a century and a half. William 
Mathers, his forbear, was churchwarden in 1771, 
while his brother (George) acts in that capacity for 
1912-13. Two of the Mathers family have dis- 
tinguished themselves in Canada : viz. Isaac Henry 
Mathers (Assistant Eeceiver-General) and his son 
Henry Isaac (Norw^egian Consul at Halifax) — both 
of whom have been honoured by King Haakon of 
Norway, who recently conferred on them the order 
of the Knighthood of St. Olav. 



The two oldest books containing the vestry minutes 

of Donaghmore Parish are kept in the church safe 

with the parochial records. The earlier 

Former minQtes of the vestries are interesting 

Functions of ,. • n i j j. 

Vestries. reading, especially to modern vestrymen, 
and to those who are now responsible for 
the repair of our roads and the maintenance of the 
poor, as showing the functions of these bodies in 
former times, and as containing the names of those 
who in bygone days managed the affairs of the parish, 
both civilly and (largely) ecclesiastically. Vestries 
formerly levied the church cess and parish rate, and 
had charge of the roads and the poor. In the oldest 
vestry book of Donaghmore parish the vestrymen 
present appended their names to the minutes, which 
were read before the meeting adjourned, after the 
custom of the time, and although parishioners, they 
were evidently not all churchmen, nor was it necessary 
that they should be such. Vestries have a Common 
Law origin, but were subsequently recognised by Act 
of Parliament. The tendency of Statute Law has 
always been to curtail the civil functions of vestries 
and vest them in authorities other than ecclesiastical. 


A vestry was originally a public meeting of all the 
rated inhabitants of the parish, and having generally 
met in the vestry, where the clergyman kept his 
vestments, the gathering came to be called a ' vestry.' 

Owing to the brief space at our disposal a limited 
number of short extracts from the vestry records 
must suffice, while only subjects of special interest 
will be inserted in notes. The spelling in extracts, 
and of surnames, is that given in the vestry books. 

The first page of the earliest vestry book is missing ; 
but it evidently contained the minutes of a meeting 
held at Easter, 1771 — the names of those 
Vestry present being given on the second page — 

1771-807" ^^'^- Thos. Sacheverell (Vicar), James John- 
ston (son of Eev. James Johnston, the first 
Presbyterian minister of Donaghmore), Thos. Marshall, 
John Marshall, Joseph Marshall, John Marshall, Hugh 
Marshall, and three others whose names are effaced. 
The cess applotters were Archibald Lowry and Thomas 
Marshall. The Marshalls formerly composed 
Marshalls ^ numerous clan in Donaghmore — the two 
principal families residing at Buskhill and 
Annaghbane (later at TuUymurry). 

The Buskhill family is still represented by the 
Misses Marshall (Buskhill), and George Marshall 
(Fourtowns). Dr. Hugh Marshall of Annaghbane was 
the father of John Marshall of TuUymurry House — 
who had issue, viz. Hugh, John, Joseph, Margaret 
Anna, EHzabeth, Mary, and Eobert (the only survivor 
and not resident in the parish). Dr. Hugh had two 
daughters, one of whom (Mary) married George Scott 
and the other (Anna) Dr. Morrison — both of Newry. 
A daughter (Anna) of Dr. Morrison married the Eev. 


F. J. Lucas, D.D., Rector of Mountmellick, and another 
(Marion) Dr. Hayes, A.M.S. Mrs. Lucas (died Feb- 
ruary 14, 1903) bequeathed to the Representative 
Church Body the sum of £50 — the interest thereon 
to be apphed towards the upkeep of the family tomb 
in the churchyard. 

Towards the repair of roads, the vestry, October 2, 
1771, agreed that * one penny an acre be applotted 
and levied off the inhabitants ' of the parish. Among 
the collectors appointed were : Alexander Harper, 
David McComb and Henry Mathers. Directors ; 
Charles Ennis (Innes) (* on that part of the Parish 
called Clenn '), James Cochran and John Weir. 

Applotters : Thomas Marshall and Henry . 

Amongst those who signed the minutes were Thos. 
Sacheverell (Vicar), William Mathers (Churchwarden), 
and Richard Harcourt. 

The Harcourts were among the oldest residents of 
the parish. Three of the family came to Ireland 
(from England) in 1688, and took part in 
jr^ ^^ the Siege of Derry and the Battle of the 
Boyne — one of these being Richard, who 
subsequently settled in Donaghmore^and whose son, 
Richard, was the member of vestry in 1771. This 
Richard had a son, John, who, although a staunch 
churchman, became a strong anti-tithe man. He died 
in 1818. His son John (died 1877) married Jane, 
daughter of Thomas Woods of Shankhill (uncle of the 
late David Woods), and had issue, of whom were 
Rev. Richard Harcourt, M.A., D.D., of Baltimore, 
a prominent minister of the American Methodist 
Episcopal Church, who died in 1911 ; James, whose 
son, Dr. Richard Eugene Harcourt, is an eminent 


physician at Anfield, Liverpool ; and Joseph (the last 
direct representative in the parish, and resided at 
Eose Cottage), who died October 11, 1903. A good 
authority, who knew the Harcourts intimately, thus 
writes of the family (and we heartily endorse his 
words) : ' They were amongst the finest characters 
I have known, faithful, simple, industrious. God- 
fearing, . . . delightfully anxious to give pleasure to 
their friends. They were of the greatest integrity 
and were always noted for their reverence of law 
and order.' 

Various levies were made by the vestry of April 21, 
1772 : Elements, IO5. ; to carrying a child to Foundhng 

Hospital (Dublin), 145. Id. ; parish clerk, 
Leges' ^^' sexton, lis. 2d.; church window, 

two panes, 25. 2d. ; applotters (Thomas 
Marshall and Archibald Lowry), 25. 2d. ; church- 
wardens, 155. — ' ten shillings of this sum to be levied 
off that part of the Parish called Glen, and five shiUings 
off Donaghmore.' The following appended their 
names to the minutes : Thos. Sacheverell (Vicar) 
William Mathers, John Marshall, John Weir, Archibald 
Lowry, Hugh Marshall, Andrew McCall and Hugh 

Vestry, August 24, 1772.—' The slating of the roof 
of the Church is finished, and it is approved. — Thos. 
Sacheverell (Vicar), William Bourke, Kobert McAllister, 
Thos. Marshall, Jonathan Welsh, and John Demry.' 

The vestry, October 6, 1772, ' agreed that 
epaira ^^^ penny an acre be applotted and levied 

off the inhabitants of said parish, before 
the first day of May next,' to repair certain roads, 
one being * the road from the Church of Donaghmore 


to Tuscan Pass ' (Jerretzpass). Charles Innes and 
Isaac Corry, directors ; Jonathan Welsh and Eiehard 
Harcourt, overseers. The other roads to be repaired 
are specified, and also the several townlands taxed 
for particular roads, together with their respective 
directors and overseers. The minutes of this vestry- 
are very full, and beautifully written in a fine round 
hand, evidently by Isaac Corry. The following 
appended their signatures : Thomas Sacheverell (Vicar) 
Henry McBride and Robert Douglass, churchwardens : 
Isaac Corry, Thomas Marshall, Samuel Ferguson, John 
Shannon, Hugh McLory, Alexander Douglass, Richard 
Harcourt, John McElroy and Jos. Morrison. 

John McElroy was the great-grandfather of James 
McElroy (of Dromantine townland), the present 

representative in the parish. His son John 
^°il married twice, and had issue by his first 

wife, viz. William, Joseph and John, and 
by his second wife {nie Harcourt), Samuel, Richard 
and James. William, the eldest son of the first mar- 
riage, went to America early in the eighteenth century, 
and left issue, John E. McElroy, who married Miss 
Arthur, sister of the President of the United States. 
President Arthur being a widower, Mrs. McElroy did 
' the honours ' at the White House during his Presi- 
dency. Mr. and Mrs. McElroy reside in the city of 
Albany, New York State. 

Joseph Morrison was son of John Morrison of 
Ardkeeragh. He took a prominent part in the affairs 

of the parish, and was often employed as 
M<^8on arbiter to settle local disputes. His son, 

John, was a doctor of medicine, and died in 
Newry, January 18, 1828. His son, Samuel, was 


well known for the active part he took with the United 
Irishmen in 1798. The Welsh Horse paid frequent 
visits to his father's residence and threatened to burn 
his house in case he refused to disclose the whereabouts 
of his ' profligate son.' He seemed to have had 
narrow escapes from the soldiers, but to have always 
eluded them, hiding under beds and other secluded 
retreats, until, finally a ' house ' was built for him in 
a ' turf stack,' where he remained till matters quieted 

At a vestry, February 8, 1773, it was agreed 

' that the sum of one pound five shillings and five 

pence be applotted and levied off the Parish 

° ' for nursing and carrying a child to the 

Foundling Hospital, and for one yard of flannel.' 

There are numerous records in the vestry minutes 
of levies made for the purpose of sending deserted 
children to the Foundling Hospital, Dublin, a distance 
of 54 miles, the cost being about £1 in each case. In 
a particular instance (May 6, 1818) where * clothing ' 
the tiny creature was included, the cost was £2 ds. Sd. 

At the vestry held June 1, 1773, amongst the 
sums levied were 3s. for three panes of glass in the 
windows of the church, and ' to a new gate for the 
churchyard, to be made in the form of a door,' £1 2s. 9d. 

A vestry, October 5, 1778, agreed among other 

things, that * the sum of one pound, shillings and 

nine pence, should be levied to repair the School House 
of Donaghmore at the Church of Donaghmore, and 
that Andrew Marshall and Alexander McGoffin do agree 
with some person or persons to make such repairs.' 
Amongst those who sign the minutes of this vestry 


are : Adam Wilson, John Main, Kobert Waterson, 
James Findley and William Walker. 

Vestry, February 8, 1774. — ' It is agreed that one 
pound two shillings and pence be applotted and 

levied off the parish to repair the roof of the Church 
and the East window.' 

The vestry, May 24, 1774, levied the sum of 
4s. lOJd. * to an advertisement in the Newry paper 
for punishing strolling beggars.' It was 
■Q^^\^f * agreed that two persons be appointed in 
each townland to return the names of such 
persons as are real objects of charity.' Strolling 
beggars at this date formed a numerous class. Doubt- 
less it was customary at the time, and even in more 
recent years, for many of the poor to take up ' begging ' 
as a profession, and there being no Unions, the number 
of such mendicants would naturally be all the greater. 
We may be sure, too, that not a few of these were 
impostors, and hence stringent measures had to be 
adopted in regard to * strolling beggars ' by the vestry. 
The law against such was extremely severe at the time, 
and indeed had been so since the reigns of Henry VIII. 
and Elizabeth. The monasteries had largely ministered 
to the poor, but it was not till about sixty years after 
their suppression that the State interfered to make 
* provision ' ; but instead of relief it largely punished. 
The old laws of the above reigns were still in force 
at this date, but we are sure the members of the vestry 
were averse to their enforcement in either their spirit 
or letter. Hence we find the excellent provision 
adopted to ascertain in each townland the names of 
those who were ' real objects of charity.' The names 


of the good men who composed this vestry are worthy 
of record — viz. Thomas Sacheverell, vicar ; WiUiam 
Walker and James Finley, churchwardens ; George 
Vaughan, David Black, Jonathan Walsh, Thomas 
Marshall, Andrew Marshall, and Eichard Harcom*t. 

Much business seems to have been transacted 
at the vestry held September 5, 1775. Sums were 
levied for the repair of roads, and applotters, collectors, 
and directors appointed. This vestry presented the 
sum of five pounds to be levied towards slating the roof 
of the church — the Eev. Francis Johnston (vicar) and 
Jonathan Welsh to be overseers. The vestry also 
levied £1 14s. l^d. to Jonathan Welsh for * moving 
and lowering the pulpit and reading-desk, and erecting 
a new pedestal for the pulpit.' The following item 
appears in the minutes : ' We present that the ground 
in the church on which Charles Innes, Esq., has erected 
two pews — shall be the property and shall always 
belong to the said Charles Innes and his Heirs.' These 
minutes are signed by Fras. Johnston, vicar, Charles 
Innes, James Walker, Jno. Bradford, John Courtney 
(Beech Hill), John Cox, and a number of others whose 
names are frequently mentioned as vestrymen at this 

The vestry held October 31, 1775, applotted the 
sum of £42 16s. 8^. ' required to be levied ofi' this 
Parish by the War* (warrant) of the 
County ^ Treasurer of this County.' The sum 
Warrant. required to be levied by the County 
Treasurer's warrant in 1779 was £47 4s. Gd., 
and that in 1781 amounted to £54 3s. 4 J., thus showing 
a stead)'- increase. 


' At a vestry held in the Parish Church of Donagh- 

more, on Monday, the 15th day of Jany., 1776, in 

pursuance of notice given the preceding 

'^u'iSfry"' ^^^^'^ ^^y» ^^^ ^^ appearing to this 
vestry that on the 10th or 11th, just in 
the dead time of the night, one of the windows of the 
south side of the church was broken open by some 
person or persons unknown, who burglariously entered 
thereat and feloniously took and carried away out 
of this church one large foUo Bible, one large folio 
Common Prayer Book used in the church for Divine 
Service, the property of the parishioners of this 
parish, and that said burglars did also break the box 
where the records of this parish and the money collected 
for the poor are appointed to be kept, and did also 
spoil the lock of the church door and part of . . . this 
church.' The vestry * ordered and presented ' that a 
sum of ten pounds be levied and offered as a reward 
for the discovery and conviction of the person or 
persons who committed the burglary, and that an 
advertisement be inserted in the Newry and Belfast 
papers to that effect. Although at a subsequent 
vestry 25. M. is paid ' William Wallace for giving 
information ' and 25. 8^. to * the sexton for searching,' 
no record appears as to ' discovery and conviction.' 

January 19, 1776, the vestry presented the sum 
of £2 85. 6d. to be ' levied off the inhabitants,' and 
paid the Rev. Francis Johnston (vicar) to purchase 
four new Common Prayer Books to be used for Divine 

April 9th in the same year the sum of £3 155. was 
* levied off the inhabitants for repairing the roof of the 


church, according to the estimate given by James 
Parker.' This vestry granted George Vaughan of 
Maryvale a space in the church on which he agreed to 
erect a * wainscott seat ' — to be his property and 
' his heirs'.' Similar grants were made to Andrew 
Marshall, David Black and John Cox. It will be noted 
that a corresponding grant was made to Charles Innes 
in 1775. 

Nothing is said in the minutes regarding the pay- 
ment of rent for these seats or pews, and quite rightly. 
^ . Pew rents in any shape or form were and 

ir GW8 HI , • 1 T 1 

Ancient are illegal m ancient parish churches. All 
Parish pews in such are the common property of 

Churches. ^^^q parishioners, and all have the right to 
be seated, though it does not follow that all 
have the privilege of possessing a pew. Pews and 
seats may, of course, be assigned to certain families 
or individuals, but they cannot be rented — nor can 
they be legally conveyed to a ' man and his heirs.' 

At a vestry held May 28, 1776, the sum of £3 13s. 
was ' presented,' to be paid Thomas Marshall ' for 
rough casting, jointing, and white- washing 
White- ^he Church inside and outside.' It is to 
^e^Church ^® feared that vestries at this date had not 
very exalted ideas regarding church decora- 
tion. The writer is credibly informed that even in 
more recent times it was customary to lime-wash the 
portion then standing of the old Celtic Cross ! 

The minutes of a vestry held April 1, 1777, contain 
the following items : ' We present eleven pounds, 
fifteen shil. be levied off the Inhabitants of this Parish 
... to purchase flags to flag the aisle ' of the church, 


and make other necessary improvements ; also * the 
sum of eight shillings and three half-pence ... for a 
copper box for collecting the poor money.' The 
following appended their names to these minutes : 
Francis Johnston (vicar), Isaac Kidd, William Mathers, 
Chas. Innes, David Black, Hugh Marshall, Andrew 
Weir, Archibald Lowry, Robert Bell, Jos. Morrison, 
J. Bradford, Adam Wiley, Samuel Ferguson, Robert 
McAllister, Andrew McCall, John McElroy, James 
Walker, Jonathan Welsh, Thos. Marshall, John 
Shannon, John Harcourt, Andrew Marshall, Jas. 
Johnston, and Robert Copeland. 

The church roof seems to have required much 
attention at this period. We find a vestry of June 9, 

1778, levied the sum of * eight shillings 
Roof ^ ^^^ eight pence for repairing the roof of 

the church.* Also on December 1 of the 
same year the vestry levied the sum of * sixteen 
shiUings and three pence ' for a similar purpose. 

On April 6, 1779, £41 was * levied off the inhabi- 
tants ' of the parish for the purpose of re-roofing and 
' new slating this church this summer,' and it was 
presented that John Weir and Andrew Marshall shall 
' lay out and choose the boards and slates.' At subse- 
quent meetings of the vestry each townland is assessed 
for a certain amount of the sum, which is increased 
to £53 13.S. Od. 

A vestry. May 81, 1779, levied the sum of £1 IO5. 
to be paid ' James Parker for making a stone and lime 
comish to this church and for ruff casting and making 
the same like to the rest of the walls of this church and 
repairing the plaster in the inside that has been broken 


by striping and putting on the new roof.' This vestry 
also levied the sum of £4 135. to be ' paid James Parker 
for buying a parcell of tenpenny nails and driving a 
nail in every slate.' 

At a vestry held in the parish church, September 6, 
1780, ' a penny an acre is levied off the inhabitants ' 

towards the repair of several roads which 
Vestry q^^q specified. The directors mentioned 

1780-1800. ^^® ' Charles Innes, John Courtney, Isaac 

Corry, Rev. Francis Johnston, John Weir, 
Andrew Marshall, David Black, James Cochran, and 
Thos. O'Hare. 

Vestry, September 2, 1783. — ' We present that no 
road that hath been formerly presented to be repaired 

shall at any further vestry be presented to 
Stringent ]jq repaired untill the overseer and collectors 
merftT'^ ' ^^^^^ account on oath that the several sums 

that have been presented to be levied hath 
been honestly applied to the road for which it was 
presented to repair.' ' We present that in future we 
shall not allow the overseer of the roads in this Parish 
to charge in his account at vestry more than one 
shilling for each day that he shall be employed in 
overseeing.' We wonder had anything been ' rotten 
in the state of Denmark,' that necessitated these 
stringent * presentments ' ! Probably it was only a 
mistake — for sach will happen even in matters not 
altogether secular, as the following case will illustrate. 
A certain Archdeacon discovered an error in the 
returns of a particular parish. An account 85. 4c?. 
appeared on both sides of the financial statement, as 
' balance due to wardens ' and as * balance in hand ' — 
the totals on both sides by a clever e^eycise of mathe- 


matical acumen being represented as equal. The 
Archdeacon concerned sent the form back at once, 
called attention to the remarkable error, and asked 
for an explanation. In reply he received a polite 
letter expressing regret, and adding, * We discovered 
our mistake as soon as we had posted the form, but we 
did not think it worth while to recall it as we thought 
you would not find it out ' ! 

Vestry, February 24, 1784.—' We present the 
sum of nine shillings and two pence to be levied off 
the Inhabitants of this Parish and paid to the Rev. 
Fras. Johnston to purchase a book containing three 
Quires of Strong Paper and Bound, with Pockets and a 
Flap, in Ruff Calf Skin, in which a register of all 
the Baptisms, Marriages, and Burials is to be kept.* 
We regret to state there is no book of such elaborate 
design, containing parochial records, amongst those 
that have come down to us. 

At the vestry held April 18, 1784, a large number 
of presentments were made, some of which were as 
follows : Ten shillings to purchase the sacred elements ; 
one pound two shilhngs and nine pence to pay the 
sexton's salary ; two pounds to be paid to James 
Parker * for his good and honest slating of this church ' ; 
and the sum of five pounds as the salary of the clerk, 
John Harcourt. 

The following persons held the office of Parish Clerk 
at the years opposite their names (as appears from the 
Ordinary and Primary Visitations) : Thomas 
Clerks of Sharp, 1725; John Harcourt, 1740 ; Charles 
Donagh- Alexander, 1769 ; John Harcourt, 1774 ; 
"^°'®' John Harcourt, 1798. John Harcourt was 

succeeded by his son, John, who held the position for 


many years. He was succeeded by David Greenaway 

(of Lurganare), who remained parish clerk till the 

disestablishment of the church, and indeed nominally 

till his death, March 31, 1910. He was a devoted 

churchman and faithful parish clerk. 

The office of parish clerk was formerly one of some 

importance, and was, moreover, a freehold under the 

Establishment. On occasions, it seems. 

The Office ^he clerk assisted the clergyman in the 
of Parish • 1 T_ T_ J 1- • f 

Clerk. parish church, and wore a surplice m former 

times. In the vestry books of St. Peter's, 
Cornhill, London, September 22, 1575, it is recorded 
that the parishioners agree that ' Robert Mydelton, 
our Clarke, shall not say any more serments puWicly 
in this churche.' An instance of the clerk accompany- 
ing the clergyman to the * visitation of the sick ' occurs 
in the parish register of Manfield, Yorks. Against 
the burial entry of Thomas Smythe, Blacksmith, in 
1604, it is noted that the deceased was ' a recusant 
reclaiming and renouncing prayer when the vicar and 
clerk came to visit him.' In the north of England, 
long after the Reformation, it seems to have been cus- 
tomary for the clerk to wear a surplice, as the following 
extracts from churchwardens' accounts show : 

St. Oswald's, Durham, 1580. — ' Paid for iiii yards 
of linnen to ye clarkes surpcloth, and for making the 
same — 4s. 2d.' 

Pittington, Durham, 1620. — 'i For the dark's surples 
and for making of it — xviiic?.' 

S. Nicholas, Durham, 1667.—' Pd. to Annie Hedley 
for 3 yards and | of cloth for the sleeves of the Gierke's 
surplice— 75.' 


1678. — * For the minister's and clerke's surpl esses 
necks lyneing and new cloth for the same — 15. id,* 

1698. — ' For altering the clerk's surpcloth — Is.' 
(Quoted from Surtees Society, Ixxxiv.) 

It should be stated, however, that as cler-ks were 
in * some few instances in Holy Orders,* probably 
those mentioned may have been clergymen. ^ 

Vestry, September 7, 1784. — * We present a half- 
penny an acre to be levied of the Inhabitants of this 
r . Parish to build a school house on the 


to build Glebe of Donaghmore.' The vestry held in 
Schoolhouse : October following resolved that inasmuch 
rate oppose . ^^ ^j^-g ^mount was insufficient to build 
and furnish the schoolhouse, a further sum of one 
farthing per acre be levied for the purpose. 

The inhabitants of the parish seemed opposed to 
the rate ; for it is thus recorded in the minutes of the 
vestry held March 80, 1785 : ' The inhabitants refuse 
to pay that part of the Cess laid on this Parish for 
the building of a school house on the Glebe of Donagh- 
more.' At a subsequent vestry held the following 
May, it was decided not to proceed with the building 
of the schoolhouse, as it would be * inconvenient and 
useless to the larger part of the inhabitants on account 
of their distance from it.' 

Vestry, April 18, 1786. — * We present the sum of 
sixteen shillings and three pence to be levied off the 
Inhabitants of this Parish and paid to the Rev. Francis 
Johnston to buy a new Table Cloth for the Communion 
Table.* This amount not proving sufficient, an extra 
I65. Sd. was levied by the vestry, April 10, 1787. 

' See Stephen's Commentariedt vol. ii. p. 703, and 7 & 8 Vict. c. 69. 

Q 2 


The vestry of September 7, 1786, made a large 
number of presentments for the repair of roads on 
diltoent parts of the parish, when various directors, 
overseers, and collectors were appointed. 

The minutes were signed by the following : Fras. 
Johnston (vicar), John Shannon, Chas. Innes, Jos. 
Morrison, David Black, Henry Neil, Wm. Kidd, 
Saml. Ferguson, Robt. Teat, Robert Shannon, Jas. 
Taylor, and Jno. Malone — who in the vestry minutes 
of September 4, 1788, appears as the ' Rev. Mr. Malone,' 
when he is appointed overseer and director of a road 
to be repaired at * Ballymacratty Mill.' 

The vestry, 5, 1790, requested that * the 

churchwardens in future give regular notice to the 
different Congregations in sd. Parish of all the future 
vestries the Sunday before sd. vestries shall be held.' 

The sum applotted for the use of the parish at the 
Easter vestry, April 26, 1791, was £8 15s. 4d. The 
amounts opposite the several townlands vary con- 
siderably. Among the largest are : Corgrey 135. Sd ; 
Killysavan, 12s. 5d. ; Dromantine, 10s. Sd. ; Bally- 
lough, 10s. Id. Some of the smallest are : Glebe, 
Is. Id. ; Buskhill, 3s. ; Maddydrumbrist 3s. 9^?. ; 
and TuUymurry 3s. 10^?. 

At the vestry, April 10, 1792, * The Rev. Wm. 
Henderson (curate) is hereby allowed to give Wm. 
Ross (sexton) 2s. M. which remains in his hands to 
help to buy a spade and shovel, with which he may 
supply the Parishioners to make Graves, but all who 
can afford to pay — to employ him, and pay him 
6% (?) for making a grave.' 

It is part of the sexton's duty to make all graves, 


and the fee for doing so is one of his perquisites, but 
unfortunately all parishioners do not see it in that 
hght, with the result that the poor sexton suffers 
pecuniarily thereby. 

The vestry minutes of October 16, 1792, are signed 
by the following : Wm. Henderson (curate), George 
Mathers, John McEUroy, James Walker, Robt. 
McAlHster, Arthur Magenis, John Walker, John 
Magenis, Patt. O'Hare, John Fairies, David Ferish, 
and Robert Copeland — cess applotter for the year. 

At the vestry, April 2, 1793, among the sums 
levied are six pounds to * John Harcourt for officiating 
as Parish Clerk.' 

The elaborate minutes of the vestry of September 5, 
1793, are evidently the handwriting of several persons, 
but mostly in that of Isaac Corry, who appends his 
signature, as does George Vaughan and several others. 

* At a vestry held in the Parish Church of Ponagh- 
more on the 22nd day of April, 1794, the sum of 
twenty pounds six shillings was laid on Sd. Parish 
to answer the presentments therein mentioned,' viz. : 

Glen £9 11 1 1 Andrew MarshalD . , 

Donaghmore £10 14 1 Robert Copeland] ^PP^^"®^^- 

£20 6 

The Militia at this time occupied the attention of 
a number of vestries. Each parish was called upon 
at the time to provide a certain quota of 
MiUtia nien, who were chosen by lot, to serve in 

the Militia for three years. Those un- 
willing to serve were obhged to provide substitutes, 
who were selected in the same manner. Indeed, it 


seems the force was for the most part composed of 
the latter. 

The vestry met March 10, 1795, * To consider the 
most proper method of providing the men necessary 
for the new levy of the Militia ' — when it was resolved : 
' That for the purpose of enlisting substitutes to serve 
in the militia for this Parish, the sum of three half 
pence per acre be levied off the inhabitants of the 
different townlands.' The following persons, amongst 
others (whose names are effaced), were appointed to 
' lift ' the amounts levied in the several townlands : 
John Maginnis, Lawrence Watts, James Connor, 
Ambrose Cooley, Hugh McKelvey, John Smith, 
Thos. McCartney, Terce. Heavy, Pat Treanor, John 
Savage, Artr. White, Sam McCullogh, Mick O'Hear, 
John Harcourt, Tom Marshall, John Burns, Wm. 
Cowan, Jo Morrison, Robt. Douglas, John Bradford, 
Dr. Marshall, Andw. Wilson, Sandford Kidd, David 
Weir, John Moffet, And. Marshall, Arch. Lowry, 
Christr. Jordin, John McElvey, And. McCall, Nath. 
Weir, Henry McGuffin, James Marshall, and John 

The vestry further resolved : * That the above 
money be raised and paid to the Rev. Wm. Leslie 
(Curate) and Arch. Marshall, by Friday next the 
13th March, who are hereby appointed Treasurers and 
also Delegates with Mr. Courtney (Beech Hill) to go 
to Rathfriland to settle this business with the Governor 
and Dept. Governors.* 

There seems to have been a previous levy made by 
the vestry in regard to the Militia (date effaced) for 
the purpose of ' assessing the inhabitants of said 


Parish . . . for a man that was drawn in the Militia,' 
when it was ' Resolved, first, that one half penny per 
acre be levied of the inhabitants of the said Parish by 
the subconstables of the Parish and the subconstables 
to have one shilling in the Pound for collecting the 
same,' etc. 

' At the vestry held in the Parish Church of Donagh- 
more (Pursuant to Legal Notice given) on Tuesday the 
17th of Oct. 1797 for the purpose of setthng the affairs 
of the Parish in Respect of the Mahtia (Militia) it 
being found that there is Nine men Drawn in said 
Parish, and that ther (there) is a Deficiency of Money 
to pay for the said Nine men — Resolved that one half 
penny per acre be levied off the Inhabitants of the 
several townlands in said Parish and paid to Mr. 
Archd. Marshall on the 20th Instant for the purpose 
of finding substitutes for (and relieving the Parish for 
four years from being called upon for Militia men) 
Henry Murtagh, Ballylough, Josh. Cole, Lurganare ; 
John Purdy, Ballymacrattybeg ; John McClung, 
Tullymurry ; Jas. Walker, Ballylough ; Wm. Byrne 
Ringbane ; John McCoulaugh, Tullymore.' 

The members of the Donaghmore church vestry 
were presumably ' men of peace,' yet, notwithstand- 
ing their pacific qualities, they seem to have provided 
against the contingencies of war, for we find a few years 
later (December 19, 1804) the vestry met to consider 
and adopt * the best mode of raising the Parish's 
quota for three men to serve in the Royal Army of 
Reserve ' — when it was * Resolved that the church- 
wardens shall diligently exert themselves to procure 
the three men required by law as the quota for the 


Parish, and that the following persons form a committee 
to be aiding and assisting them in the execution of 
their office,' viz. the vicar of Donaghmore (Dr. Brabazon 
Smith), Archibald Marshall, Andrew McCall, David 
Gavin, Daniel Walker, James Donnell, David Weir, 
Wm. Bradford, Hugh McKelvey, Joseph Taylor, 
Andrew Marshall, and Arthur McSherry. 

Again, October 7, 1807, the vestry met to consider 
' the best means of raising eight men to serve in the 
militia,' when it was resolved : '1st, that sixpence 
halfpenny per acre be levied off the Landholders in 
said Parish. 2nd, that one shilhng and eight pence 
per head be levied off all the cotters in said Parish, 
liable to be ballotted for. 3rd. That two shillings and 
sixpence per head be levied off all the male servants 
and artificers in said Parish, liable to be ballotted for.' 

We must return to a vestry held September 6, 1797, 
the minutes of which contain the following item : 
* We present that David Gavin be General 
Genera Inspector of all the roads in said Parish, 
and to compell the inhabitants to clean the 
Water tables of the Different roads in the said Parish 
adjoining their holdings.' It is to be hoped the 
* Inspector General ' did his duty, and was able to 
execute his commands ! 

The vestry, September 17, 1800 — called * to grant 
money to repair the roads in the said Parish for the 
present year ' — passed eleven resolutions, 
Vestry ^^^q £j,g^ ^^q qJ ^hich are as follows : 

i800-20~ ^' * I^QSolved that the money laid on said 
Parish in the year 1798 has not been 
accounted for by any person.' 

2. * Kesolved that one penny per acre be levied off 



the several townlands in Mr. Innes's Estate, except 
Dromantine which townland is to be two pence, to be 
paid to Mr. Innes to Repair the Roads in said estate — 
Pat Murtagh, Collector and overseer.' Among the 
directors, overseers and collectors in the several 
townlands of the parish appointed on the occasion 
were the following : Isaac Corry, John Byrnes, Joseph 
McNeight, Joseph Wiley, Joseph Shanes, Chas. Court- 
ney, Michl. O'Hare, David Rice, Joseph McCollough, 
Hugh Books, Michl. Dooley, James Traynor, WilHam 
Parker, Andrew Wilson, James McKelvey. Opposite 
some of the collectors' and overseers' names are 
written : * Not gathered at all ' — i.e. the cess — and 
also, ' Not accounted for ' — but we notice, later, in 
all cases — * accounted for.' 

At a vestry, April 20, 1802, the sum of £10 was laid 
on the parish, and at another vestry on December 1 
of the same year * one farthing per acre was levied off 
sd. Parish for the purpose of sending foundlings and 
the repair of the church of sd. Parish which makes in 
all £15 45. Od.' 

The financial condition of the parish seemed 
prosperous, February 1, 1804, when the 
several cess collectors submitted the 
following report : 

David Cavin 

Robert Coplin . 

Archd. Marshall 

Andrew McCall . 

Archd. Marshall 

Balance in hand, £20 10«. 6df. 




















Towards church repairs the vestry, May 81, 1803, 
laid the sum of £20 on the parish. The following sums, 
among others, were levied by the vestry held on Easter 
Tuesday, 1805 — ' For the sexton — including spade 
and shovel — £1 IO5. M. ; and for making a gravel 
walk up to the church £2.' 

A vestry was held on September 9, 1807, for the 

purpose of examining the accounts of the preceding 

year, * 1st, Eesolved that the collectors for 

Defaulting ^j^g roads for that year have not neither 


Collectors, (either) collected nor (or) expended the 
cess for the year 1806, and that they are 
hereby required to attend at this church on the last 
day of Sept. Instant — to which day this vestry is 
adjourned, and there be prepared to pass their several 
accounts on Oath — otherwise steps will be taken to 
Inforce (enforce) such Collectors to account.' Signed : 
Brabazon Smith (Vicar), David Black, Archd. Marshall, 
David Weir, Alex. McGufiin. We fail to understand 
how the collectors could have been expected to expend 
money they had failed to collect ! The vestry held 
on ' the last day of September ' having made fourteen 
levies for the repair of various roads, resolved to adjourn 
till October for ' the express purpose of examining the 
accounts of such collectors as have not settled for 
last year.' In the minutes of the October meeting 
there is no reference to the matter. Probably all 
* accounted,' but the fact should have been recorded. 
The vestry of Easter Tuesday, 1808, called for the 
purpose of levying the annual church rates, the appoint- 
ment of cess applotters, etc., resolved that the following 
sums be raised, among others ; 


£ s. d. 
Sacred elements . , . .10 

The clerk 6 

Churchwardens . . . .10 
Applotters' fees . . . .022 

The Vicar seemed much perturbed that no levy was 
made for the sexton's salary at the above vestry, and en- 
tered the following * Protest,' appended to the minutes : 

* Though I have as Vicar of the Parish signed 

the act of vestry : yet I protest against 
Protest ^^® proceedings, as the Majority would 

not vote any salary to the sexton for 
ensuing year — Brabazon Smith — Vicar.' 

The following vestrymen appended their signatures 
to the minutes : Alex. McGofl&n, Andw. McCall, Arch. 
Marshall, Wm. Shannon, Arthur Magenis, David Weir, 
Saml. Morrison, John Walker, David Caven, Jas. 
McGoffin, John Harcourt, and Jos. Kidd. 

A stormy vestry was held April 4, 1809, when the 
Vicar was ' offered many insults.' The brief minutes 

consist of two short resolutions, which were 
Veatrv"^^ passed — after which the storm commenced 

and the proceedings terminated. The Vicar 
appended the following note to the minutes : 

* At this period of the proceedings in said vestry 
Mr. Archibald Marshall of Buskhill in the Parish 
having exerted much clamour against me, and offered 
many insults to me the Vicar of said Parish, I was 
under the necessity of quitting the church, before the 
annual business was transacted ; and all those who 
wished for regularity in church (Thos. Walsh of 


Maddydrumbrist, together with Eobert Hamilton of 
Ringclare, of the Presbyterian Communion and who 
is one of the churchwardens) followed me out and left 
Archibald Marshall's party in Church. Brabazon 
Smith — Vicar of Donaghmore.' 

A vestry was held May 2 following, doubtless to 
complete the business interrupted on the previous 
occasion, when it would seem peace reigned. The 
minutes of this vestry are signed by the vicar and the 
following members : James Thompson, WiUiam 
Mathers, John Harcourt, Henry Mathers, George 
Mathers, William Hinton, Edw. Larkin, Wm. Hull, 
Isaac Cauls, Wm. Mathers, James Walker, George 
Greenaway, James Lockhart, Bernard Bice, Joseph 
Cole, John Handlin, and Hugh Bice. 

The vestry,May l,1812,leviedthesumof £26 6sAid. 
to pay WiUiam Mathers ' the Parish costs and expenses 

that the said Wm. Mathers had been put 
•Parish ^q [^ j^jg official capacity ' — as church- 
Expenses.' warden. There is no record in the minutes 

as to the reason of William Mathers having 
incurred ' costs and expenses,' but probably, as we 
shall see later, the matter was connected with church 
repairs — the action of the warden therein being that 
exercised in his ' official capacity.' 

The vestry, December 22, 1812, resolved that £30 
be levied off the inhabitants of the parish towards 

the improvements and repairs of the church. 
Church 'im. Signed— Brabazon Smith (Vicar), WiUiam 
a^^R^p^irs.' M^-thers, Andw. WUson, Quinton Shannon, 

John Yoimg, Saml. Ferguson, and John 


Vestry, October 1813. — * There assembled at the 
Vestry 12 persons, nine of whom left the said vestry 
as they would not consent to make a rate for the 
repair of the Parish Church of Donaghmore which 
was the object of said Vestry.' 

Those that remained resolved that the following 
repairs (among others) were considered * absolutely 
necessary ' : Painting and Whitewashing the church, 
Sounding board for the pulpit. Prayer Books for the 
Communion Table and Pulpit, Communion Plate, and 
* gate and Piers for the Church yard,* entrance, etc. 
It was * resolved unanimously that towards affecting 
the foregoing and any . . . work that may be required, 
as well as whatever else may be deemed necessary, 
the sum of sixpence be forthwith levied off the Land- 
lords of said Parish for each and every acre they 
respectively hold * ; and further, it was resolved that 
in case the * sixpence an acre ' does not prove sufficient 
to cover the repairs, an additional rate should be 
made * particularly for painting the said church inside 
and outside.' 

The faithful three vestrymen who remained with 
the vicar (the Rev. Brabazon Smith) on the trying 
occasion were : William Mathers, Edward Innes, and 
John Harcourt. 

A * Notice to the Public ' by Peter Rooney appeared 
in the advertisement columns of the Neiory Telegraph, 
November 1, 1813, portion of which is as 
the^PubUc!' ^^^^o^s : ' Having seen in the Nev)ry 
Telegraph of Saturday last, an advertise- 
ment stating that there was wanted immediately, a 
person to undertake the carpenter's work of Donagh- 


more church according to agreement entered into by 
Mr. Peter Rooney, and left unfinished by him,' etc. 
Peter then proceeds to enter his protest against the 
charge, declaring that it was a ' most gross and 
scandalous falsehood,' and was made against him 
' for no other purpose than to influence the public 
mind in a suit now pending between him and the 
churchwardens for the amount of his contract.' He 
relies on the following ' certificate ' : ' We the under- 
signed Parishioners of the Parish of Donaghmore in 
the County of Down, do hereby certify that we viewed 
and examined the work done by Peter Eooney, Car- 
penter, for the Parish Church, and found the same 
fully executed and done in every respect agreeable 
to the contract entered into by him. Arthur Innes, 
Archibald Marshall, Wm. Kidd, Eobert McCall, 
Andrew Marshall.' 

A * Notice ' by William Mathers, Churchwarden, 
was published in the Newry Telegra'ph, November 5, 

1813, thus : ' I, Wilham Mathers, church- 
' Notice ' by warden of the Parish of Donaghmore, 
Mathere having seen an address *' to the public "... 

signed Peter Rooney, find myself constrained 
in vindication of such facts and truths as mil in a 
short time fully appear, to contradict the various 
statements therein set forth,' etc. William Mathers 
makes out a strong case against Peter Rooney's con- 
tentions. He has on his side the Vicar of the Parish 
(Rev. Dr. Smith) and the vestry (October — , 1818), 
which resolved ' That Peter Rooney who undertook 
the repairs of Donaghmore Church has not fulfilled 
his contract with the churchwardens, and that he has 


greatly injured and damaged the flags of said church, 
and that the churchwardens shall call upon him to 
fulfill his agreement.' 

We are unable to find in the vestry minutes or 
elsewhere any record of legal proceeedings having been 
instituted in the case. 

The vestry, April 13, 1819, levied the sum of £40 
* to finish the School house ' (and £5 for the building 
of an iron gate for the grave yard and for 
hou^°^°°^ putting on cap stones on the pillars). 
There was, of course, an earlier applotment 
towards building the schoolhouse, of which there is 
no record as the vestry minutes for a few years are 
missing. The schoolhouse was built in 1818, costing 
the sum of £81 10s., but it would seem though * built * 
was not * finished ' ! 

The appointment of parish schoolmaster (and the 
superintendence of * the affairs of said schoolhouse ') 
was assigned by the vestry. May 1, 1820, 
Records *^ ^ committee ; but, notwithstanding, the 
1820-50 : ofiice seems to have been delegated to ' a 
Parish meeting of the Parishioners,' convened 

T^tchers. ^^^ ^^' ^^^^' when, among seven candi- 
dates for the post, William Kobinson was 
chosen, at a salary of ' £30 for one year, he (William 
Robinson) paying the sum of two shillings and six 
pence rent for the accommodation of House and 
Garden.' Doubtless the building of the schoolhouse 
was only a re- building, for we find a parish school here 
at least since 1725. 

The succession of teachers up till 1790 was as 
follows : Thos. Sharp, 1725 ; Charles Alexander, 1769 ; 


John Harcourt, 1774 ; Samuel Sloan, 1776 ; James 
Parker, 1781; James McMahon, 1782 ; John Maxwell, 
1783 ; Kobert Creighton, 1784 ; Robert Credon, 1786 ; 
David Gavin, 1787 ; Michael McKey, 1790J 

The subsequent teachers were : William Robinson 
(1820 — pupils 29 Presbyterian, 26 Roman Catholic, 
and 12 Church of Ireland) ; Joseph Forsythe (1834) ; 
Miss Eliza Stewart (daughter of the Parish clerk) ; 
Miss Jane Sergison (resigned 1863, after holding the 
appointment nine years, when she married John G. M. 
Sharp) ; Miss Thompson ; Miss McDermott (became 
Mrs. Adams) ; WiUiam Speers ; Miss Wilson ; Miss 
McNess. The school seems to have flourished till 
the establishment of the National Board, when it 
declined, and finally collapsed. It was supported by 
the Church Education Society, but it should have 
been made a National School when such were instituted. 
Shortly after the appointment of the present rector 
a school was organised under the National Board, 
and held at Dromantine in a fine building (where 
formerly a good school flourished) lent for the purpose 
by the late Arthur Charles Innes. Dromantine 
National School flourished for a few years under the 
efficient principal teacher, Mrs. Browne, and on her 
resignation it was transferred to the parish school- 
house, as the Donaghmore Glebe National School. 
The principal teachers were : Miss Dormer, Miss Lyons, 
Miss Boardman (now Mrs. Fox), Miss Livingston 
(later Mrs. Sloane), and Miss NichoU (deceased). 

The school became an Erasmus Smith school on 

^ These names are recorded in the reports of the Ordinary Visita- 
tions of the Diocese of Dromore, Public Record Ofl&ce, Dublin. 


July 1, 1906, with Miss NichoU as teacher, who was 
succeeded by Miss Winifred Anderson (now Mrs. 
Smith) ; and on November 1, 1911, the school was 
amalgamated with the Donaghmore National School, 
one of the terms of agreement being that the Rector 
of Donaghmore for the time being shall have the 
nomination of the assistant teacher. 

Towards building a schoolhouse in Lurganare, 
the vestry of May 1, 1820, levied the sum of £20, 
provided the proprietor of the estate * gives from 
under his hand that he will give over th"fe Right of 
the Site of said school-house, together with the occupier 
of the farm at present, which Documents are to bo 
produced at the next vestry and entered in said vestry 
Book — otherwise this grant to be void.' The condi- 
tions were not complied with in this case and hence 
the grant became void. 

The above vestry made in all fifteen presentments, 
the eleventh being : ' We present that Robert McCall 
be Treasurer for this year, and that he is to Inspect 
the Different Publick Works in the Parish, and at the 
next Vestry report on the same.' The ' Public Works ' 
of Donaghmore are not specified ! 

The vestry, July 18, 1820, levied the sum of one 
halfpenny per acre on the inhabitants of the parish to 
repair the tower of the church, binding the church 
books, and plastering the porch. 

The vestry, April 24, 1821, levied the sum of £8 
for desk, forms and rough-casting the schoolroom. 
(This vestry * resolved that from (for) the future the 
Constables of the Parish is (are) to collect the church 
cess with the county cess at two payments.') 


On September 21, 1821, £8 4s. was levied by the 
vestry for the purpose of ' Repairing the windows, seats, 
and boarding the Communion Table, New Cup, flooring 
the Porch, together with a new Cover for the Com- 
munion.' Rev. John Mountgarret and Arch. Marshall 
are * to be pleased in the finishing of the work and to 
have a liberty of calling in any person they please to 
assist them in having the work sufficiently done.' 

The following appears in the vestry minutes, 
April 9, 1 822 : ' We request that Mr. Finlay be Treasurer 
for the rough casting of the school-house, and laying 
out the sum of £8, paid into his hands, and that when 
finished he will make the necessary application — to the 
Society of Discountenancing Vice for the regular sum 
made and provided in that case, and we hope that the 
Rev. John Mountgarret will assist him in doing so.' 
This statement seems somewhat mixed, but doubtless 
the ' regular sum made and provided ' was for a distinct 
purpose other than that for rough-casting the school- 
house. The following curious item appears in the 
vestry minutes of the same date : ' We present that 
the sum of 10s. is sufficient for burying an aged person, 
and the sum of 5s. for a young person, and that a note 
must be had from a respectable person from the town- 
land the poor person dies in before they can obtain it.' 

A vestry was held May 13, 1822, when the sum 
laid on the parish at the Easter vestry was approved 
and confirmed— -viz. £28 Os. M. The townlands 
paying the largest amounts were Corgrea (Corgary), 
£2 2s. Sid., Killysavin, £2 Os. 5d., Ballymacrattybeg, 
£1 12s. Od. ; and among the smallest are Buskhill, 
lis. Irf., and Glebe, 4s. 


To rebuild the Corgary schoolhouse, the vestry, 
April 1, 1823, thus presented : * We present the sum 
of £15 to be laid on the Parish for re- building the school- 
house in Corgrea, when there is a satisfactory litle 
made out by the representatives of the late Captain 
Enississ (Innes) to the Churchwardens and that the 
sum of £5 be laid on likewise for repairs of the church.* 

The vestry of May 12, 1828, agreed that the £15 
laid on the parish for rebuilding the schoolhouse in 
Corgary go to the repairs of the church, * as the neces- 
sary document has not been produced by Mrs. Innes.* 
A levy towards church improvements was made by 
the vestry, October 6, 1824, when it was * Resolved 
that the sum of fifty pounds be laid on this Parish ' to 
defray the expenses of repairing the flooring of the 
church, including the flagging in the aisle, together with 
the chancel, the purchase of communion plate, a folio 
Bible, three quarto Prayer Books, a napkin, and * other 
matters that may be judged necessary for the proper 
and decent celebration of Divine service.* 

To put up a bell in the church ' and for erecting 
a proper and sufficient place to hang such Bell ' 
the vestry, held June 25, 1827, levied 
Levy the sum of £160. This amount was 

Church Bell. * levied off the landholders ' of the parish, 
and to be laid in three equal instalments 
during the years, 1827, 1828, and 1829. 

The minutes of this vestry are signed by M. J. 
Mee (vicar), Smithson Corry, David McMaster, Andrew 
Marshall, Samuel Boyd Marshall, Andrew Marshall, 
and another, that evidently of a frail old man, 
who writes in a trembling hand merely the words 

B 2 


* James Mc ,' probably forgetting to add his full 

sarname ! 

Vestry, May 26, 1828.—' Resolved that the sum of 
£10 be hereby laid on the Parish, for the purpose of 
buying cofl&ns for the poor, and defraying the expense 
of sending such foundlings as may occur in the Parish 
to the Foundhng Hospital Dubhn.' The full amount 
applotted at this vestry for various purposes amounted 
to £85 8s. 6i., showing a large increase in the rates as 
compared with former years. 

The composition of the tithes occupied the attention 
of the vestry in 1828. Several special meetings of the 
vestry were held — at which the proceedings 
of°mhe3^°° were somewhat lengthy and elaborate — 
for the purpose of bringing the parish 
under the operation of the Tithes Composition Acts, 
according to the provisions of 4 George IV. c. 99, and 
5 George IV. c. 3. The moving spirit in the matter 
seems to have been Trevor Corry, who was appointed 
chairman of the special vestries, while the several 
parties immediately concerned took a prominent 
part, viz. the vicar (Rev. M. J. Mee), John Vaughan, 
the Lessee of the Manor of Donaghmore ; the Lord of 
the Manor, the Lord Primate (by correspondence) ; 
and the mambers of the vestry (attending on the several 
occasions), viz. Arthur Innes, Joseph Weir, Samuel 
Boyd Marshall, Danl. O'Hare, John Marshall, Saml. 
Ferguson, Joseph Garswell, Wm. Harshaw, And.Wilson, 
Jas. McCuUagh, John McKelvy, Joseph Taylor, Danl. 
Magennis, John Graham, John Young, John Copland, 
Jos. MoNight, James Gammell, and James Parker. 

The following is a synopsis of the proceedings. 


Vestry, June 23, 1828. — * Resolved that proceedings 
be taken to make composition for all the Tithes of the 
Parish — Vicarial and Rectorial.' 

It was agreed * that the sum of Two Hundred 
pounds shall be paid as the annual composition under 
the said Act, for the Vicarial Tithes payable out of 
said Parish.' To this the Vicar assented. It was 
resolved, and agreed on by the lessee (John Vaughan), 
' that the sum of Two hundred and fifty pounds shall 
be paid as the annual composition for the Rectorial 
Tithes payable out of said Parish.' 

Adjourned Vestry, July 14, 1828.— The Primate's 
letter was submitted — giving his consent to the 
agreement — of which the following is the latter portion : 
* Now we John George, Lord Archbishop of Armagh, 
Primate and Metropolitan of all Ireland, do hereby 
give our consent that the said Marshall Joseph Mee 
should agree with the said vestry to receive the said 
sum of Two Hundred Pounds sterling as a composition 
for all the Tithes payable to him the said Marshall 
Joseph Mee within the said Parish, Provided that the 
said agreement shall be accepted and assented unto by 
some vestry in adjourned meeting to be holden in said 
Parish in pursuance of said Acts. Given under My 
Hand this Twenty-sixth day of June, one thousand 
eight hundred and twenty-eight. Signed, John G. 

(The Primate of this date was Lord John George 

This being an ' adjourned vestry ' the agreement 
regarding the vicarial tithes was * accepted and 
assented unto by the parties according to the terms 


of the Primate's letter. The composition, ' £290 per 
amium/ is to * continue unvaried for twenty-one years 
whatever the price of grain may be,' and to be paid 
half-yearly, viz., on November 1 and May 1. At an 
adjourned vestry, August 2, 1828, a letter was submitted 
by the vicar from the Lord Bishop of the Diocese (Dr. 
Saurin), portion of which is as follows : ' As I presume 
what has been offered, and you have accepted, is a 
fair value, I can make no objection to it. Nothing then 
remains but that the Commissioners should assess it 
on the Parish.' 

In regard to the Rectorial Tithes, John Vaughan 
received the following letter from the Primate's agent, 
Arthur J. Kelly, dated July 30, 1828 : 'I again 
repeat that if the composition is satisfactory to you, 
the Primate is contented.' 

The agreement in regard to the composition was 
duly ratified. James Parker of Savelbey and James 
Gammell, Beech Hill, were appointed to represent the 
tithe-owners of the parish. 

Vestry, July 13, 1829. — Among the resolutions 
passed was one to the effect that £100 be laid on the 
parish, and * levied off the landholders ' 
Church fQj. the purpose of finishing the tower of 
anrBell ^^® church, and paying for the bell — includ- 
ing the * expenses of putting it up.' 

At the vestry, September 21, 1829, it was resolved 
to empower Smithson Corry to apply to the Lord Bishop 
of Dromore to procure a loan from the 
^^'^!^^ Hm. the Board of First Fruits * to put the 
Church of Donaghmore in thorough repair.' 
On December 21, 1829, the sum of £288 was levied 
on * the landholders of the Parish ' by the vestry for 


church repairs — according to * estimate laid before the 
Lord Bishop of Dromore by the Architect of the Board 
of First Fruits.' Of above amount the sums payable 
by the several townlands vary considerably — among 
the largest being : Corgary, £21 I85. lid. ; Killysavan, 
£20 145. llld. ; Dromantine, £17 95. S^d. ; Ballyblaugh, 
£17 55. 9ld., etc. 

The parishioners seem reluctant to be further 
assessed for church repairs, according to the following 
resolution passed by the vestry, April 25, 1831 : 
' Resolved, that the Parishioners do not think it 
incumbent on them to lay on any money for the purpose 
of repairing or finishing the repairs of the church of 
Donaghmore at this vestry.' The sum of £88 25. 9fi. 
was still required to finish the repairs, which the 
vestry, held on May 16 following, decided should be 
raised * by individual subscriptions rather than by 
Parochial assessment.' Trevor Corry and James 
Gammell were requested at the vestry to * lay out * 
the money in hand, and that to be raised by subscrip- 
tion, on the repairs of the church. 

Signed, M. J. Mee, Arthur Innes, Ralph Vanghan, 
Thos. Walsh, John Mahood, and David McMaster. 
David McMaster (of Aughantobber), who 
McMaster ^^^ ^ prominent vestryman and frequently 
acted as deputy churchwarden (for Trevor 
Corry), was grandfather of Hugh and Trevor McMaster, 
the present representatives of the family so long resident 
in the parish. 

Vestry, April 23, 1832. Among the sums levied 
were the items : 

For Foundlings . . . . £10 
For Coffins for poor . . .500 


The proceedings of the vestry from this date on- 
wards possess few features of general public interest, 
ximong those who signed the vestry minutes for a 
number of years at this period were : Kev. M. J. Mee 
(vicar), Eev. Norman Johnston, Isaac Mathers, Andrew 
Cuppels, James Lockhart, David McMaster, Thos. 
Marshall, Thos. Walsh, Peter Stewart, Bernard Kice, 
John Harcourt, William McConnell, John Wilson, Isaac 
Kidd, Eobt. Gibson, John Porter, Thomas Kerr, James 
Sturgeon, John Clark, etc. 

John Clark signed the minutes of vestry for the 
first time, Easter 1806. He was an Englishman, and 
, , ^, , proprietor of the * Old Fourmile House ' 

John Clark. 7 ^, . ^^. . . 

(now Church View) m the townland of 
Aughentobber. He had issue two sons, William and 
Elijah (whose names frequently appear as vestrymen), 
and a daughter, Sarah, who married Joseph Patterson. 
Mrs. Patterson died October 1, 1899, and is survived 
by her husband and daughter, Miss Fanny Jane 
Patterson, of Church View House. 

Select vestry, December 28, 1838. — It was resolved 
by this vestry that appeals be lodged against the 

valuations put on the townlands of Augh en- 
Appeals tobber and Maddydrumbrist, and against 
Valuations. ^^^ measurements of the same, together 

with that of the adjoining townland of 
Derrycraw. It was also decided to appeal against 
the valuation put on the houses of Bernard Eice in 
the latter townland. 

At the vestry, January 5, 1839, John Harper of 
Corgrea (Corgary) gave notice of appeal (in a some- 
what lengthy and legally-worded document) against 
the valuation put on his dweUing-house and ofl&ces, 


and of his intention of ' applying to the Committee 
of Appeal to be held in Rathfriland on the 28rd inst/ 
for redress. A large number of appeals were lodged 
against the valuations put on in various townlands in 
the parish at this time, following the Civil Survey of 

The church cess for the year 1839 was only 
£14 35. Qd. The amount levied on the glebe lands 
was 25., which the kind and considerate vestry (April 
29) decided was * not to be collected ' ! 

An ominous resolution was passed at the vestries 

held March 28, 1842, and April 17, 1848, viz. * That 

we do not deem it expedient to lay on any 

Resolution ^"^ (^^ sums) of money at this vestry.' 

Signed, M. J. Mee (Vicar), John Campbell 

Quinn (curate), etc. 

There seems no record of church cess having been 
laid on the parish after April 12, 1841, when the 
amount levied was £8 I85. 6d. for the following pur- 
poses : Foundhng, £5 ; coffins for poor, £8 ; applotting 
cess, IO5. ; collecting same, 85. 6d. 

For several years from this date the principal 
business of the vestries seems to have been the appoint- 
ment of churchwardens and * passing 
Vestry accounts.' Among the names of vestry- 
1850-80. • ^^^ ^^* already mentioned were : George 
Turner, Elijah Clark, John Megarry, WiUiam 
Porter, John Jordan, David Wiley, William Harcourt, 
Robert McCormick, James Sergison, David Gamble, 
Joseph Mathers, David Greenaway, etc. 

At the Easter vestry, April 3, 1877, among other 
appointments was that of the select vestry — the names 
being : Samuel Gordon, Joseph Patterson, George 


Gordon, John Gordon, J. T. C. Quinn, David Green- 
away, Wm. Mathers, Wm. Harcourt, Wm. McCIean 
John Mehaffy, James Heasley, and James Colvin. 
The allocation of £250 to the parish by the Repre- 
sentative Church Body was notified to the 
omso!"'' "^Q^^^y, April 23, 1878, the interest of which 
(£10 per annum) is to be credited towards 
the parochial assessment. 

The above vestry resolved on the erection of a 
chancel and other extensive church improvements. 
Erection of i^^^^^i^^g ^^w pews and east window. It 
Chancel and was agreed by the vestry, April 15, 1879, 
Church that * the repairs and alterations in the 
enovation. gj^^j.Qjj ^^^^ ^j^jy executed and carried 

into effect in the most satisfactory manner at 
an expense and outlay of £242 19s. 9d.' Of this 
amount, the total sum collected by subscription was 
£130 195. ed. 

Space forbids us referring to the remaining vestry 
minutes by way of extracts ; and besides, such contain 
little worthy of record save information regarding 
church renovations, which will be found in the chapter 
on the Parish Church. The vestry minutes extant 
record the names of the churchwardens of Donaghmore 
since 1771. 

The office of churchwarden is one that is ancient, 
honourable, and responsible. Like vestries, however, 
churchwardens have been deprived of much 
ch^^h^ of their ecclesiastical functions in England 
warden" ^J *^^ statute law, while in Ireland they 
are no longer recognised in a civil capacity. 
Their functions and status were identical in the 


churches of England and Ireland up till 1869, while 
at present, so far as their strictly ' ecclesiastical * 
duties are concerned, there is no material change. 
According to the Canons, two churchwardens are to 
be chosen in each parish ; but their status and duties 
are identical, while the distinction commonly but 
erroneously drawn between the rector's and people's 
was never legal, though it is a convenient ecclesiastical 
one. The law which governed churchwardens with 
us, up till 1870, was in substance as follows. 

Churchwardens were chosen by the joint consent 
of the minister and parishioners ; but, in case of dis- 
agreement, the minister chose one and the parishioners 
another. They were considered for church purposes 
* a kind of corporation at common law,* and as such 
were enabled to have certain rights in goods and 
chattels, and to bring actions for * the use and profit 
of the Parish.' 

They had * the care and management ' of church 
furniture, such as the organ, bells, Bible, and parish 
books. But in regard to the church fabric and church- 
yard, they had no such interest ; the right of action 
in case of damage thereto resting with the rector only, 
or vicar. They had the care of the benefice during 
the vacancy or sequestration unless the ordinary 
otherwise appointed. Churchwardens were required 
to ' see to the reparation of the church and the making 
of the church rates.' Up till 1834, churchwardens, 
with the * overseers ' of the parish, were obliged to 
undertake the care and maintenance of the poor; 
but the effect of the Act 4 and 5 Will. IV. cap. 76 
was to relieve them of this duty. Churchwardens 


had the right to make such order as the ordinary 
might direct in regard to seats in the church or chancel, 
* not appropriated to particular persons,' though in 
practice it seems they usually carried out such arrange- 
ments apart from any special directions from the 
bishop. It was also incumbent on them to enforce 
order and due decorum during divine service in the 
church, and to that end it was held that churchwardens 
might * justify the puUing off a man's hat irreverently 
worn there, or the removal of the offender.' i In 
former times the duty was imposed upon them, by 
the provision against nonconformity of 1 Eliz. cap. 2 
(repealed by 9 and 10 Vict. cap. 59), ' of levying a 
forfeiture of one shilling against all such as did not 
resort to their parish church on Sundays and 

According to certain old Canons of the Irish Church 
(no longer binding), churchwardens were enjoined to 

present to the bishop, to be punished, 
under parishioners guilty of notorious crimes and 

the Old scandals (Canon 61), schismatics (Canon 62), 
^h^^rh ^^h ^^^ non- communicants (Canon 63). By 

Canon 90 they were obliged to warn all 
' Innholders, Travellers, Victuallers, and Alehouse 
Keepers to sell no meat or drink during the hours of 
Divine Service,' while they were ' to see that none of 
those hght Wanderers in Markets and Pelting Sellers 
which carry about and sell Pins, Points, and other 
Small Trifles, whom they call Pedlars, set out their 
wares to sale.' According to Canon 88, church- 

^ See Stephen's Commentaries, vol. i. p. 699. 


wardens were * to earnestly call upon all those slack 
and negligent in resorting to the church.' 

It seems several classes of persons were formeily 
either ineligible or exempted from the office of church- 
warden — viz. Peers of the realm ; Members 
li°ibl ^^ Parliament ; Clergymen ; Roman Catholic 
Clergy ; Dissenting Ministers ; Barristers ; 
Solicitors ; Clerks in Court ; Physicians ; Surgeons 
and Apothecaries (if duly registered) ; Aldermen and 
Dissenting Teachers ; and all persons living out of the 
parish, unless they occupied a house of trade therein. 
(Steers, * Parish Law,' p. 84.) 

According to Act of Parliament, churchwardens 
were formerly obliged to take the following oath 
sworn before the rector or vicar : ' We . . . 
Church- amj ... do swear that we will truly. 
Oath. impartially and faithfully execute the office 

of churchwardens within the Parish of — — 
in respect of the Parochial rates and assessments, and 
the collection and management of the same, and the 
other properties and monies of the said Parish, so help 
us God.' 

It is to be regretted that the succession is incomplete 
owing to the loss of vestry minutes. 

1713. — Thomas Jackson, Patrick McMullan. 
C^urch-^ of 1 '^24.— .John Thompson, John Hutchison. 
Donaghmore ^725. — John Thompson, John Hutchison. 
1726.— Johann Wiley, Johann Smith. 
1727.— Jacob Schooles, Will. Enghsh. 
1736.— Jacob O'Here, David Black. 
1737.— James Erwin, Robtus Hall. 
1738.— Tkos. Crance, Hugh McKelvey. 


1739.— John Gilmore, Eobert McComb, 
1740.— Archibald Lowry, John Carson. 
1741. — James Taylor, Denis McAlinden. 
1742.— John O'Here, Christ. Jordan. 
1743.— Joseph Donnell, Bryan O'Here. 
1744.— Jos. Kidd, Edw. Bell. 
1745. — J. Cunningham, Thos. McCartan. 
1746. — John Gibson, Philemus Grimes. 
1747. — Jos. Kobinson, Charles Boyd. 
1748. — Michael McCamly, James Martin. 
1749.— WiUiam Mathers, Neal McCourt. 
1750. — Alexander McClaine, Hugh Creenny. 
1751.— James McCroory, John MacKam. 
1752.— William Bradford, Jenkin Savage. 
1753.— John Downey, Alex. MisKemins. 
1754. — James Welsh, John Douglas. 
1755.— Cavar (?) McNally, John Shannon. 
1756. — Henry McBride, John Loughlen. 
1757. — John Caruthers, Thos. Ravey. 
1758. — John McBride, Bryan Graham. 
1759.— Wm. Young, Robt. Smyth. 
1760.— Felix O'Hanlon, John McAtormney. 
1765.— Jas. Johnston, John Bittle (?) 
1766. — James Johnston, John Cole. 
1768. — Jas. Johnston, John Faris. 
1769. — Jas Johnston, Alex. Walker. 
1770. — Jas. Johnston, David Kernahan. 

(The above are taken from the Episcopal Visitation 
Reports for the Diocese of Dromore in the Public 
Record Office, Dublin.) 


The following are from the vestry books : 
1771. — James Johnston, William Mathers. 
1772. — -James Johnston, Henry McBride. 
1773. — William Walker, James Finlay. 
1774. — Robert Waterson, John Martin. 
1775. — James Walker, Henry Thompson. 
1776. — Isaac Kidd, William Mathers (the younger). 
1777. — Wilham Glenny, Thomas Graham. 
1778. — John Barr, Thos. Meckimson. 
1779._WilUam Donnel, John Kelly. (Hugh Cope- 
land acted.) 

1780.— John Marshall, Wilham Parks. 
1781. — James Wiley, Jno. Lockart. 
1782. — John Lockart, Adam Wilson. 
1783. — John Lockart, Joseph Neil. 
1784.— Andrew McCall, Archibald Carr. 
1785.— Thomas Marshall, Wilham Walker. 
1786.— John Shannon, * Small ' Daniel Walker. 
1787. — John Harcourt, John Bradford. 
1788. — Robert Cochran, Barney Rice. 
1789. — James McGufl&n, Jnr., Henry Mathers. 
1790. — Joseph Harcourt, Joseph Taylor. 
1791. — John Walker, Samuel Milhgan. 
1792. — George Mathers, Jos. McKnight. 
1793. — James McKelvey, George Mathers. 
1794. — George Mathers, Robert Tate. 
1795. — Joseph Cole, Sam. Jordan. 
1796. — Wilham Mathers, John Graham. 
1797. — James Elhot, John Graham. 
1798. — George Greenaway, John Waddell. 
1799. — George Greenaway, John Waddell. 
1800.— Wilham Walker, John Neil. 


1801.— William Walker, John Neil. 
1802. — ^ William Barber, Isaac Cole. 
1803.— Hugh Parks, John Neil. 
1804.— John Neil, Hugh Parks. 
1L05. — Alexander Walker, John Neil. 
1806.— John Walker, Henry McGuffin.i 
1807.— John Walker, Alex. McGuffin. 
1808.— Robert Hamilton, Alex. McGuffin. 
1809. — William Mathers, James Thompson. 
1810.— WiUiam Mathers, ' Long ' Joseph Kidd, 
1811.— William Kidd, Wilham Mathers. 
1812. — ^ William Mathers, Andrew Wilson. 
1813. — William Mathers, Andrew Wilson. 
1819. — Andrew Marshall, Archibald Marshall, 
1820.— Samuel McCullough, David Weir. 
1821. — Joseph Parker, John Smith, junr. 
1822. — Thomas Marshall, John Young. 
1823. — Thomas Marshall, John Young. 
1824. — James Coates, Andrew Marshall. 
1825. — Leonard Alex. Gunning, Thomas Welch or 

1826. — Leonard Alex. Gunning, David McMaster. 
1827.— Trevor Corry,^ Samuel Boyd Marshall. 
1828. — Trevor Corry, Samuel Boyd Marshall. 
1829. — Smithson Corry, Andrew Marshall. 
1830. — Trevor Corry, James Gammell. 
1831. — Arthur Innes, Ralf Vaughan. 
1832. — John Marshall, John Harcourt. 

^ The vestry, December 30, 1806, appointed Alex. McGuffin 
churchwarden in the place of Henry McGuffin (deceased). 

2 David McMaster acted as deputy churchwarden for Trevor 
Corry, 1827, 1828, 1830. 


1883. — Andrew Cuppels, Isaac Mathers. 
1884. — James Lochart, * Little Barney ' Bice. 
1885.--John Clark, Isaac Kidd. 
1886. — Bernard Eice, Eobert Gibson. 
1837. — John Porter, Isaac Mathers. 
1838. — -David McMaster, James Sturgeon. 
1839.— Edward Curteis, John Clark. 
1840. — Isaac Mathers, Saml. Boyd Marshall. 
1841. — James Sturgeon, Thomas Walsh. 
1842. — John Mahood, William Mathers. 
1843.— Wm. Clark, Jas. Mathers. 
1844. — Francis Greenaway, George Mathers. 
1845.— Ehjah Clark, John Whaley Magavry(?). 
1846.— John Whaley Magavry(?), Elijah Clark. 
1847.— William Porter, WilHam Lochart. 
1848.— William Porter, Bernard Eice. 
1849. — William Porter, Bernard Eice. 
1850.— William Porter, Bernard Eice. 
1851. — William Porter, Alexander Mahood. 
1852.— William Porter, Eichard Wiley. 
1853. — David Wiley, John Harcourt. 
1854. — John Harcourt, William Harcourt. 
1855. — Francis Greenaway, James Mathers. 
1856. — David Greenaway, James Mathers. 
1857. — David Greenaway, Joseph Mathers. 
1858. — William Greenaway, James Macconnell. 
1860. — James Macconnell, William Greenaway. 
1861. — James Macconnell, Joseph Mathers. 
1862. — William Greenaway, James Macconnell. 
1868.— Andrew Marshall, WiUiam Clark. 
1864. — Andrew Marshall, William Clark. 
1865. — Joseph Harcourt, Henry Hamilton. 


1866. — Joseph Harcourt, Henry Hamilton. 
1867. — William Lochart, Alexander Mahood. 
1868. — 'John Mathers, William Harcourt. 
1869.— Joseph Patterson, WilUam Mathers. 
1875. — ^David Greenaway, WilHam Harcourt. 
1876. — David Greenaway, WilHam Harcourt. 
1877. — David Greenaway, Joseph Patterson. 
1878.— George Gordon, J. T. C. Quinn. 
1879.— George Gordon, J. T. C. Quinn. 
1880.— George Gordon, J. T. C. Quinn. 
1881. — Joseph Patterson, John Mehaffy. 
1882. — Joseph Patterson, John Mehaffy. 
1896. — ^ Joseph Patterson, George Gordon. 
1897. — WiUiam Clements, George Mathers. 
1898.— WilHam Clements, WiHiam Mathers. 
1899.— Henry Clements, WilHam Mathers. 
1900.— G. A. Orr, George Gordon. 
1901.— G. A. Orr, George Gordon. 
1902.— G. A. Orr, George Gordon. 
1903. — Joseph Patterson, William Mathers. 
1904. — Joseph Patterson, WilHam Mathers. 
1905. — Joseph Patterson, WilHam Mathers. 
1906. — Joseph Patterson, WilHam Mathers. 
1907.— Colonel Garden, WilHam McClean. 
1908.— Colonel Garden, WiUiam McClean. 
1909.— Colonel Garden, H. M. Cooke-Cross. 
1910.— Colonel Garden, H. M. Cooke-Cross. 
1911.— Arthur C. W.Innes-Cross,H.M.Cooke.Cross. 
• 1912.— George Mathers, Christy McClean. 
1913. — George Mathers, Christy McClean. 
Select Vestry, 1912.— A. C. W. Innes-Cross, Saml. 
Gordon, J.P. (Hon. Secretary and Treasurer), George 


Gordon, J. J. Eobinson, M.B., Professor Ander- 
son, M.A., M.D., J.P., Joseph Patterson, William 
Mathers, William McClean, John Drake, 
Select J. J. Grattan, Samuel Mehaffy, and David 

ZZ:^. Greenaway. 

Diocesan Synodsmen. — 1876-8 : Arthur 
C. Innes, Samuel Gordon, J. T. C. Quinn and Joseph 
Patterson. (No appointment of synodsmen appears 
in the vestry books, 1879-82.) 1883-1S02 : Arthur 
C. Innes and George Gordon. 1903-12 ; George 
Gordon and Joseph Patterson. 

s 2 



The Presbyterian Church is old and historic. The 
Kirk of Scotland is the venerable mother of the Presby- 
terian Communions in the British Isles, and 
Presbyterian being the State Church of that country, the 
Communion Koyal Family, when resident at Balmoral, 

and Kirk of attend the Parish (Crathie) Church. Her 

Scotland. • • . j j i^ • <. 

mmisters are as proud and as certam of 

their divine commission as any Anglican. Dr. 
Marshall Lang, Principal of Aberdeen University, in 
the Baird Lecture for 1901 (' The Church and its Social 
Mission ') asserts the continuity of the present Church 
of Scotland with the ancient Celtic Church, and affirms 
that the Scottish Keformation was fundamentally 
a Catholic movement. And a learned presbyter of 
the Scottish Establishment has published an important 
work, in several volumes, in which he has traced the 
succession of the ministers of each parish back to the 
Eeformation period, when the old orders were trans- 
mitted, thus showing the historical continuity of the 
Church. The Irish Presbyterian Church is the full- 
grown daughter of the Church of Scotland. Until 
disestablishment she occupied a semi-State position 
in this country, each of her ministers receiving the 


Begium Donum. She has an able and scholarly minis- 
try, and an intelligent, generous and attached laity. 

The Presbyterian Church of Donaghmore is one 
of the oldest and most important of country congre- 
gations in connection with the General 
Donaghmore Assembly. On the north gable of the 
Church. church there is a moulded date-panel with 
the inscription : ' Donoughmore Presby- 
terian Church, 1705 ; enlarged 1762 ; restored 1895.' 
Long before the first date (1705), however, there must 
have been a considerable Presbyterian community in 
the neighbourhood, when it seems they worshipped 
with the Newry congregation, whose minister was the 
Rev. George Lang, and whose church was close to the 
' Belfast Road,' about a mile from the town. In 1705 
the Presbyterians in Donaghmore became a separate 
congregation by the decision of the General Synod 
of Ulster. 

The records of this Synod are very interesting 
reading as showing the modes of spelhng, the quaint 
customs, and the deliberative methods 
s^^^^^f^^ which prevailed in the supreme court of 
Ulster. ° ^^® Presbyterian Church in the seventeenth 
and eighteenth centuries. The proceedings 
of the Synod are also useful reading, and occasionally 
furnish very sensible advice, particularly to ministers ; 
as, for example, that given to such in 1697, when it 
was * recommended, first, that all Ministers be grave 
and decent in their apparrell ; secondly that Young 
Men be not entered into the Ministry till they be of 
competent Age and Abilitys ; thirdly, that Ministers 
& Preachers use a sound Form of Words in Preacliiug, 


abstaining from all Romantick Expressions and hard 
words, which the vulgar do not understand, as also 
from all sordid words and Phrases,' etc. We find the 
following quaint overture was passed * Nem: Contrad.* 
in 1700, entitled an ' Overture for reforming the 
Levitees ' ! viz. ' That there were some Ministers, 
their Wives & Children are too gaudy and vain in 
their Apparrel, and some too sordid, therefore that 
it be recommended to the severall Presbytrys to 
reform these faults in themselves & theirs, and study 
Decency & Gravity in their Apparrel and Wigs, 
avoiding powderings, vain Cravats, Half Shirts, and 
the like.' It is to be hoped that this timely overture 
had the desired effect and that the ' Levitees ' were 
reformed ! But apart from their quaintness and so 
forth, the records are invaluable as containing a 
mine of information for the historian, and this 
seems to me to be their main use to us. In our sketch 
of the Donaghmore congregation in its early stages 
we have to depend almost entirely on these synodical 
records for our information. 

The following extracts from the records of the 
Synod furnish a full and detailed account of the 

formation and organisation of the Donagh- 
Formation rnore Presbyterian Church, under the 
andO^ganis. p.^^bytery of Armagh. 
Donaghmore It would seem that previous to 1705 
Congrega- the Presbyterians of Donaghmore formed 
tracte/^° a portion of the Newry congregation. At 
Dispute. the Synod of Ulster, held at Antrim, June 1 

of that year, we find ' Donaghmore desires 
to be a distinct congregation.' The Donaghmore 


' Case * is thus recorded : 'The Meeting of Ardmagh 
brought by Refer into this Synod a Case depending be- 
tween Newry and Donaghmore. Donaghmore desires 
to be a distinct Congregation. That Presbytry having 
given to us a Deduction of that matter, what they have 
done is contain'd in a Paper in retentis. The Synod 
entereing upon the Bussiness, call'd the Partys. 
Newry by their Commr. Ja: Ballentine, John Hanen, 
& several others, their Commission being read, they 
produced a Supphcation, wherein they crave that the 
Congregation of Newry continue as it is. Donaghmore 
by their Commrs. Archibald Stuart &c. Supphcate 
that there be a new erection.' On the same date, at 
* 4 a Clock a merid.,' it was ' overtured * as follows : 
' The Committee dehberately weighing the Refer from 
Ardmagh meeting concerning Newry and Donaghmore, 
do beheve there may be two congregations, one at 
Newry, another at Donaghmore, Donaghmore giving 
security for 88£ & twenty Bolls of Oats yearly to a 
Minister ; <fe considering the Number of Familys 
and Bounds of the Congregation, a Prospect of a 
Competent Maintenance to two ministers, spreading 
the Gospel, planting the Country, & that neither 
Congregation be a too heavy charge. All which being 
fully reasoned, it was overtured to the Synod that 
there be two Congregations in that Country, the one to 
continue at Newrjs the other to be erected at Donagh- 
more — that Donaghmore, both as to the Bounds of 
their Congregation to be perambulate by Ardmagh 
Presbytry (if need be) & seat of their intended Meeting 
house be determined by the Said Presbytry : which 
overture being now read in the Synod and all concern' d 


having fully spoken, were remov'd. After mature 
consideration of the overture with the aforesaid 
Reasons, we came to this Vote, whether there shall be 
two Congregations in that Country or one ? It was 
carryed, by a Plurality of Votes, there shall be two. 
. . . The ordering of these two Congregations and Seat 
of their new intended Meeting-house to be determined 
by the Presbytry of Ardmagh. The partys being 
called in, this minute was read unto them. They 
were desired to carry Christianly and affectionately 
toward each other and reverence Providence in this 
and all determinations.' ^ 

On the principle that the stronger should help the 
weaker the Newry congregation had promised financial 
support to that of Donaghmore, but for some reason 
or other the contract was not fulfilled. In the circum- 
stances, and receiving no ' Redress ' from the Presby- 
tery, the congregation appealed to the General Synod 
of Ulster, which met at Antrim June 1, 1708, thus : 

' Donaghmore new Congregation, neighbouring 
Newry — John Todd, &c., Commrs. supplicated that 
tho' according to the Contract with Newry Congrega- 
tion, the weaker congregation should be assisted for 
the support of the Gospel, Application was made to 
the Presbytry of Ardmagh, what was promist not 
being perform' d ; and getting no Redress from the 
Presby. they were necessitate to appeal to this Synod. 
The Appealants' Commission was read : also defendts.' 
Reasons by their Commr. James Ballentine were 
heard. The Appealants held forth that in Equity 
Newry should perform thir Contract, Donnoghmore 

^ Reccyrds, vol. i. pp. 97-8. 


Circumstances much requiring it.* The Commis- 
sioners having been heard and also the Presbytery of 
Armagh, it was then ' voted whether annex Drum- 
banagher & the Glen to Donnoghmore for its Assist- 
ance from Lammas next. It was carry ed, from Lammas 
next annex Drumbanogher & the Glen to Donaghmore, 
Drumbanagher and the Glen paying what Stipend they 
owe to Newry before Lammas. Then they are to 
get their Testimonial.' ^ 

It seems that the Presbyterians of Drumbanagher 
and Glen were strongly opposed to this union, for at 
the next General Synod (September 8, 1708) WiUiam 
Andrew and William Waterson * produc'd a Supphca- 
tion holding forth their Grievances from the Annexation 
of them ^ that Congregation (Donaghmore), and 
desir'd Rehef from this Synod.' The * whole Affair ' 
was referred to the Synod of Monaghan (of which there 
is no record). 

At the General Synod (1709) * Complaint was made 
that Drumbanagher and Glen have not obey'd the 
Appointment ' of their annexation to Donaghmore. 
Their Commissioner (Wilham Waterson) appeared 
before the Synod, * Supplicating that this may please 
to reverse the former Act annexing them to Donagh- 
more, for the following Reasons, Viz : — their great 
Dislike to the Congregation of Donaghmore, and that 
they had no Choice of the Minrs. (ministers). There 
was also a * SuppUcation ' presented that they may be 
permitted to be a new ' Erection.' 

The Synod appointed a representative committee 
of ministers and ruhng elders to consider the * Affair 

Records, vol. i. p. 162. 


and overture thereupon.' The Committee arrived at 
the following Resolution : ' That the said Places of 
Drumbanogher and Glen continue annext to Donnogh- 
more, as they were order'd by the (said) Act of the 
Genl. Synod, till they can sufficiently satisfy their 
own Presb^ that there can be a regular Erection there 
without rendering any other Congregation incapable 
of maintaining the Ghospel ; the Presb^" of Ardmagh 
be appointed to receive and consider such AppHcation 
they may make unto them for an Erection, and 
encourage them as they shall find Cause, provided 
still that they be not erected till they pay up all Arrears 
they may be due to the Congregation of Donnoghmore ; 
that Ardmagh Presb^ do not meddle with them, unless 
they annex to Donnoghmore, after which they are in 
an OKDERLY WAY to apply to that meeting, who 
will take due Care of them ; which overture being read 
again and again, was voted and approved by this 
Synod. Drumbanagher was admonisht for some 
unsuitable expression in their papers.' i 

At the General Synod (Belfast, June 19) of 1711, 
the Presbyterians of Drumbanagher and Glen appear 
by their Commissioners, William Waterson, Wilham 
Andrew, John Auterson, and James Conolly, ' humbly 
petitioning that they may be reanext to the Congrega- 
tion of Newry.' John Tod and Archibald Camond, 
Commissioners from the Session and congregation of 
Donaghmore, appeared before the same Synod * com- 
plaining that the people of Drumbanogher and Glen 
have not obey'd the Acts of this Synod anexing them 
to the said Congregation, whereby their Congregation 

^ Records, vol. i. pp. 171-3. 


is likely to sink, and praying for remedy of their 
Grievances, and the anexation of some other Town 
Lands now belonging to the Congregation of Newry. 
Partys being remov'd, a motion was made that the 
former Acts of this Synod for anexing Drumbanagher 
& Glen be so far repeal'd as to give full power to the 
Presbty. of Ardmagh with Correspondents to consider 
the whole affair as if noe such Acts had been ever 
made.' The motion was ' Carry 'd in the affirmative 
nem. contradic' i 

This protracted dispute was again brought before 
the General Synod — June 17, 1712 — and it would 
seem for the last time. The matter came before the 
Synod by way of appeal from the * Sentence ' of the 
Armagh Presbytery (which that body had refused to 
reverse), viz. that the * Inhabitants of Drumbanagher 
and Glen (The Appellants) be members of the Congre- 
gation of Donohmore.' After much discussion by the 
Synod the following question was put, viz. * Whether 
the people of Drumbanogher and Glen shall be con- 
tinu'd members of the Congregation of Donohmore 
or not ? ' and the said question being put accordingly, 
* it was carry'd in the affirm, by a great majority.' 

Drumbanagher and Glen were dissatisfied with 
this decision ; for at the same Synod we find that 
certain ' Brethren ' who were appointed to confer with 
' that people ' for making them ' Easy in complying 
with our conclusion that they continue annext to 
Donohmore,' * report that they conferred with 'em, 
but had not the desirable success.' 

A ' Complaint ' was made (at this Synod) that Mr. 

* Records, vol. i. p. 231. 


Johnston of Donaghmore had refused the Presbyterians 
of Drumbanagher and Glen ' Seahng Ordinances.' 
Mr. Johnston ' reply 'd that he sent one to those 
bounds to tell that people that he would go to the place 
and baptize the children of such who would be orderly.' 
Drumbanagher considered that by their promising 
to be * orderly ' meant an obligation to continue with 
Donaghmore. ' After long reasoning ' the Synod 
passed the following resolution : * That the people 
of Drumbanoher and Glen shall be admitted to Sealing 
Ordinances, except they be guilty of such things as 
would ev'n deprive other members of Donohmore.' i 

Eventually, after a considerable time, Drumban- 
agher became a separate congregation, and, at a still 
later date, a second was formed. At present, however, 
they are united under the joint pastorate of the 
Rev. A. F. Hamilton, B.A. (who has retired from the 
active duties of the ministry), and the Rev. James 
Mulligan, B.A., who officiates alternately in the two 
churches, which are situate in the village of Jerrettspass, 
CO. Armagh. A few of the Glen Presbyterians who 
reside in the vicinity are members of the Drumbanagher 
congregation, while the others still adhere to that of 
Donaghmore and are amongst its most loyal supporters. 

The present bounds of the Donaghmore congrega- 
tion are still very extensive, including most of the 
parish, a section of Aghaderg, and the 
Bounds of south-eastern portion of Newry parish, 
gregation. ^^^ following are the Presbyterian churches 
which at present more immediately surround 
the Donaghmore congregation : viz. Newry (two 
1 Records, vol. i. pp. 265-6 and 268. 


churches), Ryans, Glasker, Loughbrickland, Four- 
towns, Poyntzpass, and Drumbanagher. 

1707, June 23. — James Johnston was ordained by 

the Presbytery of Armagh as the first minister of the 

congregation. This Presbytery reported to 

Ministers of the General Synod of 1705 that they had 

Donagh- . Licensed Mr. James Johson ' (Johnston) 

more : James i t /^ i -r -r -, 

Johnston, to preach the Gospel. James Johnston 
built Traymont (Tremont) House, and gave 
the site for the original church edifice. He purchased 
the townland of Lisserboy, in the parish of Newry, 
bordering that of Donaghmore, where he (and his son 
James) gave the site for the present church in 1702, 
which was erected during his pastorate. The lease, 
renewable for ever, was made to twelve trustees (see 
infra), and reserved the family pew for the Johnstons 
and their heirs. 

James Johnston was evidently a man of much 
influence in the community, a devoted Presbyterian, 
and a faithful minister of the Gospel. The Presby- 
terians of Donaghmore will do well to revere the 
memory of the good man who did so much for their 
church in this place. He appears to have been a 
constant attendant at the General Synod, until by 
age and infirmity he was precluded from taking part 
in the supreme court of his church. He appeared at 
Synod for the first time in June 1708, and the last 
record of his presence was in 1786. 

* James Johnson's ' name appears in ' a list of the 
Presbyterian ministers to whom her Majestie's Royal 
Bounty is to be paid for Xmass quarter 1712.* He 
was fifty-nine years minister of the Donaghmore 


congregation. He died October 21, 1765, aged 
eighty-seven years, and was buried in the parish church- 
yard, where his tomb remains ; but the stone is so 
broken and defaced that it is impossible to decipher 
the inscription. We are indebted to Colonel Johnston 
(of Kilmore, co. Armagh), a descendant, for the 
following particulars of the family : 

James Johnston, Presbyterian Minister of Donagh- 
more, of Tremont, co. Down, and Carrickbreda, 
CO. Armagh, was son of James Johnston of Knappagh, 
Carrickbreda and Dress, co. Armagh, by Sarah Dobbs, 
his wife. He was born about 1678, married (before 
1772) Elizabeth, sister of Francis Wilson of Tully, 
CO. Longford. He left two children : James, of 
Tremont, and Joseph, M.D., who was grandfather 
of Captain Eobert Dudgeon Johnston, 66th, 7th, 
and 68th Regiments, who served in the Peninsular 

James Johnston of Tremont (son of Rev. James 
Johnston) married his cousin, Elizabeth, daughter of 
Francis Wilson of Tully, co. Longford, and had three 
children, James (his heir), the Rev. Francis Johnston, 
Vicar of Donaghmore (see List of Vicars), and Eleanor 
(married, 1768, William Hawkshaw of Divernagh, 
CO. Armagh, and had a son, Lieut.-Colonel Hawkshaw, 
31st Regt., whose son, the Rev. Edward Burdett 
Hawkshaw, Prebendary of Hereford, married, 1845, 
Catherine Mary Jane, daughter of Sir Hungerford 
Hoskyns, 7th Bart., and was father of Major Edward 
Crichton Hawkshaw, R.A.). The elder son of James 
Johnston of Tremont (above mentioned) was James 
Johnston of Tremont and Carrickbreda, who married 


Anne Pyne, and had issue, viz. James, Arthur, John, 
Joseph and two daughters. 

1763, June 27. — George Richey, A.M., was ordained 
as assistant and successor to the Rev. James Johnston. 
The following extract bearing on his 
Richr generosity is taken from the records of 
'' ^^' the Synod of Ulster, 1764 : 
' Mr. Richey, in the Presbytery of Dromore, tho' 
ordain' d before the General Synod in June, 1768, 
generously allowed the whole of his ordry. R: D: for 
that year instead of fourty shills.' George Richey was 
a man of much learning and piety, and was greatly 
beloved by his congregation during the nine years of 
his successful pastorate. He appeared at Synod for 
the first time in 1768. He died at an early age, and 
was buried in the parish churchyard. His tomb 
bears the following inscription : * Here lyeth the 
body of the Reverend George Ritchey A.M. Presby- 
terian Minister of this Parish who died the 8th day 
of December 1771, age 88 years. Justissimus Ser- 
vantissimus cequV His funeral sermon was preached 
by the Rev. Samuel Barber, A.M., of Rathfriland, 
and was published at the request of the congregation. 
The following are a few extracts : ' I see you all greatly 
affected, and sensible of the loss of so faithful an 
instructor and guide to heaven. ... I well remember 
he was marked out at the University as a most promis- 
ing youth ; his acquaintance was even then sought 
after, and himself highly esteemed by all ranks for 
his piety and learning, which gave pleasing hopes of 
his filling with dignity that station in which by Divine 
Providence he was afterwards placed, and to qualify 


himself for which was the constant business of his 
life. ... Ye have in a few years been deprived of two 
worthy ministers (James Johnston and George Richey) 
whose praise is in all the churches. Take heed, then, 
to your ways : show your gratitude to their memory 
by a diligent observation of God's great and eternal 
truths which they inculcated on you ; be a seal to 
their ministry.' 

He married a daughter of the Rev. Alexander 
M'Comb, of Creggan, co. Armagh, by whom he had 
two children, viz. Mary, who married Connell O'Donnell, 
brother of Sir Neil O'Donnell, and a son, who was 
drowned in Newry, leaving two children, James and 
Alexander, the former of whom became a clergyman 
of the Enghsh Church, and the latter an Irish barrister, 

It may be noted that it was immediately after 
George Richey's ordination that the congregation 
severed its connection with the Presbytery of Armagh, 
and joined that of Dromore. At the General Synod 
held at Lurgan, June 28, 1763, ' a supplication was 
presented from the Congregation of Donaghmore by 
John Martin and Thos. Caddell, Commrs. wherein 
they intreat (with the concurrance of the Revd. Pby. 
of Armagh) that they be joined to the Revd. Pby. of 
Dromore. This granted. And the Synod enjoined the 
Pby. of Dromore to take care that the Congn. of Don- 
aghmore pay the fees due the Pby. of Armagh's Clk. & 
the fund due Vinecash & Narrowater.' (* Records,') 

We are quite certain * the fund due Vinecash & 
Narrowater ' did not suffer by the transfer, and that 
* the fees due the Pby. of Armagh's Clk.' were 
duly paid ! 


1773, March 9. — Joseph Hay was ordamed by the 

Presbytery of Dromore as the pastor. He was a 

zealous minister, and a great loyalist. He 

j^^P was present at Synod for the first time in 

*^' 1773. He died May 15, 1803, having been 

for 81 years minister of the congregation. 

The inscription on his tomb in the parish church- 
yard is as follows : ' This is the Burying place of the 
late Rev. Joseph Hay, who departed this life 15th 
May 1803. Aged 56 years.' 

He was a man of strong convictions and of great 
independence of character, who knew his duty and 
did it, allowing no dictation. He married the daughter 
of the Rev. Joseph Kinkead. ■ 

1804, September 4. — Moses Finlay was ordained 
minister of the congregation. He was an earnest 
man, a popular preacher, and very zealous 
■p^y ill establishing Sunday Schools within the 

bounds of the congregation. He was * a 
father to his people, whose counsel and guidance they 
largely sought in their multifarious concerns.' He 
was Moderator of the Synod of Ulster in 1833. In 
that year Donaghmore was a ' 1st class Congregation ' 
in respect of the Royal Bounty, with 2894 souls. 

He first appears at Synod in 1805. During his 
pastorate (about 1832) the spacious lecture-room and 
the commodious stables were built at a cost of £200. 
He resigned in April, 1837, and was subsequently 
called to the pastorate of Newmills, co. Tyrone. 

He died May 5, 1854, and was buried in Donagh- 
more parish churchyard, where a handsome tomb 
has been erected in his memory and that of Mrs. 


Finlay {n6e Thompson), which bears the following 
inscription : ' Erected in memory of the Eev. M. 
Finlay, for 33 years Presbyterian Minister of Donagh- 
more, who died 5th May 1854, aged 74 years, and of 
his wife Jane who died 5th January 1846, aged 67 
years. '* There remaineth therefore a rest for the 
people of God." ' 

The names of Charles and WilHam Laird Finlay 
(his sons) have had a conspicuous place, and are of 
fragrant memory still in the history of Belfast, and, 
indeed, of Ulster Presbyterianism generally. 

1840, October 27. — Verner W. White was ordained 
to the pastoral oversight of the congregation. He 
was a minister of great eloquence and 
WUte ' ^^^^^^^> ^^^ i* seems immense congrega- 
tions flocked to hear him. He resigned 
July 5, 1844, having been called to Islington Presby- 
terian Church, Liverpool. While there, it is said, 
his popularity as a preacher was so great that the 
aisles and pulpit stairs were constantly occupied with 
eager listeners. From Liverpool he was called to a still 
more important congregation in London, where his repu- 
tation as an eloquent preacher became widely known. 

He became a Doctor of Laws, and well earned the 

1845, October 28. — The Rev. Samuel James Moore 
was installed as minister of the congregation. He 
was considered a faithful pastor and an 
able preacher. A local authority speaks 
of his discourses as closely reasoned and delivered 
with impassioned eloquence, and that, moreover, he 
possessed the rare gift of so impressing his congrega- 


tion that it was usual to hear of many who regarded 
the sermon as wholly directed to (or at) them ! There 
were about 400 communicants October 14, 1849, a 
very good test of his ministry. 

On August 6, 1850, the congregation presented him 
(at his residence, Buskhill) with an address, which 
was read by James Harshaw. 

To the great regret of the Donaghmore people 
Mr. Moore resigned the pastorate of the congregation, 
August 20, 1850, having been called to Third Bally- 
mena. The ' call ' was presented to him at a Visitation 
of Presbytery held at Second Drumbanagher, August 
17, 1850, when James Martin opposed his translation on 
the ground of his usefulness and the high estimation 
in which he was held by the Donaghmore congregation. 
Mr. Moore said * he saw the finger of God directing 
him to Ballymena, and he considered it his duty to 
accept the call.' 

The congregation, notwithstanding Mr. Moore's 
decision, entered a strong * Protest ' against the 
decision of the Newry Presbytery in 
Congrega- accepting his resignation, and appointed 
Protest- commissioners (James Martin, Robert 
Reasons. Jeffery, Robert Craig, and Robert MGaw) 
to present the same, with a Memorial 
(by way of appeal) to the Synod of Dublin, to meet 
May 2, 1851. There were eleven ' Reasons of Protest.* 

The congregation protested * 1. Because the con- 
gregation of Donaghmore contains as many families 
as that of Ballymena, and some of these in a state of 
the grossest ignorance. 

* 2. Because the injury to the congregation is 

T 2 


certain to be great with a Vacancy on the one side 
and a popular minister of the Established Church on 
the other. 

* 3. Because more money has been collected for 
Church purposes in our congregation during Mr. 
Moore's ministry of five years than for the previous 
thirty years. 

' 4. Because the influential members of the con- 
gregation will subscribe liberally towards the erection of 
a manse if Mr. Moore be continued, but not otherwise. 

* 5. Because that error prevails extensively within 
the bounds of this congregation and we consider Mr. 
Moore pre-eminently qualified to combat it,' etc. 

The Memorial ' Eead in our Meeting house August 
25, 1850, was signed by Wm. M'AUister, Minister, 
and James Harshaw, Session Clerk.' (Harshaw Diary.) 

Mr. Moore was son of Rev. David Moore, who in 
1808 was ordained minister of the Secession Con- 
gregation of Markethill. 

1851, March 11.— The Rev. Patrick White was 
installed as minister. As a preacher he seems to have 
been quite as eloquent as his brother 
White Verner. He very heartily joined in the 

Revival movement of 1859, when many 
new members were added to the congregation. On 
Sunday, October 9, 1859, the number of communicants 
was almost 400. The congregation presented him, at 
his residence, Buskhill, with an address and purse of 
sovereigns, October 11, 1859. The deputation con- 
sisted of James Harshaw, Thos. Greer, James Martin, 
John M'AUister, Jas. Smith, and Ralph Thompson. 

During his ministry * New Scotch Tokens (were) 


distributed for the first time, 25th October 1856,' 
and on ' February 19, 1860, Mr. White preached in 
the first Gown that had ever been in Donaghmore 
Congregation.' (Harshaw Diary.) 

This Scotch token was of lead, and oval in shape. 
That now in use is composed of the same material, 
but square, the size being half-inch square. It is a 
rule of the Presbyterian Church that every person 
entitled to come to the Communion must present a 
token of admission to the ordinance. 

Mr. White resigned the pastorate of the congrega- 
tion February 11, 1862, having been elected to succeed 
his father at First Baiheborough. 

Patrick and Verner White were * sons of the 
manse ' ; their father being the Kev. Patrick White of 
Baiheborough — a Master of Arts of Glasgow University. 

He was bom on St. Patrick's Day, 1785, and on 
the same day the agent of the property, Patrick Smith, 
visited the house and claimed the name * Patrick,' 
which he received at baptism, while one of his sons 
and four grandsons were called after him. * He was 
the first person ever licensed to preach the Gospel 
in connection with the Synod of Ulster in the County 
of Cavan.' i 

1862, December 29.— The Kev. John Elliott was 

installed minister of the congregation, when the Eev. 

W. Todd Martin (Newry) preached the 

' sermon, and the Eev. John Dodd (Newrj^) 

gave the ' charge ' ; while the Clerk of the Presbytery 

(Mr. Lindsay) explained Presbyterianism. 

' See sketch of the Rev. Patrick White, A.M., by his son, Verner 
White, LL.D. 


It seems Mr. Elliott had not been a candidate for 
the appointment, but nevertheless was chosen, and 
under remarkable circumstances. He was appointed 
by the Presbytery to preside at a meeting of the people 
and take their minds between two candidates, neither 
of whom, it was found, had a Synodical majority, 
when it was unanimously decided to choose the 
chairman, and hence his election and promotion from 
Clarkesbridge, where he was pastor at the time. 

He was an able preacher, a diligent pastor, a judi- 
cious organiser, and possessed to a very large extent 
the confidence of his people. Amongst his attached 
friends were Mrs. and Miss Johnston of Tremont, who 
attended his ministry, occupying the ' Johnston 
Seat.' During his pastorate a handsome manse and 
offices (in the townland of Loughorne) were erected 
(1866-7) at a cost of £860. He was fond of antiquarian 
research, and was well versed in the history of his 
church, having written an article on the subject for 
the Evangelical Witness, to which the writer is much 
indebted for information. 

He resigned in 1875, having received a call from 
Third Armagh, where he remained till his death, 
August 17, 1898. He preached his farewell sermon 
in Donaghmore June 27, 1875. He commuted in 
the interest of the Church in 1878. 

Ha was a son of the Eev. John Elliott, Presbyterian 
minister of Smithborough, co. Monaghan, who married 
Alice Henrietta, daughter of Nathaniel Foster (of 
Athboy, CO. Meath, and NewbHss, co. Monaghan), a 
cousin of the John Foster who was the last Speaker of 
the Irish House of Commons at the time of the Union. 


He married (September 18, 1856) Jane Stewart, 
daughter of John Trimble, M.D., of Castlebellingham 
(related to the Crawleys, Hudsons and Breretons of 
Louth), by whom he had issue, viz. John Trimble, M.D., 
of Edron, Smithborough, co. Monaghan ; William 
Foster (deceased) ; Hester Ismay ; Brereton George ; 
James Joseph (deceased) ; Alice Henrietta, who 
married W. M. Killen, M.D., Doctor of the Ulster Eye 
and Ear Hospital, Belfast, and great-nephew of Pro- 
fessor Killen, the Presbyterian historian ; James 
Stewart Trimble ; Eobert Benjamin ; and Charles 

Mrs. Elliott survives her husband, and resides at 

1876, January IS.—Henry M'Dowell, B.A., a 
Licentiate of the Presbytery of Ballymena, was 
ordained minister of the congregation, 
McDowell ho-ving been called on the first of the previous 
November. He was a man of amiable 
disposition, an earnest preacher, and a good pastor. 
He married Ehzabeth, daughter of James M'Neilly 
of Glassdrummond House, Annalong, co. Down. 

He was not robust in health, and died while still 
young in years — December 25, 1882. 

1881, December 21. — The Eev. Lawson Burnett, 
B.A., was installed as minister, having been previously 
pastor of Kilkinamurry, Katesbridge. He 
Burnett ^^ ^ ^^^ ^^ much force of character with 
decidedly strong convictions, and is, more- 
over, an uncompromising Presbyterian, yet he lives 
on the most friendly terms with those who may differ 
from him religiously and otherwise. 


He is an earnest minister of the Gospel, an able 
preacher, and very zealous in the discharge of his 
pastoral duties. He is amongst the distinguished 
ministers whose sermons occasionally appear in 
the Belfast Witness. ' The Sabbath Observance 
Society ' (Edinburgh), some years since, offered a 
prize for the best sermon on ' The Sabbath.' There 
was very keen competition for the prize on the part of 
many of the ablest ministers in Great Britain and 
Ireland. Mr. Burnett's prize sermon won the trophy. 
The sermon, published in 1892, is entitled ' A Blessing 
and a Curse,' and is based on the text * Behold, I set 
before you this day a blessing and a curse : a blessing 
if ye obey the commandments of the Lord your God, 
which I command you this day ' (Deut. xi. 26-27). 
On November 14, 1911, the congregation presented 
Mr. Burnett with an address and handsome pulpit 
robes, and Mrs. Burnett with a hall lamp and choice 
tea service. 

The Kev. Lawson Burnett married (January 12, 
1884) Jane Grieve, daughter of John M'Dowell, of 
Warrington, Lancashire, by whom he has issue ; 
Harry, of the Provincial Bank, Coleraine ; Jeannie, 
a graduate of the University ; Ella, a hospital nurse ; 
Dora, and Mildred. 

Mr. Burnett has unquestionably done more towards 
church renovation than any of his predecessors in 
Donaghmore, especially considering his great enter- 
prise of 1895-6, when the sacred edifice 
Renovation ^^^ literally transformed. In the laudable 
undertaking he was zealously and liberally 
supported by members of his congregation, while 


friends in the district, in Newry and elsewhere, 
contributed substantially towards the work. The 
renovation of that date, with the subsequent 
installation of the hot water heating apparatus, 
cost almost £900. The entire work was carried out 
according to the plans of the well-known architect 
Mr. Henry Hobart, of Lagan Lodge, Dromore, 
CO. Down. 

The church edifice was not only renovated but 
remodelled on the occasion. New windows were 
opened, encumbering galleries taken away, seats of 
pitch pine, arranged after the most approved modern 
design, and a handsome platform erected. The new 
front with its elegant entablature, resting on two fine 
granite pillars, was artistically designed and carried 
out, and forms a striking example of the transforma- 
tion which can be wrought upon a bald barn-like 
gable. The new vestibule (on either side of which are 
session and cloak-rooms) gives easy and commodious 
access to the staircase and to the body of the house, 
which is entered by two glass-panelled swing-doors. 
The platform, of the octagon design, is a fine piece of 
workmanship, with a rich front of beautifully grained 
panels and mouldings relieved by elegant pilasters of 
black walnut with nicely carved basings and cappings, 
while behind, in the centre of the alabaster arch, is 
placed an embossed wood-work panel which adds 
immensely to the background effect. The church 
is lighted by windows of a pleasing combination 
character, having cathedral-tinted glass leadlight 
margins, with semi-circular heads and ground-glass 
centre. There is a very comfortable minister's room 


at the back of the church, and a boiler-house under- 
neath for the new heating apparatus. 

The church was reopened for divine service on 
the Sundays of May 17 and 24, 1906, the preachers 
on the occasions being the Eev. Samuel Prenter, 
M.A. (now D.D.), of Dublin, and the Eev. William 
Park, D.D. (Belfast), while the collections amounted 
to about £100. 

It is impossible to furnish a full and complete list 
of those who have held the office of ruling elder in 

the Donaghmore congregation, as no parti- 
Eld r^ cular record of such seems to have been 

kept by the church authorities. The names 
that follow are taken from the ' Eecords ' of the Synod 
of Ulster, a Session Book, beginning in the year 1845, 
and information supplied by the courteous Clerk of the 
Newry Presbytery — the Eev. James Meeke, M.A., of 
Kingsmills, co. Armagh. The dates in brackets indi- 
cate the year or years (when known) the elder was 
present at Synod as representing the congregation. 

John Todd of Eingclare 

(1708, 1709, 1711, 1720) 
Daniel Taylor of Killy savin 

(1710, 1715, 1728) 
Joseph Allison of Granshaw . . (1712) 

Joseph Symington . 
Alexander Gelson . 
Samuel Boyd of Carnacally 
HughMGie . 
James Harshaw of Eingbane 
John Carnohan of Glen . 



David Scott .... 


Fran. Moore .... 


Richard Ferguson of Tullymore 


Joseph Kelly .... 


Jon. Fysher i . 


Will. Andrew .... 


Hugh Makibbon 


Nath. Henry of Drumbanagher . 

. (1780) 

Joseph Ferguson 



From this year till 1776 the congregation was not 
represented at Synod by a ruling elder, except in 
1764, when David Weir (already referred to) wa8 
present : Ralf Campbell (1776). 

The next representative present at Synod is Andrew 
Murdock of Lisnaree (1805). In 1834 the following 
were ruling elders : John M'Cullough,^ Hugh Todd, 
S. Boyd Marshall, John Cowan, James Harshaw, and 
Alexander Murdock. 

In 1845 the same names appear (in the Session 
Book) with the addition of that of John Sloane. 

On January 16, 1849, the following were ordained 
to the ofi&ce of ruling elders : Thomas Marshall, 
Archibald Murdock, and Thomas Ward. 

These elders had previously made the following 
declaration : 

' We believe the Westminster Confession of Faith 
as received by the Church of Scotland in 1641 to be 

^ By a mistake in the records this name may have been inter- 
changed with that immediately underneath it, viz. John Todd. 

^ ' Died of Consumption (1846) much regretted by his acquaint- 
ances as a candid and genuine person.' {Session Book.) 


founded on and in accordance with the Word of God, 
and as such we acknowledge it to be the Confession 
of our Faith.' 

1876, May 17, the following were ordained ruling 
elders : John Harshaw, Kalf Copeland, Kobert Young, 
Eobert Sloane, and Hugh Marshall. 

1902, February 25, the following were ordained to 
the eldership : viz. James Donnelly of Cloughinramer 
and Archibald Murdock of Lisnaree. 

The following minute appears in the Session Book, 
March 1896. ' Mr. John Harshaw, the Senior Elder 
of Donaghmore Session died on 17th Feby. 
Harshaw 1^96. He was a man of sound judgment 
and kindly disposition, a faithful attender 
at public worship, a man who took a lively interest in 
ministers and their work, and in church affairs generally, 
a lover of his own Presbyterian Zion, and a member 
oftentimes of the General Assembly. He came down 
to his death in a good old age in the spirit of a child, 
of humility and penitence. The Session regret very 
much the loss of his presence and well-balanced counsels.' 

The Harshaws took a keen interest in the affairs 
of the church and its services, and their counsel was 
sought in all that concerned its welfare. We find 
James Harshaw (father of the above John) conducting 
the service in the church on an emergency. The 
following entry occurs in his diary : * February 16, 
1851. — The Sabbath. — No minister being at the meet- 
ing house, I took down the Bible off the pulpit to the 
table in the ally, and after reading the 121st Psalm, 
which was sung by the clerk, I read the Sermon on 
the Mount (viz. 5th, 6th, and 7th chapters of Matthew). 


The clerk then sang part of the 25th Psalm, when the 
congregation dispersed.' Elder Harshaw did the 
proper thing in the circumstances, and was quite 
right in not ' ascending the pulpit ' ! 

The minute in regard to Robert Young is as 
follows : * The session desires to record their sincere 

regret at the sudden and unexpected death 
^*<^' of Robert Young, which took place at his 

Young. residence, Butter Hill, on Sabbath 4th 

August 1877. Mr. Yoimg was ordained 
an elder of Donaghmore Presbyterian church on 
Wednesday 17th May 1876, and was much beloved 
not only by the Session, but by the whole Congregation.' 
Ralph Copeland (ordained on same date) died 
November 29, 1884, * after a wasting and trying 

illness. He was a man of well-formed 
Copeland^ religious convictions and unblemished 

character, as sternly firm to principle as 
Puritanism itself. He took a warm interest in the 
Donaghmore congregation, having been for many 
years, though not the later years of his life, superin- 
tendent of the Sabbath school. His death, at Httle 
over the prime of life, is a solemn call to those behind 
to use faithfully and earnestly the talent committed 
to them.' (Session Book.) 

Archibald Murdock, ordained in 1849, died Sep- 
tember 1888. * He was an amiable, kind-hearted 

man, with a large amount of the tone and 
Elder bearing of the Christian gentleman, and was 

Murdock. Specially noted among his colleagues in the 

Eldership for the gift of prayer. During 
a long and afflictive illness he showed the temper of the 


true Christian, the broken and contrite heart, and the 
longing of a believing soul for Christ and his everlasting 
consolations.' (Session Book.) 

Of precentors of the Donaghmore congregation, 
it will suffice to single out the late Joseph Harpur, 

who for so many years filled that office. 
Joseph °^ Andrew M'Clelland having resigned the 
Harpur. clerkship, James Martin (Loughorne), the 

treasurer of the congregation, wrote Joseph 
Harpur (June 4, 1849) to the effect that he had been 
appointed by the Committee and Session to the precen- 
torship (clerk) at a salary of £8 per annum, and that, 
should he accept the post, he must consider himself, 
in regard to his official duties, as under Sessional 
control. The reply of Precentor Harpur is given in 
full, as it is very characteristic : 

' Dromantine, 6th June, 1849. 

* Sir,— I received your letter of the 4 of June 
which gave me to know that I was appointed to the 
office of precentor in Donaghmore and I wish to inform 
you that I have gave up my situation in Drumbanagher 
and I have thrown myself on you with all my abilitys, 
with all my faults and with all my failings and as to 
being under the control of the Session I am willing to 
submit to them as a Court of Christ and as officers of 
His Church. I will be there on first Sabbath, God 
willing. Oh, that it may be to me as a gracious 
antisipation of that happy era when I shall yet chant 
the praises of God and of Christ in the upper sanctuary 
is the sincere prayer of your most obedient servant.' 
(Harshaw Diary.) 


He resigned the position January 21, 1878, having 
been for almost thirty years precentor of the church. 
He was a man whom the older members of the congre- 
gation will not soon forget. He was a * character * 
in his way, but a strong one, with much natural ability ; 
a marvellous memory and a stentorian voice. He 
possessed a very high idea of his musical attainments, 
but it is to be feared his performances as a musician 
were not calculated to charm as those of Orpheus, 

' With his lute, made trees. 
And the mountain-tops that freeze, 
Bow themselves when he did sing.' 

He loved what he called a * good Sarmon ' and few 
could remember one so well. On his retirement he 
was presented with a handsome silver watch, which, 
he was wont to inform his friends, he had ' won with 
the wind of his mouth ' ! 

We will refer to biit one ministerial election, viz., 
that of the Eev. Patrick White, who succeeded the 

Rev. S. J. Moore, over which there seems 
'^, . to have been a ' stiff fight.' 

Election! ^^^ latter resigned in August 1850, 

while the former was not elected till Feb- 
ruary of the following year. Thus the congregation 
was five months without a settled pastor- — it taking 
that space of time to make a choice. There were 
upwards of twelve candidates, divided into three lists, 
all of whom were heard. A Commission of Presbytery 
was appointed to attend * a meeting of the people 
(February 3, 1851), Rev. John Moran presiding, when 


four names were finally proposed, the largest number 
of votes (43) being given to the Eev. Patrick White 
of Scotstown, who was declared duly elected. The 
minority signed the ' Call,' and the Commission of 
Presbytery pronounced it unanimous. The Commis- 
sion ' agreed that the congregation should pay the 
minister £40 (Koyal Bounty additional) and whatever 
else the " house " would make up after deducting the 
Salary of sexton and that of Precentor.' (Harshaw 
Diary.) Doubtless the importance of the pastoral 
charge of such a large congregation accounts for so 
many candidates, and the sturdy independence of the 
Donaghmore Presbyterians explains the elaborate 
election programme, while probably the action of the 
Newry Presbytery in accepting Mr. Moore's resignation 
had much to do with the commotion and delay that 
attended the election of his successor. 

It seems scarcely the correct thing to preach the 
Gospel as a candidate — soliciting voteS' — and to be 
subject to the criticism of many (samples are in every 
congregation) who would scarcely ' know a good 
sermon if they heard it ' ; but none of our election 
methods are perfect, and it is difficult to say which is 

The Presbyterians naturally desire to ' hear ' the 
man who is to minister to them, and we must not blame 
them. A good story is told regarding a Scottish 
ministerial election, which is as follows. Sandy 
(discussing a candidate's probation discourse with 
Jamie, a brother elder) gives judgment thus : ' In 
my opinion, he wasna justified in dividing folk into 
the sheep and the goats. I wadna just say, Jamie, 


that I was among the unco guid, an' I wadna say that 
you were among the unco bad. So whar do we come 
in? He'll no do for us, Jamie. We'll no vote for 

The Session Book contains much information 
regarding discipline and the moral and spiritual 

condition of the congregation since 1845. 
Disci^r*^ The earlier records which are minutes of 

the Session are very incomplete, being of a 
rather skeleton character ; but, later, such defects are 
not so apparent. It is worthy of note that the cases 
of discipline which have come before the Session of 
late years are extremely few as compared with those 
at an earlier date. The improvement in this respect 
speaks well for the moral tone and character of the 
Donaghmore congiegation. It requires much moral 
courage on the part of the Session to adjudicate in 
such cases, and, indeed, to discipline at all — especially 
in these days when so many would seem to be a * law 
unto themselves.' It is considered by competent 
authorities that church discipline, so far as the laity 
are concerned, is a thing of the past, and that the only 
persons at present who can be made amenable to 
ecclesiastical laws are the clergy ! 

The Presbyterians were strong disciplinarians in 
past times, while the ' punishments ' inflicted on the 
guilty were severe in their way, and, we would add, 
somewhat peculiar. 

Presbyterian discipline in the past was based on 
the idea of repentance for transgressions. The so-called 
punishments were very generally sufposed to be the 
outward signs of inward repentance. Sometimes, 


however, there was a money payment imposed, as for 
instance in Templepatrick all persons standing in 
the public place of repentance (in presence of the 
congregation) were obliged to pay one groat (four 
pence) to the church. 

The minutes of the Lagan Presbytery give an 
instance of a person who, when he had admitted his 
crime 'privately, was ordered to ' voluntarily rise up 
without being called in the congregation and acknow- 
ledge his fault.' 

Certain culprits had often to stand in wJiite sheets, 
while others were condemned to wear sackcloth. 
In the case of great crimes they were compelled to 
stand ' high,' i.e. in some elevated position in the 
presence of the congregation. Should the crime 
be not so great, they were permitted to stand * low,' 
and wear their ordinary clothes. If they exhibited 
' signs of repentance,' their ' standing ' in presence 
of the congregation would soon end, and they would 
be * absolved ' from crime ; but if they proved con- 
tumacious, their standing would be prolonged. The 
crimes which involved this ' standing ' were generally 
any breaches of the Ten Commandments, drunkenness, 
or disobedience of any regulation made by a Church 
Court. If a transgressor refused to submit to disci- 
pline, such was excluded from the Communion. 

We wonder if the Session of Donaghmore took any 
action in the following nine cases of drunkenness, at 
a dinner party, at the Fourmile House (January 8, 
1861), given in honour of ' Mr. Irvine of Annaghbane, 
a learned, talented, warm-hearted gentleman,' who 
* educated the young people of the neighbourhood 


in the precepts of the Bible, and in classic literature.* 
The sad spectacle must have met the keen eye of a 
good elder and ' pillar of the church,' viz. James 
Harshaw, who presided on the occasion, and who thus 
graphically relates the sad story in his diary : ' Dinner 
very substantial, and good punch, and very abundant ! 
27 dined. All cheerful, but 9 drunk ! ' It has just 
occurred to us, that probably the Session had no 
jurisdiction in the matter, as the nine culprits may 
not have belonged to the Presbyterian Communion ! 
It is interesting to note that the above Mr. Irvine 
kept a classical school — at Annaghbane House^ — of 
which the late Dr. John Hall of New York was an 
assistant master. 

There is no record in the Session minutes regarding 
the * Revival ' of 1859. The Harshaw Diary, however, 

furnishes a detailed account of the move- 
' The ^ ment in Donaghmore — the meetings, the 
1859^* ' speakers, and parties * impressed ' in the 

congregation. * Revival Services ' were 
held almost daily in the Presbyterian church, in 
schoolhouses, mills, and the open air, which were 
attended by crowds of people — many of whom were 
* impressed '■ — while not a few of the females became 
hysterical. The diarist uses the word ' impressed,' 
but a more popular expression was appHed, viz. * to 
fall '—from the fact that those affected generally ' fell 
in a swoon.' We have no information regarding the 
ultimate effects of this wonderful * religious phenome- 
non ' in Donaghmore (or indeed elsewhere). There 
was certainly great spiritual excitement, and an 
unwonted seriousness manifested on the part of many 

u 2 


in the congregation — at least for the time being. The 
Bev. Patrick White took a very prominent part in 
* The Eevival,' with the result that many new 
members were added to the congregation, while at the 
sacrament of the Lord's Supper (October 9, 1859) there 
were about 400 communicants. 

An extraordinary Eevival occurred in the county 
of Antrim about the year 1625, which bears a strong 
resemblance to that of 1859. The former 
lQ2^'^^ ' Bevival is described by the Eev. Andrew 
Stewart (Presbyterian minister of Donagh- 
adee from 1645 to 1671) in a literary work which he 
did not live to complete, a portion of which (' The 
Entry of the Scotts ') bears on the subject. 

It seems the chief promoter of the Eevival of 1625 
was a Eev. William Glendinning, who was scarcely 
combos mentis. Mr. Stewart thus delineates him 
(throwing the blame on the Bishops who permitted 
him to preach) : * For while thus it was and when 
any man would have expected nothing but God's 
judgment to have followed the crew of sinners, behold 
the Lord visited them in admirable mercy the like 
whereof had not been seen anywhere for many genera- 
tions. For, among them who had been permitted to 
preach by the Bishops, there was one Mr. Glendinning, 
a man who would never have been chosen by a wise 
assembly of Ministers, nor sent to begin a reformation 
in the land ; for he was little better than distracted — 
yea, afterwards did actually distract — yet this was 
the Lord's choice to begin the admirable work of God.* 

Mr. Stewart goes on to describe the Eevival and its 
effects upon the people. He says : ' I have seen them 


myself stricken and swoon with the Word — ^yea, a 
dozen in one day carried out of doors as dead, so mar- 
vellous was the power of God smiting their hearts for 
sin, condemning and killing ; and some of those were 
none of the weaker sex or spirit, but indeed some of the 
boldest spirits,' etc. 

It will be of interest to allude to a few Visitacions 
of the Presbytery at Donaghmore, the findings of 

which will enable us to form a pretty fair 
Presbytery^ opinion in regard to the spiritual and 

material condition of the congregation in 
past time& — say for the last half century. These 
visitations much resemble an episcopal visitation — 
except that they are not held at a centre but rotate 
(each congregation within the bounds of the Presbytery 
being honoured in turn) ; and besides, they seem less 
' authoritive,' though we are sure, if necessary, the 
Presbytery would at once transform itself into an 
august body and * rebuke with all authority,' and 
possibly even St. Paul's charge to Timothy would be 
set at naught, viz. ' Rebuke not an elder ! ' 

A Visitation of Presbytery was held April 11, 1848 
— the ruling elders present being James Harshaw and 
Hugh Todd. James Harshaw kept a diary for many 
years of his life (five volumes — now bound) in which 
he noted the daily incidents of his life and family, and 
the occurrences of the parish- — ecclesiastical and civil 
—to which the writer is indebted for much information, 
and especially in regard to the Presbyterian church, 
of which he was a devoted member and officer. He 
was a mling elder for many years, and seems to have 
been a benign ruling spirit as well, while he was 


evidently a good Biblical scholar, and well versed in the 
laws of his Church. He informs us in his diary that 
during the Visitation of Presbytery he ' asked that 
children should be baptized in their private houses, to 
which the Presbytery demurred, but admitted that 
the system or rule or law they wished to adopt, viz. 
Baptism in the Meeting-house — was not based on 
Scripture. On the following Sabbath, Eev. Mr. West 
preached on the subject, impressing on the congregation 
that Baptism was not rightly administered unless done 
in the Meeting-house before the assembled congrega- 
tion, or where public worship had been aimounced, and 
where the minister presides, but took special care to 
conceal the great scripture doctrine of " a Church in 
the House." ' 

A * Visitation of the Presbytery was held at the 
Meeting-House 11th August 1857. Archibald Murdock 
and James Harshaw were examined by Mr. Moran 
(Moderator) and Mr. Lindsay (Clerk) on behalf of the 
Session, and Messrs. Boyd Marshall and Thomas Greer 
questioned as the representatives of the congregation. 
The Visitation passed off quietly and well, after which 
we had a well laid out Lunch in the- class-room of 
Bread, Beef, and Ham, with Porter and Whiskey ' ! 
(Harshaw Diary.) 

It may seem strange to , us * Catch-my-Pal ' folk 
to read of the last two items on the bill of fare at a 
luncheon given in honour of the Newry Presbytery, 
but such commodities were * nothing accounted of ' 
in those days. It is just possible, however, that only 
the ruling elders partook ! 

A Visitation of the Presbytery was held at Donagh- 


more, July 8, 1861, when the * Finding ' was as follows : 
* The Presbytery have to express their satisfaction with 
the zeal, diligence and faithfulness of their esteemed 
Brother, Mr. Elliott, in the discharge of his ministerial 
duties ; with the respectable attendance at Pubhc 
worship, the district meetings for prayer, reading the 
Scriptures, and praise ; the successful efforts made by 
the congregation for the erection of a Manse, and the 
interest taken in the secular education of the young.* 
The Presbytery ' express their regret at the low stan- 
dard of Christian hberahty in the Congregation, as 
evidenced in the support of the Ministry, the Missions 
of the Church, and the contributions on the Lord's 
Day ; that family worship is not more generally 
observed, that many parents do not encourage their 
children to attend the Sabbath School ; and that the 
ordinance of Baptism is not more frequently adminis- 
tered in the Church upon the Lord's Day,' etc. 

Another Visitation of the Presbytery was held in 
Donaghmore, May 7, 1878, when the following was the 
finding : * The Presbytery desire to express their 
satisfaction with the diligence, faithfulness, and 
efficiency of their esteemed young Brother, Mr. 
M'Dowell, in the discharge of his ministerial duties ; 
with the creditable attendance of the people upon the 
public ordinances of the Church, and their increasing 
liberahty ; with the zealous co-operation of the Elder- 
ship with the minister in the oversight of the Congrega- 
tion, and with the efficient manner in which the 
Committee managed its secular affairs.' The Presby- 
tery considered that the number of communicants 
at each Communion was small in proportion to that 


on the list of communicants, and regret was expressed 
accordingly. It was ' recommended ' (a mild com- 
mand !) that the Session hold stated meetings and 
record the proceedings in the Session Book— a good 

The next Visitation of the Presbytery was held 
July 3, 1888, of which the following is a copy of the 
finding : 

' The Presbytery are pleased to find that Mr. 
Burnett discharges with faithfulness and ability all 
the duties of the Mmisterial ofiice ; that the people 
attend so generally upon the services of the sanctuary, 
and that the education of the young is so well provided 
for.' Eegret is expressed that the attendance at the 
Sabbath School is so small ; that family worship is 
not more generally observed, and that there is such a 
large number — amounting to almost one half the number 
of families in connection with the congregation — who 
contribute nothing to the funds of the Church ! A number 
of recommendations having been made, the Presbytery 
' commend Minister and people to the care and blessing 
of the King and Head of the Church, and exhort them 
to increased prayerfulness for the presence and blessing 
of the Holy Spirit.' 

A Visitation of the Presbytery was held shortly 
after the late church renovation, September 1, 1906, 
of which the following is an extract of the finding : 
* The Presbytery have heard with satisfaction the 
answers given by the Minister, representatives of 
Session and Committee. The Minister continues to 
devote himself faithfully to the preaching of the Gos- 
pel, to the care of the young, and to the other duties of 


his OiSfice. They are pleased to find that extensive 
renovation of the Church building has recently been 
made, and they congratulate the Minister and members 
of this old and respectable congregation on the hand- 
some and comfortable Church which they now 

The Donaghmore Presbyterian Church property con- 
sists of the church and adjoining premises, 
Church "^° *^^ manse and lands attached, and the 
Property; Donaghmoro National Schoolhouse. This 
Tras^l property is held by Trustees— all of 
whom are members of the congregation. 
The following were the original trustees of the 
church, with their places of residence so far as known : 
Archibald Lowry (Aughnacavan), Hugh Waddell 
(Ouley or Curley), Thomas McKee (Granshaw), Archi- 
bald Murdock (Lisnaree), Robert Crawford (Finnards), 
»Tohn Campbell (Corcreeghy), John Martin (Loughome), 
David Ellison (Granshaw), James Cochran (Ouley), 
John Morrison (Ardkeeragh), Hugh Marshall (Tully- 
murry), and Isaac Patterson. It is now a century 
and a half since the lease was made, and of the original 
trustees only two representatives remain in the 

Archibald Lowry (who died August 1813) was 
great-grandfather of John Kidd Porter (of Aughna- 
cavan) a member of the present committee 
Lowry* ^^ ^^® Congregation and legal trustee of 
the manse property. Archibald Lowry 
took a prominent part in the affairs of the parish. 
He was a member of the parish vestry, and was fre- 
quently appointed applotter of the church cess 


(see Vestry Minutes, 1771). One of his sons was a 
Presbyterian minister, another a doctor in the Eoyal 
Navy, while the latter had two sons who became 
Members of Parhament. One of the family was the 
Rev. Archibald Lowry, the Home Missionary in 
Connaught and Munster, who did such heroic work in 
relieving the sick and suffering during the dark days 
of the Irish famine, and whose nephew, the Rev. 
J. W. S. Lowry, is at present the well-known Presby- 
terian minister of Fitzroy Harbour, Ontario, Canada. 
Archibald Murdock was great-grandfather of 
Archibald Murdock who is at present a member of 

the Session. For upwards of one hundred 
Murdock y^ars there seems to have been an unbroken 

succession of ruling elders in the Murdock 

Hugh Marshall (one of the Buskill Marshalls) was 
great-grandfather of the late Hugh Marshall of TuUy- 

murry, who died November 11, 1911. 
Marshall ^^ (^^^ latter) was a member of the Session 

and evinced the keenest interest in all 
that concerned the welfare of the congregation. He 
was considered the local Presbyterian historian, and 
probably knew more about the history of the congrega- 
tion than any other of his contemporaries. He had 
much natural abihty and a tenacious memory. He 
possessed but few books, but what he had were used. 
His constant companions were the * Records ' of the 
Synod of Ulster, the ' Reports ' of the General Assembly, 
and the Belfast Witness, He had many peculiar views 
on things in general (excepting religion), mostly based 
on what he called his * own theories ' ! and yet, not- 


withstanding, he was sometimes able to arrive at fairly 
correct conclusions— which, when once formed, nothing 
could shake. He was a well-known character in 
Donaghmore and neighbourhood, which he considered 
* the centre of creation,* while the Presbyterian church 
in his estimation was quite as important as St. Paul's 
Cathedral ! 

He usually wore a singular costume — portion of 
which was his ' waterproof ' cape— composed of coarse 
sackcloth. He had strange views regarding diet and 
modes of living, which did not minister to health ; but 
he professed to know more than the doctors ! Poor 
man, he suffered much in his latter years, which were 
sad and lonely, though he had many friends who would 
have gladly come to his help, if 'permitted. He was 
a kind Christian man, with a warm heart, and most 
charitable to the sick poor. The writer is indebted to 
him for much local information, which was gratefully 
accepted when such was not based on * theory ! ' 

John Martin, one of the original trustees, was 

grandfather of the John Martin of Repeal 

'^^dJ^h'^^"^ fame, while another, John Morrison, was 

Morrison, grandfather of the late Dr. Morrison 

of Newry. 

The following are the present trustees in whom 
the church, manse and schoolhouse are legally 
vested : 

Joseph Gordon Young, John Kidd Porter, James 
Smith, Joseph McMinn. Deceased Trustees : Robert 
McComb, Joseph Malcolmson, and Samuel Murdock. 
(Thomas Copeland's trusteeship lapsed, he having 
ceased to be a member of the congregation.) 


The erection of the manse (in the townland of 
Loughorne) was completed in 1867, at a cost of £860. 

The site was promised April 11, 1860, by 

John Martin (the landlord), who laid the 
foundation stone, June 8, 1864. Five statute acres 
of land are attached, which was purchased out under 
the Land Act of 1907, and in consequence the annual 
rental has been reduced by about £2 per annum. 

The manse is a fairly handsome building, while the 
grounds (of good extent) are well planted with trees 
and shrubs. The building of a manse had long been 
contemplated by the congregation. On Sunday, 
February 3, 1850, James Martin * moved the whole 
congregation into a Committee ' (James Harshaw pre- 
siding) in order to take into consideration the erection 
of a manse, when £100 was subscribed. Again on 
November 20, 1860, the committee warmly took up 
the matter, when £106 was promised. (Harshaw 

The manse is kept in proper repair, and, as it should 
be, at the expense of the congregation. Quite recently 
about £80 was expended on repairs^the amount being 
liquidated through the efforts of Mrs. Burnett assisted 
by members of the congregation. 

A board over the entrance to the Donaghmore 

National Schoolhouse bears the following : 
hoL^''^''''^' 'Donaughmore National School— Erected 

by subscription — A.D. 1859.' (* Donaugh- 
more ' is a misspelling.) 

The schoolhouse was built by subscription. Apart 
from subscriptions, we find Dr. John Hall, of Dublin, 
preaching on behalf of the building fund, at the 


Presbyterian church, November 11, 1860, when the 
collections amounted to £17 5s. id. The schoolhouse 
is situated in the townland of Tullymurry. The old 
schoolhouse was situated in the townland of Ringclare. 
In 1820 it had mud walls— the teacher being John 
Kidd — whose salary was the modest sum of £14 85. 
per annum. The average attendance of pupils for 
that year (1820) was as follows : Presbyterians, 20 ; 
Roman CathoUcs, 1 ; and Established Church, 0*5. 
The school at Ringclare was under Presbyterian 
management, and continued to be so when transferred 
to the new building in Tullymurry. The patron in 1860 
was Thomas Greer of Buskill, who took a very promi- 
nent part in all that concerned the interest of the 
Presbyterian congregation, while in the secular affairs 
of the parish he was equally conspicuous. 

The Donaghmore N.S. was opened April 1, 1860, 

the first teacher being Robert Sloan (appointed 

April 16), who for upwards of thirty 

of* Teachers. 7^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ position with Credit to 
himself and to the satisfaction of all con- 
cerned. He resigned January 1, 1891. He was 
Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marriages for the 
district from 1861 till his death, February 3, 1898. 

After this date the succession of teachers is as 
follows : Edward Simpson, Robert Gordon, James 
McLaughlin, Miss K. Robinson, and Miss E. Jeannie 
McAlister (married Christy McClean),who was succeeded 
by her sister, Miss Molly McAlister, the present principal 
and efficient teacher. 

Miss Gertrude McGaffin, the competent assistant 
teacher, was appointed October 1, 1912. The school 


is under the management of the Rev. Lawson Burnett, 
with whom is associated the following committee : 
J. Gordon Young, Wm. Cummins, A. W. Dillon, John 
Irwin, Joseph Patterson, and the Rev. J. Davison 
Cowan, LL.D. 

The Presbyterian church officers at this date (1918) 
are as follows : Session' — James Donnelly (Sheep- 
bridge House) and Archibald Murdock 
Officers. (Lisnaree). Committee — James Smith, J. 
Gordon Young, Joseph McMinn, Hugh 
McMaster, Samuel Clegg, Robert Copeland, John K. 
Porter, Robert W. Shannon, William Cummins, Isaac 
H. Smyth (Treasurer), John Irwin (Secretary), Joseph 
Henning, Robert H.Megaw, James Malcolmson, Samuel 
Donaldson, Alexander S. Dillon, and William Fletcher. 

In this connection it will be interesting to note the 
members of Committee of the congregation for the year 
1848, viz. Joseph McNeight, John Cowan, jnr., Archi- 
bald Marshall, Alexander Linden, Thomas Walsh, 
Joseph Smith, James Walsh, John McMaster, John 
Marshall, John Porter, Thomas Marshall, James 
Skillen, WiUiam Beck, David Weir, James Todd, 
Edward Jardine, John Harshaw (Secretary), Alexander 
Douglas, William Heslip (Curley), W. Heslip (Ardar- 
ragh), Joseph Robinson, William Lowry, Wm. Sloan, 
Thos. Greer, Archibald Murdock, A. Crawford, Thos. 
Ward, Wm. Porter (Croan), Wm. Crawford, Joseph 
Watterson, Wm. Spiers, Robert McMinn, Samuel 
Andrews, Robert Jeffrey, Samuel Clegg, Robt. Craig, 
John Andrews, John Higgins (?), Robert McClelland, 
James Dickey, James Morrow, — - Parker, John 
Martin (Treasurer), Irvine, and James Martin. 


This large and influential committee was un- 
doubtedly representative of the congregation at the 
time, which was then extremely numerous as compared 
with what it is at present. Indeed it is scarcely more 
than a fragment of what it was in former times — 
having suffered, hke most country congregations, 
through emigration and the flocking of the people 
to the great centres of industry in large towns. 

The Presbyterian Church of Donaghmore is in a 
healthy condition financially and otherwise. Through- 
out its long history it has occupied an important posi- 
tion in the annals of Ulster Presbyterianism, and 
deservedly so, as having been true to its traditions in 
faithfully bearing aloft the * Blue Banner of the 
Covenant,' while during all these years its moral and 
spiritual condition has been in keeping with the 
appropriate motto of the great Communion in which 
it has an honoured place, viz. Ardens sed Virens, 



It is generally acknowledged that the first real land- 
mark in the medical relief of the sick poor was the 
Act (5 George III. c. 20) passed by the Irish Parliament 
(1765), providing for the establishment of County 
Infirmaries. By this Act the Grand Jury of each 
County was empowered to found a County Infirmary, 
and to make yearly presentments for its up-keep, 
of a sum not exceeding £700 per annum, while the 
surgeon was to have £100 a year and other advantages. 
These County Infirmaries, however, not being found 
sufficient, by reason of their distance in most cases 
from the abodes of the sick, the Act of 45 George III. 
0. Ill was passed, which facilitated the estabhshment 
of Dispensaries to * afford medical and 

Provident g^rgical aid to the poor.' These insti- 
Dispensanes. p i i , 

tutions were to be supported by voluntary 

contributions and Grand Jury presentments, but 
the amount granted by the latter was not to exceed 
that of the former. A large number of these Dispens- 
aries were estabhshed in Ireland, and doubtless 
afforded much medical rehef to the sick poor. They 
met, too, with a fair share of financial support, their 
funds from all sources amounting in 1883 to £49,654, 


but they were doomed to failure, being largely voluntary 
institutions, and especially owing to their very unequal 
distribution over the country. The Royal Commission 
of 1833 condemned them for these two reasons. An 
early effort was made to establish one of these Dis- 
pensaries in Donaghmore. At a meeting of the 
Vestry, held April 5, 1839, Isaac Corry in the chair, 
it was resolved that the Rev. M. J. Mee, Vicar of the 
Parish, * be entrusted to write to the different land- 
lords and others throughout the intended Dispensary 
district to request of each of them to state what sum 
each intends to subscribe, and that when their answers 
shall have been received he is hereby authorised to 
convene another meeting.' There is no record of 
another meeting having been held. 

It was not, however, till the year 1848 that one 

of these Dispensaries was founded in Donaghmore. 

It was managed by a Committee, which 

Donaghmore consisted of * all Subscribers of one guinea 

Provident , .-i . , 

Dispensary. P^^ annum — three to form a quorum. 
The following constituted the first Dis- 
pensary Committee : — Isaac Corry (Chairman), James 
Harshaw (Secretary and Treasurer), Rev. J. C. Quinn, 
Rev. S. J. Moore, Rev. Martin Ryan, P.P., Rev. A. 
Bryson, John Martin, Richard Waring, Thos. Ledlie, 
David Woods, Arthur Maginnis, Robert Gibson, 
John Carswell, Dan Magennis, Thos. Greer, Robert 
Wilson, etc. 

The first medical officer of the Dispensary was 
Surgeon James Bryson, who, at a meeting of the 
Committee, June 21, 1848, was elected * to super- 
intend the Dispensary for the ensuing twelve months.' 


Surgeon Bryson was son of the Eev. Alexander 

Bryson, Minister of the Four-towns. He 

Surgeon ^^^ ^ ^^^ ^j much abiUty and promise. 

He died March 17, 1851, aged 29 years, 

leaving a widow and two children. 

On May 16, 1851, Dr. William Saunderson (of 
the Poyntzpass Dispensary) was appointed medical 
officer of the Donaghmore Dispensary, 
s^ derson ^^^^^^^ Saunderson was a highly qualified 
medical practitioner, being A.B. (Dublin) 
1888, M.B. 1840, A.M. 1860, L.K.C.S.l. 1841, L.M. 
Great Britain Street Hospital 1836. He was appointed 
at a salary of £50 per annum, to be increased to £60 
in case * the funds are forthcoming for the purpose.' 

The other candidate proposed on the occasion was 
Dr. Kobert Brown McClelland, afterwards a physician 
of much distinction, with a lucrative practice in Ban- 

At the j&nal meeting of the Dispensary Committee, 
March 31, 1852, the following resolution was passed : — 
' It is but justice to Dr. Saunderson that they record 
their sense of the great professional skill, and also 
of the unremitting attention, with which he has dis- 
charged the duties of medical officer since the period 
of his appointment to the Institution.' Signed J. L. 
Darby, Clk:, Eector of Acton (Poyntzpass). 

Our present Poor-Law system was introduced 
into Ireland in 1888 by the Act 1 and 2 Victoria c. 56 ; 
but apart from the workhouse infirmary in certain 
towns it made little or no provision in the way of 
medical relief for the sick poor in rural districts. The 
watchwords of the system, practically introduced in 


1841 (the date on our workhouses), were : — * abolish 
out-door rehef,' * all paupers into the workhouse,* 
and * all sick poor to be huddled together in the 
workhouse infirmary.' 

The modern dispensary system was estabhshed by 
the Medical Charities Act (14 and 15 Vict. c. 68), 
1851. By this Act the Poor-Law Corn- 
Modern missioners, in conjunction with the local 
System^ ^^ Boards of Guardians, were authorised to 
divide up the whole of Ireland into * dispen- 
sary districts,' *with due regard to the extent and 
population of the districts,' and to employ a medical 
officer for the care of the poor in the same. 

Incorporated by the Act was a * Dispensary 
Committee ' which governed the dispensary district, 
choosing the medical officer, and deciding on the 
fitness of cases for such relief. 

By the Local Government Act of 1898 Dispensary 
Committees were unfortunately aboHshed, when the 
control which they exercised became vested in the 
Board of Guardians. The present mode 
Method of ^^ appointment of our Dispensary medical 
appointing officers is unsatisfactory, as being fatal 
Medical j^q^ q^\j ^q efficiency, but as calculated to 
destroy the trust and confidence which the 
poor patient should always repose in his physician. 
Surely the poor, as much as the rich, should have 
the best medical aid available ; but that is impossible 
under the present system, where political and sec- 
tarian claims are paramount, and the shibboleth of 
party is often the sole test of fitness. Such important 

appointments, which so deeply affect our sick poor, 

% 2 


should b<^ entirely lifted out of the sphere of politics 
or party, and be made either competitive, or rest with 
an independent and impartial Medical Committee in 
connection with the Local Government Board. 

The present Dispensary Districts of Donaghmore 
and Poyntzpass were originally united under the 
Donaehmore clenomination of the * Donaghmore and 
and Poyntzpass Dispensary District,' and were 

Poyntzpass served by the same medical officer. This 
Dispensary. ^-^^^^^^^ ^^s formed on January 16, 1852, 
by the Newry Board of Guardians, and on the 9th of 
the following June the Poor-Law Commissioners 
approved of their action. The first medical officer 
was Dr. William Saunderson (who had served under 
the old provident dispensary system), appointed 
April 27, 1852. The first chairman of the Dispensary 
Committee was Isaac Corry, while the next chairman 
was Colonel Close of Drumbanagher. 

At a meeting of the Committee, May 19, 1852, it 
was unanimously decided to accept David Woods' 

offer of a Dispensary house and reception- 
Hous?'^'^ room at the yearly rent of £8. This house 

is still used as the ' Donaghmore Dispen- 
sary,' where the medical officer attends on the Tuesdays 
and Fridays of each week — though at first the days 
of attendance were Wednesday and Saturday. The 
house is a small, handsome building, with ivy-clad 
walls, close to the main road, and is pretty centrally 
situated in regard to the electoral divisions (Donagh- 
more, Ouley and Glen) which compose the Donaghmore 
Dispensary District. 

The union of Donaghmore and Poyntzpass into 


one Dispensary District did not seem to give satis- 
faction on either side, for, at the meeting of the 
Committee on the above date, it was proposed by 
James Harshaw ' and agreed upon unanimously that 
the Committee should protest against the amalgama- 
tion of the two Dispensaries — that of Poyntzpass and 
Donaghmore — and that the Poor-Law Guardians be 
requested to use their best exertions to have for 
Donaghmore district a separate and distinct Dis- 
pensary and Committee of Management.' 

At a general meeting of the Dispensary Committee 
held in Poyntzpass, September 5, 1854, the following 
resolution was passed : ' That the Electoral 
be^dissolved ^^^^ision of Poyntzpass be formed into a 
Dispensary District, and the Electoral Divi- 
sions of Donaghmore, Ouley and Glen into another, 
and that the present medical officer of the united 
district be continued by the separate ones.' 

Subsequently, the union of the districts was 
dissolved by the Newry Board of Guardians, and their 
action was confirmed October 27, 1854. In their 
letter of this date, the Commissioners declare that 
* the Donaghmore District shall comprise the Electoral 
Divisions of Donaghmore, Ouley and The Glen ; and 
the Poyntzpass District shall comprise and consist of 
the Electoral Division of Poyntzpass.' Each district 
is to have the service of one medical officer. In 
regard to the Dispensary Committees — * of Donagh- 
more District the number of persons shall be eleven ; 
and of the Poyntzpass District the number of persons 
shall be nine.' Dr. Saunderson remained medical 
officer of Donaghmore. 


On December 6 following, the new officers for 

Donaghmore Dispensary were appointed, viz. — the 

Kev. J. C. Quinn, Chairman ; James 

Officers for Harshaw, Vice-chairman ; John Harshaw, 

Secretary, and John Crawford, Assistant 

Dr. Saunderson died on Thursday, July 22, 1880, 
at his residence. Union Lodge, and was buried in 

Tandragee Churchyard on the following 
Death of Monday. The local Press, in an obituary 
Saunderson. i^otice, records that he was * a large-hearted, 

generous man, and was highly popular in 
the district where he resided. He was a staunch 
Conservative, and an attached member of the Church 
of Ireland.' Dr. Saunderson married Elizabeth, 
daughter of the Eev. John Mcllwaine (Minister of 
Mourne Presbyterian Church). 

A special meeting of the Committee was held 
on August 20, when Dr. Samuel Mills was elected 

medical officer of the district. Dr. Mills' 
N^ Medical appointment gave much satisfaction in 
Dr. Mills. *^^ district, where his great reputation 

as a physician in Kathfriland (where he 
had practised for thirteen years) was well known, 
and it is needless to state that during his long tenure 
of the office that reputation has been more than main- 
tained, and that the confidence reposed in him by 
the large and influential Committee who elected him 
was not misplaced. Dr. Mills was (and is) extremely 
popular in the district, and as a skilled medical prac- 
titioner kept abreast of the times, possessing the con- 
fidence of all classes both in his extensive private 


practice and in that connected with the Dispensary. 
Dr. Mills had a distinguished University career. He 
took his Bachelor's degree in 1862, in the old Queen's 
University, after having gained three valuable scholar- 
ships in Arts, and a senior exhibition in Natural 
History. In 1867 he became L.R.C.P. (Edin.) and 
L.R.C.S. (Edin.). He subsequently became a member 
of the Microscopic Society. 

A special meeting of the Committee was held, 
April 8, 1881, for the purpose of taking into considera- 
tion the propriety of recommending an increase of salary 
to Dr. Mills. An increase of £20 per annum was voted. 
At a meeting of the Committee, June 1, 1883, the 
following officers for the ensuing year were elected : 
Chairman, the Rev. J. Davison Cowan, 
1883^6^17 Sector of Donaghmore (in the room of the 
Rev. J. C. Quinn, deceased) ; Vice-Chair- 
man, J. T. C. Quiim ; Secretary, John Harshaw ; and 
Assistant Secretary, Joseph Patterson. 

The same officers were continued till the dissolution 
of the Committee in 1899, except that William Bradford 
was appointed Secretary on April 6, 1888, and Thomas 
Woods was elected to the post May 10, 1895. 

Thomas Woods (of the Fourmile House) was the 
last Secretary of the Dispensary Committee, and was 
most assiduous and efficient in the dis- 
Wo(Sr charge of his duties. He died at the early 
age of fifty-one years, December 18, 1906 — 
his demise being deeply and deservedly regretted by 
all who knew him. He was an extensive farmer, 
mill-owner, and general merchant (as was his esteemed 
father, David Woods). 


David Woods married Agnes, daughter of Robert 
Caven, and had issue, of whom the present repre- 
sentatives are John, Mary, Martha, Sarah, and 
Jane, who married Joseph Haslett (a Rathfriland 
merchant), with issue, viz., Mary, married Dr. James 
May Elhott (deceased), for many years a well-known 
physician of much repute at Rathfriland, whose son, 
Joseph Haslett Elliott, M.B. (T.C.D.), is a skilled 
practitioner residing in England ; Alice, who married 
the Rev. G. T. Cowper, M.A., the erudite minister of 
third Rathfriland Presbyterian Church ; Annie and 
Jeannie, both of whom are University graduates ; 
Robert Haslett, an Englisk physician of note ; and 
William Woods Haslett (deceased), a distinguished 
graduate of Cambridge University, and Principal of 
St. Andrew's College, Dublin. 

On the date of Thomas Woods' appointment as 
Hon. Secretary in the room of WiUiam Bradford, 
the chairman of the Committee proposed a 
Bradford sincere vote of thanks to the latter for his 
long and faithful services in various 
capacities to the Committee of Management, and also 
for his constant and watchful attention for so many 
years to the interests of the District at the Newry 
Board of Guardians. 

The following is a list of the last Committee of 
Management and Wardens of the Donaghmore 
Members Dispensary : — Committee ; The Rev. J. 
of Last Davison Cowan, LL.D. (Chairman), Donagh- 
Dispensary more Rectory ; Arthur Charles Innes, D.L., 
Committee, jp^^ Dromantine ; J. T. C. Quinn, J.P. 
(Vice- Chairman), Tower Hill ; Professor Richard 


John Anderson, M.A., M.D., J.P., Beech Hill ; Thomas 
Woods (Hon. Secretary), Fourmile House ; George 
Gordon, Maryvale ; Joseph Patterson, Aughentobber ; 
WiUiam Bradford, Ringolish ; J. Gordon Young, 
Cargabane ; Alexander Bradford, Ringolish ; Robert 
Bryson, Ballymacaratty ; Lawrence McCouit, Corgary; 
A. Sloan, Ardarragh ; Thomas Waddell, Curley ; 
William Savage, Lurganare ; J. O'Hare, Knocka- 
narney ; Thomas Malcomson, Curley ; John McEvoy, 
Drumiller ; and Samuel Lawson, Ardarragh. 

Dr. Mills, for close on thirty-one years medical 
officer of the Donaghmore Dispensary District, owing 

to serious illness, tendered his resignation 
Reti ment ^^ ^^^* position to the Newry Board of 

Guardians, May 13, 1911. The Board of 
Guardians on that date accepted his resignation with 
profound regret — the several members expressing 
themselves in the most eulogistic terms of Dr. Mills, 
both personally and as medical officer of the 

Dr. Mills married Margaret, daughter of the late 
John McEnearney of Curley, and has issue two 

sons, John Arthur and William Sloan, 
Sons ^^^ ^^^® distinguished themselves both 

at the University and in their respective 

John Arthur Mills matriculated in the Royal 
University 1892, and afterwards entered Queen's 

College, Galway. He gained first scholar- 
Arthur Mills ^^^P ^^ Arts, Literary Division, and for 

highly distinguished answering the mone- 
tary value of the scholarship was substantially 


increased. He also held Literary Scholarships in the 
years 1893 and 1894. During the session 1895-96 he 
was Senior Scholar in Ancient Classics, and in that 
of 1896-97 Senior Scholar and Demonstrator in 
Natural History. In 1897-98 he held a third-year 
exhibition in medicine, and in the following session 
became Medical Scholar and Demonstrator in Phar- 
macy. He was Proxime accessit for the Blaney Exhi- 
bition, and gained several class prizes in the Queen's 
Colleges of Gal way and Belfast, completing his medical 
studies in the latter— B.A. 1897, and M.B., B.Ch., 
B.A.O., 1900. After experience of general practice 
in London and various parts of England, he was 
appointed on the staff of the Durham County Asylum 
as Assistant Medical Officer and Pathologist. 

William Sloan Mills matriculated (R.U.L) in 1894, 
and entered Queen's College, Galway, where, having 
gained Science Scholarships for three years 
Sloan™ur ^"^ *^^ ^®^^^^ Scholarship in Chemistry, he 
was appointed Demonstrator of Chemistry 
in 1897. He took the B.A. degree in Experimental 
Science in the Eoyal University with honours and an 
Exhibition in 1898, and the M.A. with honours in 
1900. He also took the B.E. degree in the Eoyal 

He was trained in methods of research by Professor 
Senier, Queen's College, Galway, and had a paper 
accepted by the Chemical Society of London in 1899, 
after which he was elected to a Science Research 
Scholarship (value £150 per amium) by H.M. 1851 
Exhibition Commissioners. He proceeded to the 
University of Berlin, where he worked with Professor 


Emil Fischer and Professor Harries, and on account of 
the success with which he pursued his researches his 
Science Research Scholarship was specially renewed 
for a third year. 

On his return from Germany he was appointed 
Kodak Research Assistant to Professor Senier, with 
whom he worked for two years. In 1906 he was 
awarded the degree of Doctor of Science by the Royal 

Dr. Sloan Mills is Lecturer in Chemistry in the 
Woolwich Polytechnic Institute, and is recognised 
by the Senate of London University as a University 
Teacher of Chemistry. 

On May 27, 1911, the Newry Board of Guardians 
appointed Dr. John Patrick McGivern 
M^'Giver medical officer of the Donaghmore Dis- 
pensary District. 

Dr. McGivern graduated in the Queen's University, 
Belfast, 1911, when he received the degrees of M.B., 
B.Ch., B.A.O. He resigned November 9, 1912. 

Dr. Francis P. McDermott was appointed medical 
officer of the Donaghmore Dispensary District by 
the Newry Board of Guardians December 
McDermott ^^> 1912. He is a licentiate of the Royal 
College of Physicians and Surgeons in 
Ireland. He is a very efficient and popular medical 
officer, and his appointment has given much satis- 
faction in the district. 

Amongst those who evinced the deepest interest in 
the Donaghmore Dispensary, and spared no pains to 
further the good cause of medical relief for the sick 
poor of the district, two names stand out prominently 


— viz. Isaac Corry,the first chairman of the Committee, 
and James Harshaw, the first secretary and hon. 

So early as 1839 we find Isaac Corry presiding 
at a Vestry meeting, called for the express purpose 
of founding a dispensary in Donaghmore. 
He was instrumental not only in estab- 
lishing the institution, but took a leading part in 
working it successfully when formed. He and his 
forbears were ever mindful of the sick poor and desti- 
tute. His ancestor, Sir Trevor Corry, made a charge 
on portion of his lands in the townland of Corcreechy, 
in the lordship of Newry, for certain indigent persons, 
and which is known as the ' Corry Charity.' 

James Harshaw was one of the prime moving 
spirits in all that concerned the interests of the Dis- 
pensary, and in the leading part he played 
ames ^^ ^j^-^ j-^gpect he was sympathetically 

assisted by others of his family, as he was, 
too, by his connections, the Martins of Lougherne. 
In his diary there is a constant reference to the Dis- 
pensary. As an officer he was ever at the post of duty, 
and it is worthy of note that between the years 
1852-62 he presided at the meetings of Committee 
on upwards of sixty occasions. 

No sketch of Donaghmore Parish would be complete 
which failed to refer in special terms to the old and 
highly respected family of the Harshaws, 
^^® — many of whom played an important 

Clan. P^^* ^^ ^^^ affairs of this and the neigh- 

bouring parishes in past times, and whose 
descendants are still prominent in other portions 


of the world — particularly in the United States of 
America, where Ulstermen generally distinguish 
themselves in the several walks of hfe. 

Besides, a sketch of this particular family, owing 
to its intimate connection with so many in the parish 
and the neighbourhood, affords us an opportunity 
of including others well worthy of mention, and who 
otherwise would have claimed our special attention. 

Although the Harshaws of Donaghmore were 
long and honourably connected with the parish, it 
does not seem that this was the original home of the 
family. The first settlers in Ireland were, doubtless, 
Joseph Harshaw and his brother, Andrew, of Bally- 
nafoy, in the parish of Annaclone, who settled there 
towards the close of the seventeenth century. Joseph 
Harshaw's will was proved in 1735, he having died 
when doubtless he was an old man. There is, besides, 
a Harshaw tradition to the effect that the family 
came over to Ireland with King Wilham III, Prince 
of Orange, in 1690, and hence it was long customary 
for the several members of the clan to wear sprays 
of the orange lily each succeeding 1st of July. In all 
probability this tradition is founded on fact, and 
hence we may conclude that the brothers, Joseph 
and Andrew, settled at Ballynafoy about 1690. 

The writer found some difiQculty in tracing the 
original home of these brothers, but he appealed to 
Mr. Baring-Gould — the well-known author, and our 
highest authority on the origin and signification of 
surnames — who (in a letter to the writer) informs us 
that the name (Harshaw) is * North Country ' (York- 
shire or Northumberland). 'Shaw' is a small wood, 


and " Harshaw " is the high wood, and is the exact 
equivalent to the southern Enghsh Heywood (High- 
wood). Of this there can be no doubt.' He further 
states it (the family) is ' from old Northumbria, where 
" shaw " is still used as a clump of trees or small wood. 
The Norse word is " skoss," that has become softened 
to "shaw," and '* har " is Norse for high. All Northum- 
bria was largely peopled from Norway and Denmark.' 
Hence we may conclude that the brothers Harshaw, 
who settled at Ballynafoy, were * North Country ' men 
— from Yorkshire or Northumberland. From Bally- 
nafoy branches of the Harshaws quickly spread into 
the neighbouring parishes of Newry, Donaghmore, 
and Loughgilly. In the period from 1750 to 1757 
we find branches in these several places, viz. Michael 
in Newry (and Donaghmore), James and Hugh at 
Donaghmore, and William and Andrew at I^oughgilly, 
while the original stock at Ballynafoy consisted 
of William, John and Robert, and their respective 
families. No records — family, ecclesiastical, or other 
— are now available by which it is possible to trace 
the descent of all the members of the vast Harshaw 
Clan, at present scattered over so many portions 
of the world, particularly in the United States of 
America ; but that the several branches, whether here 
or elsewhere, are all descended from the one common 
stock, there can be no manner of doubt. 

In regard to the original Harshaws (Ballynafoy), 
the family wills are, for the most part, our only 
sources of information in tracing descent, otherwise 
the sequence might have been more perfect. 


(1) The Harshaws of Ballynafoy 
(Original Group) 

I. Joseph Harshaw of Balljrnafoy (will proved 
1785) had a brother, Andrew, and by his wife, Agnes, 
had four sons and two daughters : 

John (who had an only daughter, Janet), whose 
will was proved in 1768. 

Michael, who may be identified as the Newry 
merchant and owner of the Fourmile House, 
Donaghmore (see below). 

Andrew, from whom it is presumed are descended 
the Donaghmore and Loughgilly Harshaws, and who, 
with John Potts, supplicated the General Assembly, 
June 16, 1747, to allow Hugh Young to preach to 
the congregation of Loughbrickland.^ 

Joseph, Jane, Anne. 

II. William of Ballynafoy (will proved 1760) 
had sons : Josias, John, William. The executor 
of the will was John Harshaw of Ballynafoy. 

III. Bobert Harshaw of Ballynafoy (will proved 
1799) had the following children : WilHam, Elizabeth, 
Mary {alias Spiers), Sarah, Arabella {alias Correy), 

IV. James Harshaw, of the parish of Annaclone 
(will proved 1811), had the following children by his 
wife, whom he names ' Jane Harshaw, alias McAll ' : 
Jane, Sarah, Elizabeth, Bobert, Andrew, James, to 
whom, the testator says, * upon account of his 
extravagancy, I leave the sum of five shillings.' 

1 ' Records of the Synods of Ulster,' vol. ii., p. 329. 


V. In 1811 the will of Andrew Harshaw of Bally- 
nafoy was proved, in which the testator mentions 
his brothers, Robert and John, and his children : 
James, John, Andrew, Janet (who married Christopher 

VI. Rev. Andrew Harshaw, of * The Crow's Nest,' 
Ballynafoy, where he taught a classical school, and 
had as a pupil Patrick Bronte, father of the novelist, 
and who died about 1834. He had brothers, Joseph 
(medical doctor) and John, and a sister who married 
Rev. Robert McAllister. The brother (Dr. Joseph 
Harshaw) had four sons and one daughter : John 
(died unmarried), Andrew (died unmarried), David, 
married and went to Philadelphia. He had five 
sons (now supposed to be living in or close to that 
city), viz. Joseph, Andrew, James, John and David, 
and two daughters, Anna, wife of Samuel Matthews 
(Philadelphia), and Mary (Belfast), widow of Joseph 
Gillespie. Rev. James Harshaw, who went to Balti- 
more, became principal of a classical school in that 
city. He died in Ireland. The daughter married 
Andrew^ Harshaw of Ballynafern (see next group). 

With this group we associate Thomas Harshaw 
of Lisnacreevy (close to Ballynafoy), who died May 22, 
1851, aged forty-seven. He had a ' cousin, Robert 
Swann Corbett,' to whom he left * all his property ' 
(will proved 1851), giving us the reason in his will, 
viz. * the love and respect I hold for my cousin, Robert 
Swann Corbett.' Elizabeth Anne, wife of John 
Corbett of Lisnacreevy (mother of Robert Swann 
Corbett), was a widow in 1846, when she had dealings 
with John McAHister of Buskhill (eldest son of the 


Rev. Robert McAllister of Buskhill, who died about 
1836, and grandson of the Robert McAllister who 
got the care of Buskhill, in this parish, in 1776). 

In connection with the Ballynafoy group must be 
noticed the Harshaws of Bally nafern — the adjoining 
townland — all the same stock, and intermarried. 
Andrew Harshaw of Ballynafern died about 1838 (his 
widow died November 26, 1854). He had six children. 
The sons were : Andrew of Ballynafern, w^ho married his 
cousin, a daughter of Joseph Harshaw of Ballynafoy 
(see above), and had issue — Eleanor, who married 
Lyons, son of Rev. Hugh Waddell of Glenarm (a 
member the Ouley family of Waddells) and brother of 
Mrs. John McMaster of Aughentobber, Andrew (Bally- 
nafern), deceased 1911, James, now living at 2036, 
Webster Avenue, New York city, Joseph and Mary, 
both deceased : Francis, deceased, resided in Banbridge : 
James, died, aged thirty-eight. His widow (and 
family) emigrated and settled at Pontiac, Michigan, 
where she died, aged eighty years, leaving four sons 
and three daughters, of whom are : James of Pontiac, 
recently deceased ; Andrew (now of Detroit), who 
settled at Alpena (Michigan) and was Mayor of that 
town, and Francis, of Indianapolis. 

(2) The Harshaws of Newry and Donaghmorb 

I. Michael Harshaw of Newry and Donaghmore 
appears as a prominent merchant in the former place 
from 1758 to 1770, while, at the same time, he seems 
to have been a man of property and importance in 


this parish. In February 1766 and September 1767 
he advertises, to let, the Four Mile House, and on 
June 14 of the following year he informs the public, 
through the Belfast News-letter, 'that pursuant to 
an ancient patent for holding two Fairs in the year 
at the Four Mile House in the parish of Donaghmore 
in the County of Down,' these having been ' for a 
long time neglected,' he, * Michael Harshaw, the 
present proprietor of the aforesaid place,' has acquired 
the right of reviving the same, the Fairs to be holden 
' every 22nd day of June and 22nd day of October 
yearly.' The renewal of these fairs doubtless led to 
the formation of the Donaghmore Farming Society 
and the institution of the annual cattle show% which 
subsequently flourished at the Four Mile House, and 
in connection with which the Harshaws took a 
prominent part. Michael Harshaw died in 1771. 
Mrs. Harshaw must have been a very pleasing and 
amiable woman, and hence did not long remain a 
widow, for in September 1778 we find it recorded 
that Edward Best, of Blackbank, County of Armagh, 
married ' the agreeable widow Harshaw.' 

A son of Michael's may have become a partner in 
the Newry business, for we find the firm of Hogg and 
Harshaw, of North Street, flourishing on June 29, 1795. 
The following are supposed to be sons of Michael : 
Surgeon John Harshaw, of the Royal Navy, who, on 
his retirement, took up his residence in William Street, 
Newry. He married twice : firstly, January 8, 1811, 
Sarah (who died February 28, 1817), daughter of 
Surgeon Bell of Newry, by whom he had a daughter, 
Mary, bom August 9, 1814 ; and secondly, June 8, 


1818, Anne, third daughter of Robert Kerr of Kates- 
bridge, by whom he had a second daughter, Isabella, 
born April 6, 1819. He died at Bristol September 20, 

1819, aged thirty-six. His will, dated September 20, 
1819, consists of a few lines written in a trembling 
hand, in which he bequeaths all his real and personal 
property to his ' beloved wife and dear child.' He 
states that he is living at Bristol for his health, and 
describes himself as ' John Harshaw, of Newry, 
Surgeon.' Probate of the will was granted October 20, 
1819, to Anne his wife, Thomas Carr and John Quinn 
of Kildare Street, Newry, father of the late Rev. 
John Campbell Quinn, Rector of Donaghmore. 
Michael, of whom nothing is known with certainty, 
save that he resided at Drumbanagher Parish (which 
borders that of Loughgilly) and was married in St. 
Mary's Church, Newry, January 21, 1803, to Elizabeth, 
daughter of John White of Killeavy. Subsequently, 
he may have crossed the border and lived in Lough- 
gilly, for we find the last Harshaw of that place was 
Michael, who died in or about 1836. His widow and 
three children (one of whom was Joseph) left Lough- 
gilly, and, it is said, went to America. 

II. James Harshaw of Ringbane, Donaghmore, 
supposed to be a son of the Andrew Harshaw of 
Ballynafoy, who ' supplicates the General Assembly ' 
(see above), was born 1744, and died June 20, 1822, 
aged seventy-eight years. He was married to Mary 
Bradford, who died May 1, 1830. His son, James, 
kept a diary ^ for many years, in which he recorded the 

^ See ' Presbyterian Church,' chapter vi. 

Y 2 


daily events of his life, even the most trivial being 
noted. On the first and second pages of the fourth MS. 
volume occur the following references to his father : 
* Died on the 20th June, 1822, Mr. James Harshaw of 
Danaghmore. In the disposition of this truly honest 
man were united all the placid elements that are 
calculated to adorn the character of the meek and 
humble Christian. Sincere piety towards his God and 
goodwill to his fellow-creatures were the leading 
features of his life. In all the dispensations of his 
Creator towards him he manifested an uncommon 
degree of resignation to the Divine will ; so that the 
language of his heart was — ^in the words of the good 
King Hezekiah — " good is the word of the Lord ; let 
Him do whatsoever seemeth good unto Him." He was 
a sincere believer in the merits and atonement of our 
Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, and in his life and con- 
versation that belief was fully m.anifested ; but he was 
too humble to speak with confidence of that firm con- 
fidence which we have every reason to believe he really 
had in the Almighty Redeemer of Sinners. He lived 
to a good old age (seventy-eight years) and seemed 
ready to resign his soul whenever his Creator would 
please to demand it.' 

The following lines on his death (as the diary 
informs us) were composed by his * affectionate 
daughter, Jane Martin ' (mother of the famous John 
Martin) : 

' Oh ! happy soul, no more to earth confined, 
But to thy Saviour gloriously resigned, 
And now a happy disembodied ghost 
Arrived in safety at the blissful coast. 


There, ever near thy lov'd Almighty Friend, 
Thou still shalt be : and in sweet converse speed 
Thy happy hours, with those who, like to thee, 
Have fought the glorious fight and gained the victory. 

* Dear humble shade ! oh, whither art thou gone. 
To what bright world with wings expanded flown ? 
And who to waft thy gentle spirit stood 
When thou hadst passed Death's dark and slippery flood ? 
Did bright and shining ones thy path illume. 
When thou wert passing through " the rivers of gloom," 
Or didst thou " by the eye of Faith " survey 
The Lord of Life Who easy made thy way ? ' 

He had issue at least three sons and one daughter, 
viz. : 

WilUam of Ringbane, who died (a young man 
unmarried) May 17, 1830. 

Hugh, died April 9, 1810. 

Jane (who wrote the above lines), died July 16, 
1847 ; married Samuel Martin (who died July 8, 1831). 

James (who kept the diary), formerly of Ringolish, 
but appears to have got Ringbane on his brother 
WiUiam's death, born 1799 ; married 1816, Sarah, 
daughter of William Kidd of Kiddstown ; died 
January 30, 1867. His widow died April 7, 1877. 
Had issue twelve children, viz. : 

1. Hugh, born January 2, 1817, and died 
(unmarried) November 13, 1845, aged 28. 

2. Mary, born January 17, 1818 (or 1819); 
married Alexander Douglas of Ardkeeragh in 1848, 
and died March 28, 1859. Alexander Douglas died 
July 13, 1869, leaving issue a son, James Alexander 
Harshaw Douglas (born March 26, 1859), Doctor of 


MediciDe, at Great Bridge, Staffordshire, where he 
died November 10, 1897. 

3. John of Loughorne, and later of Eingclare, 
born July 18, 1820 ; married, January 25, 1855, 
Ellen, only child of Hugh Todd of Eingclare. He 
died February 7, 1896, aged 75, having had, by his 
wife (who died July 24, 1892), issue, viz. Jane, born 
January 28, 1856, and died unmarried), Ehzabeth 
(born December 8, 1857, and died unmarried, June 16, 
1892), Mary (born September 7, 1862, and died un- 
married), and Hugh, who married Jane Jardine. 

4. Jane, born May ^3, 1822 ; married Archibald 
Marshall in 1846, and died October 28, 1901, leaving 
by him (who died October 22, 1907, aged 89) issue : 
Samuel James (died in Australia), who married Mary 
Small, widow of John Marshall of Lake View, and 
Marj^, who married John A. Copeland of the Fourtowns. 

5. James of Eingbane, born May 18, 1826, and 
died unmarried April 28, 1903, aged 76. 

6. WilHam Kidd, of New York, born March 30, 
1828 ; married September 12, 1858, Mary E. Merrill, 
and died at Patterson, New Jersey, October 18, 1902, 
aged 74, leaving his widow (who died at Brooklyn, 
July 21, 1907, aged 82 years) and issue, viz. 
William Andrew (late office clerk in the American 
War Office), Emma B., born 1856 (married Henry D. 
Smith of Brooklyn), and Gimel, born 1859. 

7. Andrew, born April 9, 1829, and died unmarried 
May 19, 1906, aged 77. 

8. Eobert Hugh, licensed to preach the Gospel by 
the Newry Presbytery, September 5, 1854 ; ordained 
for MuUingar Presbyterian Church September 7, 1858, 


and called to Mountmellick in March, 1869. He 
married Jane KcKee of Belfast, and died July 15, 
1896, leaving issue, viz. : Mary Douglas (married 
James Cummins of Roscrea), James (died March 18, 
1864), Jessie, Robert, Hugh, Edith Sarah, Helen 
Margaret (died July 9, 1900), James Gibson and 
Ehzabeth (both deceased). 

9. Samuel Alexander, born January 14, ISSf', 
and died March 21, 1885. 

10. Samuel Alexander, New York, born September 
10, 1837, died (unmarried) at Patterson, New Jersey, 
May 8, 1880, aged 42 years. 

11. Sarah Anne (now sole survivor of family), 
born February 21, 1840 ; married (October 2, 1862) 
Andrew Hopkins Megaw of Shinn, and has issue, viz. : 
Robert Hopkins, Jane Kidd (married James Shanks, 
Poyntzpass), and Anna Hopkins, married Edward 
Maxwell of Banbridge. 

12. Elizabeth Martin, born July, 12, 1821, and died 
May 13, 1842. 

III. Hugh Harshaw, of whom there is no reliable 

(3) The Harshaws of Louohgilly 

The ' Harshaw Diary ' has the following entry. 
May 14, 1846 : * On this day, 1490, my ancestors 
settled in the north of Armagh for a few years. William 
came and settled down in Donaghmore and Andrew 
settled in Armagh.' * 1490 ' is evidently a clerical 
error for 1790, as there were no Enghsh in ' North 
Armagh ' at the time, or indeed for long afterwards. 
Undoubtedly, the diarist meant that hi? two 


* ancestors ' (Ballynafoy Harshaws) settled in ' North 
Armagh ' (LoughgiJly) in 1790, and, as a matter of 
fact), we actually find William and Andrew Harsbaw 
there about that date. William and Andrew are 
supposed to be brothers, and, so far as can be known, 
were sons of Andrew Harshaw of Ballynafoy, the father 
of James Harshaw of Donaghmore (see above). 

I. William Harshaw had issue three sons and four 
daughters, viz. Elizabeth (dates baptismal), Decem- 
ber 3, 1797 ; Andrew, December 29, 1799 ; Margaret, 
March 30, 1806 ; Wilham, May 15, 1808 ; Kobert, 
September 2, 1810 ; Jean, March 5, 1815 ; Mary, 
August 3, 1817. 

II. Andrew Harshaw died April 17, 1813 (? 1818), 
leaving a widow^ and large family, viz. Michael 
(baptized June 21, 1807), John, David, Andrew, 
Joseph, Henry, Sarah, and William. Of the above, 
Joseph became a soldier, and had a son an officer in 
the army, while David was also in the service. (Either 
Joseph or David was in the Life Guards.) 

About 1820 Mrs. Harshaw {nee Henry), w^ith her 
sons Andrew, David, Michael, and William, and her 
daughter Sarah, went to the United States of America, 
and settled at Adams ville, Pennsylvania. Of these — 

1. Andrew (eldest son) became a prosperous 
merchant. He left several sons and one daughter, 
among whom, now living, are : The Hon. W. J. Har- 
shaw of Grove City, Pennsylvania, Hugh, and Michael. 

2. Michael became a Presbyterian minister. He 
graduated in 1838 at the Western University (Pitts- 
burg), and subsequently studied Theology under the 
Eev. Dr. Black, a distinguished divine. He was in 


due time ordained to the Ministry, and held varicus 
important charges till his death in 1874. He -vvas a 
man of great mental force and strength of character, 
but extremely diffident and modest, otherwise he might 
have attained to a position of greater prominence 
than that which fell to his lot. He left issue, viz. 
two sons and two daughters. The sons were : 

The Rev. W. R. Harshaw, D.D., Minister of Grace 
Presbyterian Church, Minneapolis, Minnesota, and 
the Rev. Andrew R. Harshaw, D.D.; Pastor Emeritus 
of the First Presbyterian Church, Junction City, 
Kansas. Dr. Harshaw (the latter) was ordained in 
1878, and, previous to his present important charge, 
had exercised his ministry in New York City and 
Pittsburg. He is now in the sixty-fourth year of 
his age. 

3. William (youngest son), born 1811, became a 
farmer, and died in 1886, leaving two sons, one of 
whom survives, viz. William Andrew Harshaw, 
President of the Harshaw, Fuller & Goodwin Company 
(chemical manufacturers) of Cleveland and New 

It will be noticed that large numbers of this 
numerous clan reside in the United States of America. 
In addition to those already mentioned are the 
Harsh aws of North Carolina ; Oshkosh, Wisconsin 
(one of whom was recently State Treasurer) ; Flint, 
Michigan ; and Toronto, Canada ; and indeed of 
many other places in both countries. 

It may be noted that some of the family, resident 
in the States, have adopted a comparatively modern 
spelling of the name, viz. * Harsha ' — instead of 


Harshaw, the original orthography. But this is easily 
accounted for, owing to the fact that frequently 
surnames come to be spelt — even in baptismal registers 
and official documents — as they are locally pronounced. 
In Donaghmore the people generally pronounce the name 
as though it were * Harsha/ and not Harshaw. 

Our sketch of the Harshaws would be incomplete 
if we failed to specially refer to the interesting Bronte 
Hugh Bronte ^pisode, and the important connection of the 
and the family with that of the Martins of Loughorne. 
Harshaws. Hugh Bronte, grandfather of the famous 
novelist, Charlotte Bronte, it seems, resided for a 
time at the home of James Harshaw (born 1744). 
Dr. Wright, in his * Brontes in Ireland,' gives us a 
harrowing account of Hugh's early privations, and of 
his eventual escape from the cruel home of his adoption 
to the lime- kilns of Mountpleasant, and from thence 
to the hospitable home of James Harshaw of Donagh- 
more. Dr. Wright is far from being a reliable 
authority when his pohtical or rehgious views are 
allowed to have the mastery, as they so frequently do, 
in his narrative, and when he poses as the novehst, 
incorporating * old wives' fables ' and the merest 
' hearsays,' especially if they contain anything 
bordering on the romantic. How much of his narra- 
tive is founded on fact, and how much on fiction, we 
need not stop to inquire in this connection. At any 
rate, we have it on the reUable authority of John 
Harshaw that probably Hugh Bronte lived with his 
grandfather — which is, undoubtedly, a fact, notwith- 
standing the use of the cautious man's * probabiHty.' 


He states ' the probability is that Hugh Bronte hired 
with my grandfather, whose land touched the Lough, 
but 1 fear it is too true that he passed through my 
grandfather's service leaving no permanent record 
behind him.' We are told, and believe it, that * under 
Harshaw's roof he (Hugh) found not only work and 
shelter, but a home and comfort,' and that * as long 
as he lived he spoke of the Harshaws with gratitude 
and affection.' Subsequently (and not before), we 
find * Hugh ' in use as a Christian name in the Harshaw 
family, and it has occurred to us that in all probability 
its adoption was in honour of Hugh Bronte, who, it 
would seem, was treated in the household of bis kind 
patrons as a friend and companion. 

As we have already seen, John Martin's father 
(Samuel Martin) married Jane, daughter of James 
Harshaw. The two families were not 
Martins of ^nly thus connected, but were also on the 
Loughorne closest terms of intimacy. Mrs. Marcin 
and the ^^^^ ^^ woman of refined taste and of great 
intellect, while at the same time she was 
a poetess of no mean order. (See above.) She was 
much given to good works, and, we are told, ' died of 
a fever caught while ministering to the dying, in 
accordance with her high sense of Christian duty. 
Her life was given for others, and at her funeral the 
Eev. S. J. Moore summed up her character as ** a 
woman who knew her duty and did it." ' 

The Martins of Loughorne were long and intimately 
connected with the social, civil, and religious Hfe of 
Donaghmore, and took an especially active part in the 


affairs of the Presbyterian Church and in the working 
of the Dispensary. 

John Martin (born at Loughorne, September 8, 
1812) was eldest son of a family of nine. He was 
a man of undoubted ability — with a strong 
Martin sense of duty. With his pohtical views we 

are wholly in disagreement, but recognise, 
nevertheless, that he was honest (though mistaken) 
in his convictions, as all who knew him acknowledged, 
and hence he was called * Honest John Martin.' He be- 
came a graduate in Arts of Dublin University in 1882, 
where he also studied medicine for a time, which he 
subsequently found useful in treating (gratuitously) 
the sick poor of Donaghmore. His medical studies 
terminated on the death of his uncle, John, whose 
landed property he inherited, the income amounting 
to about £400 per annum. 

In politics he was an ardent Home Euler — 
advocating the legislative independence of Ireland 
and repeal of the Union with Great Britain, and 
hence he became known as * John Martin — the 

For some years previously to his appearance in 
the political arena he seems to have settled down on 
his property at Loughorne, discharging the duties 
devolving on him as a small landlord, and farming 
a portion of his lands. 

In 1889 he made a tour of the United States 
and visited Canada, where he stayed with his sister, 
Mrs. Frazer, and her husband (Donald), of London, 

He returned to Loughorne in 1841, and in 1848 


joined the Repeal Association, when his poUtical 
career may be said to have commenced. 

Space forbids us to enter into details, but we find 
him writing for the Nation and the United Irishman — 
the official organs of his party — Mitchel (his brother-in- 
law) being editor of the former till 1847, when in the 
following year he started the latter. The suppression 
of the United Irishman, and the transportation of 
Mitchel (for fourteen years) owing to his seditious 
articles in that journal, seemed to grieve and exasperate 
Martin to an unwonted degree, while doubtless the 
wretched condition of the Irish people on account of 
the famine was not without its effect. He resolved 
to start the Irish Felon (which was doomed to an 
untimely end, expiring in five short weeks) and the 
Felon Club — a semi-military organisation. Martin's 
articles in the Felon were of the usual extreme type — 
advocating the utter destruction of English dominion 
in Ireland, the spurning of British (which he calls 
* brutish ') Acts of Parhament, trampHng upon the 
lying proclamations of the foreign (Enghsh) tyrants, 
counselHng armed resistance to the law, and so on. 
Needless to say, the Felon was suppressed, and 
immediate proceedings were instituted against Martin 
by the Government. 

He was arrested and indicted for treason felony. 
The informations sworn against him were to the effect 
that it was his intention to * depose Her Most Gracious 
Majesty the Queen from her style, honour, and royal 
name, and to levy war against her.' Martin was 
convicted (August 18, 1848), and sentenced to be 
transported beyond the seas (Van Diemen's Land) 


for the term of ten years. He subsequently availed 
himself of a * conditional pardon ' — the condition being 
that he should not visit any portion of the United 
Kingdom. Later, in 1856, the pardon was made 
' unconditional,' when he returned to Ireland. 

In 1869 Martin, accompanied by his wife (nee 
Mitchel), visited the United States, where he was 
warmly received and hospitably entertained— banquets 
in his honour being given in New York (Horace Greely 
presiding) and Philadelphia. Shortly after his return 
to Ireland he became a parliamentary candidate 
for the county of Longford, but was defeated. He 
was subsequently (1871) elected for Meath, his con- 
stituents paying the expenses of his election. He 
frequently spoke in ParHament, but it would seem 
ParUamentary life was distasteful to him, as we gather 
from one of his letters (written from Warrenpoint) 
to Mitchel, April 13, 1871, in which he states : 
* The Parliament was such a bore to me, and the idea 
that I ought, that I must, sometimes speak in it and 
say and keep saying things to make the men in it 
hate me worse than hell, was such an irritation and 
fever to my nerves.' 

John Martin's career, though comparatively short, 
was very eventful. He died on Easter Monday, 
March 29, 1875, at the age of 62, leaving a widow, 
who died July 11, 1913, and a sister — Mrs. Eoss Todd — 
who resides in Dublin. His funeral was probably 
the largest ever seen in this parish — all shades of 
opinion, both religious and political, being repre- 
sented to testify their sorrow, as all that was mortal 
of John Martin was laid to rest with his fathers in 


Donaghmore churchyard. On his tomb are inscribed 
the words : — * John Martin, born 8th September, 1812 ; 
died 29th March, 1875. He Hved for his country, suffered 
in her cause, pleaded for her wrongs, and died beloved 
and lamented by every true-hearted Irishman.' 



It is difficult to account for the origin of certain 
* Districts ' which are so often found within parochial 
boundaries, and which seem from time 
Districts immemorial to have possessed limits as 
well defined as those of the parishes them- 
selves in which they are situated. 

Glen is one of these old districts, and as such has 
largely maintained its identity, though not its actual 
boundaries, during all the years. In regard to its 
origin in this respect we can only guess, but those 
who are competent to form an opinion consider that 
in all probability we are correct in our conjecture. 
Clanagan {Gleannagan), signifying ' The Little Glen,' 
was the ancient name of the district, and probably 
embraced both modern Glen (containing nine town- 
lands) and the Fourtowns, which were originally 
combined in the two * towns ' of BallytuUaghmore 
and BallyMcEnratty — ^the present designation, in 
all likelihood, having been applied after the sub- 
division into * Four towns.' There can be no doubt, 
however, but that BallytuUaghmore (TuUymore and 
Killysavin) was included in Clanagan, for the King's 


order, dated August 2, 1617 (Patent Rolls, James I.), 
giving a survey of the Magenis lands in Iveagh, states 
that Sir Arthur Magennis (the first Viscount) was 
seised of * Bally tuUaghmore in Clanagan.' The * Four 
towns ' seem to have been always closely associated, 
and there must be some vaUd reason for this ancient 
tie that still binds them together. In our opinion 
they each are children of a common parentage, cut 
off in bygone times from the parent stem, but though 
ruthlessly torn away they still chng to each other — 
under a new name, and having lost their old identity 
— as portion of a larger family. We consider that 
ancient Clanagan comprised (at least) the thirteen 
townlands which are, at present, contained in Glen 
and Fourtowns, and embraced the whole of the glen 
extending from Poyntzpass to the * Mount ' in 
Drumiller — south of Jerrettspass. 

We beHeve that Clanagan was one of the old divisions 
of land — viz. a ' ballybetagh ' — which existed previous 

to our present distribution. Bishop Reeves 
betaeh^ (* Townland Distribution '), writing on the 

present distribution of land, informs us that 
we have * no modern equivalent to the ballybetagh, 
except in some few instances where gi'oups of twelve 
townlands under a generic name constitute distinct 
properties.* True, a ballybetagh varied considerably 
in size, as, for example, in the counties of Monaghan 
and Tyrone, where three or four townlands often con- 
stituted a ballybetagh ; but, generally speaking, this 
division of land contained twelve * towns.* 

A ballybetagh was a * true political sub-division 
of the Tuath — corresponding to the Latin Pagus. 


It had some kind of Judicial Court and popular 
assembly, and was probably bound to furnish its 
fixed proportion of armed men and provisions to the 
battalion of the Tuath.' ^ 

The Betayh was a kind of ' Public Victualler,' 
being bound to dispense hospitahty to travellers 
and to the soldiers of the Chief, if they 
came in his direction, and for that purpose 
he held his bally bet agh free of rent. A Public 
Victualler, who was compelled to dispense hospitahty, 
was certainly a good and benign institution, and one 
we should think absolutely necessary, considering the 
circumstances of the time. 

We have no idea as regards the whereabouts of 
this good man's residence in Clauagan, but, if asked 
our opinion, we would say, most Hkely on the * Mount ' 
in Drumiller. We are quite certain, however, that 
if this public dispenser of unbounded hospitality 
resided there now-a-days, we would frequently honour 
ourselves by calling on him, and we could assure him 
of hosts of visitors besides, namely, the shoals of 
* tramp gentry,' who ever pass and repass by the great 
highway convenient to his hospitable mansion. 

Clanagan was undoubtedly the scene of numerous 
warlike exploits, lying, as it did, contiguous to the 
two Passes from Armagh to Down and the Castles 
thereat. Indeed, the very name of the townland 
of Lurganaro (within Clanagan), signifying ' the 
field of slaughter,' is ominous of battle ! 

Glen is rich in old Irish surnames, of which the 
following are a few : 

* 0' Curry, In trod., Manners and Customs, p. xci. 


Mageiinis — ^Ma cA onohusa . 

Aongus was a favourite Irish name, which was 
Latinised Eneas, but has ceased to be used. As 
we have seen, the Magennises were the 
Surnames. ^^^^^ ^^1^7 in ancient Iveagh. This 
name, both at present and in old docu- 
ments, is spelt more variously than that of any 
other Irish family. In the Birth Indexes for 1890 
there are no less than sixteen varieties of the 
name. The principal representative of the Magennises 
of Glen is Heber Magenis of Iveagh Lodge, who is 
a lineal descendant of Murtagh McEnaspicke Magenis, 
who owned the Manor in 1611. 

Cranny— Maggranna. This family belonged to 
Meath, where the name is written * MacGrane.' It 
has in most cases (in Ireland) been exchanged for 
the Scotch name Grant, and in a few others for the 
English surname Green. Principal representative : 
Luke Cranny, J.P., of Ringclare House. 

Larkin — O'Larcain. 

Larcon or Lorcan was an old Irish Christian 
name, which is now rendered Laurence, simply 
because both names commence somewhat alike. 
The O'Larcains were located in Armagh, Galway, 
and Wexford. Patrick Larkin of Ballylough is the 
present representative. 

Murtagh — 'Muirche artaigh. 

The O'Murtaghs were a Meath family. There are 
several of the name residing in Glen — Denis, James, 
John, and Patrick Murtagh. 

Mac A voy — M acgioll abuidue . 

The MacEvoys were formerly located in Armagh, 



Westmeath, and Queen's County. The family is 
represented by Arthur McEvoy, J.P., of Drumiller, 
who takes a keen interest in farming pursuits, and 
in the Newry Agricultural Society. 

Mcllroy — Macgiollaruaidh. 

The MacGilroys are a Monaghan family. There 
are at least two families of the name in Glen — James 
of Dromantine and Hugh Mcllroy of Derrycraw. 

McCourt — MacCuarta. 

The MacCourts belonged to County Tyrone, while 
another branch resided in Leitrim, where the name 
was known as ' MacGourty.' The present repre- 
sentative is Lawrence McCourt, of Corgary Lodge, 
one of our oldest and most respected inhabitants, 
and who for eighteen years fathfully represented 
Glen as a Poor Law Guardian. He is a son of Hugh 
McCourt, who married Miss Savage, a sister of Dr. 
Mark Savage. 

McConville — MacConmhaoil. 

The MacConvilles are a Lower Iveagh family. 
The only person bearing the name in Glen at present 
is the parish priest, the Kev. Patrick McConville, not 
a native of the district. 

McGrory — MacEuadhrigh. 

The MacKorys were formerly located in Tyrone 
and Down. MacKory has been exchanged for the 
Enghsh surname Eodgers, and the Christian name 
Eory for Eodger. Euadhri, or Eory, which signifies 
* the red-haired King,' was a favourite Irish name. 
Patrick McGrory, the present representative, resides 
in Ballylough. 

O'Hare — O'H-eadhba. 


This name is spelt in a variety of ways both in 
Irish and English. All, however, are derived from 
the one we have given, which is the most ancient 
form of the name O'Hara, of which O'Haro is a 
variant. Eadhra, owing to its similarity in sound to 
Harry, was translated Henry, and in this form remains 
a favourite Christian name in the several branches 
of the family. The O'Haras were located in Antrim, 
Londonderry, Mayo, and Shgo, while there were 
'Heirs in Armagh and O'Hehirs in Clare. The 
name is spelt * O'Hir ' in the Topographical Poems 
of John O'Dugan, who mentions the family in this 
district in the earUer part of the fourteenth century. 
The name is still well represented in Glen, there being 
about twenty rated occupiers or inhabitant house- 
holders bearing it. The principal representatives 
are : James, ' The Rock ' (Knockanarney) ; John 
and Patrick (Corgary) ; and James and Patrick 

Rice — O'Maolcraoibhe. 

The Rices are a Lower Castlereagh family. The 
learned historian of Down and Connor (Monsignor 
O'Laverty, P.P.) says : ' The O'Mulcreevys, who 
have strangely contrived to translate their name into 
Rice, were located along the County Down side of 
the Lagan.' The original name is better preserved 
as * Mulgrew.' Amongst the Rices of Glen are : 
John (Dromantine) and Patrick (Derrycraw). 

Rooney — O'Ruanadha. 

The Rooneys are an old family of the County of 
Down, and in past times have frequently figured in 
its history. The family is represented in Glen by 


Patrick and James Rooney, J.P., of The Mount Mills 

Savage. This family takes its name from the 
French Sauvage. 

The Savages were among the earliest Anglo- 
Norman settlers in Ireland. They were for many 
centuries Lords of the Ardes, where they settled 
(in the twelfth century) under John de Courcy. They 
also owned a large portion of Lecale, for we find it 
recorded (' Public Records ') * that Raymond (Savage) 
should have the Chieftainship and Superiority of his 
Sept in the Territory of the Savages, otherwise called 
Lecale, as principal Chieftain thereto, and that Ray- 
mond should give to the (Lord) Deputy, for acquiring 
his favour and friendship, 100 fat able Cows, and a 
Horse, or 15 Marks Lish money in Ueu thereof at 
the pleasure of the Deputy.' (Dated 31st May, 
28 Hen. VIII.) The principal seat of the Savages was 
Portaferry Castle, completed in 1636. The resident 
in 1744 was Andrew Savage. 

A member of this ancient family settled in Glen 
about the middle of the eighteenth century, a few 
of whose descendants still reside in the district and 
neighbourhood, of whom the following are the principal 
representatives : viz. James Savage of Glen House, 
and Mrs. Savage (widow of Patrick Savage) and Miss 
Anne Savage (late of Lurganare House), Newry, 
daughters of Dr. Mark Savage (of Newry) by his 
wife, Mary, daughter of Bernard Rice. 

Dr. Mark Savage (whose mother was Mary, 
daughter of Arthur Magennis) was brother of Dr. 
John Savage, who for about fifty years was a well- 


known physician in Newry, and whose son, the late 
Dr. Matt Burke Savage, was an eminent member of 
the medical profession, residing in Eutland Square, 
Dublin. He died September 19, 1912. The Savages 
owned the half townland of Carrickrovaddy (recently 
sold to the tenants) and a small property in the County 
Armagh, viz. the townland of Enagh. 

Irish surnames date from about the beginning of 
the eleventh century — ^when Brian Boru (who com- 
menced to reign 1001) made an ordinance 
Surnames. *^^* every family and clan in Ireland 
should adopt such. Each family was 
permitted to choose a particular surname, and that 
generally taken was the name of some distinguished 
ancestor or Chief of their tribe, to which they prefixed 
* Mac,' which signifies son ; or * Hy,' * Ua,' ' Ui,' * '— 
each of which means grandson, or a descendant of. 

It may be noted, however, that our surnames do 
not always indicate the nationality of the original 
bearers, as many of the Danish settlers and the Anglo- 
Normans took Irish surnames, while on the other hand 
not a few Irish families adopted EngHsh surnames. 

There are two Roman Cathohc churches in Glen, 
one in the townland of Carrickrovaddy, and the 
other in that of Ballyblaugh. The former 
Church'^ ^ is situated on Barr hill, and is generally 
known as Barr Chapel. It is dedicated to 
St. Mary — the Blessed \'irgin. The present church 
edifice was built in 1885, and renovated in 19C8, at 
considerable cost. Mrs. William Walmsley (Eachel — 
sister of James Savage), of the Mount Mills, bequeathed 
the handsome sum of £1000 towards the work of 


restoration. (She died February 8, 1910.) The church 
is a fairly handsome and substantial structure. 
A graceful spire would add much to its comely propor- 
tions. The interior possesses a finer ecclesiastical 
aspect than the exterior, while the beautiful window 
erected by James Savage, in memory of his parents, 
adds considerably to the effect. 

The Parochial House stands close to St. Mary's. 
It was erected when Father Felix Magennis was 

Parish Priest (1900-5), and owes much to 
House ^* ^^^ tireless energy and perseverance. It is 

impossible to compute the cost of erection 
(which must have been very considerable), as the 
parishioners, apart from their generous contributions, 
did much in the w^ay of carting material, and so forth. 
The House is a fine and fairly commodious structure, 
and commands a magnificent view of the Mourne 
Mountains and other beautiful scenery — being situated 
on one of the highest elevations in the parish — viz. 
' Barr * hill — (' Barr ' signifies in Irish ' the hill-top,' 
and is equivalent to the Enghsh, ' hill-head '). The 
following item occurs in Griffith's or the Government 
valuation of 1889, under the head of exemptions : — 
' Carrickrovaddy — Roman Cathohc chapel yard, 
£12 16s. id: 

The church in Ballyblaugh is known locally as 
'Glen Chapel.' The present church edifice, which 

was erected in 1868, is a neat and soHdly 
Church of jj^^j^ structure— without any ecclesiastical 
St. John the , . . ^i i x -, . 

Evangelist. pi^©tensions m the way of architecture. 

The panel on the front gable (surmounted 
by a Celtic cross) bears the following inscription : — 


* Church of St. John the Evangehst, erected and 
dedicated a.d. 1863.' 

The old stone cross which was erected on the 
former boilding is still preserved, and stands on a 
granite pedestal in the churchyard. 

Two handsome mural tablets adorn the walls of 
the interior, erected to the memory of two faithful 
and devoted priests. These bear, respectively, the 
inscriptions : — 

(1) Sacerdos in Aeternum. 

to the memory of 
Key. John McDonnel, P.P., 

WHO departed this life the 21 ST DAY OF 

April 1870, 

aged 65 years, 

having faithfully discharged 

the sacred duties of the priesthood 

for the period of 80 years 

AND AS P. Priest of this Parish 


Eequiescat IN Pace. 

This tablet, of marble, is placed inside the altar 
rails (north side), and surmounted by a Eoman cross 
of the same material, bearing the monogram I.H.S. 
in the centre. 


(2) In 

memory of 
The Eev. 
Felix McLaughlin, 
P.P. Glenn, 

BORN IN 1827, 

ORDAINED August 15th, 1850, 

appointed P.p. Glenn in 1870, 

DIED 30th January 1901. 

Eequiescat in Pace. 


This marble tablet, which is placed outside the 
altar rails (south side), is surmounted by a Celtic 
cross, and projects about six inches from the wall. 

We have no official list of the succession of 
parish priests, but the following are among those who 
held the position on or about the dates 
Prt^t's. mentioned: 

1704, July 11.— The Kev. Cormack 
O'Huyre. Father O'Huyre received Orders in the 
year 1672 from Archbishop Oliver Plunkett (Armagh). 
He was aged fifty-five years in 1704. This priest 
belonged to the family of O'Hare — a name, as we have 
seen, which still figures prominently in Glen. Cormack, 
which has been Anglicised * Charles,' is a favourite 
Christian name among the 'Hares. 
1704.— The Eev. James MacDonnell. 
At this date Father MacDonnell was parish priest of 
Aghaderg and 'part of Donaghmore. He was then 
aged thirty-six years, and resided in Dromentian 


(Dromantine) townland. He received Orders in the 
year 1692 from Bishop Patrick Eussell (Dublin). 

1790.— The Kev. John O'Hagan. 

Father O'Hagan was half-brother of James O'Hagan 
(of Clonduff),who was the father of Fehx O'Hagan, J.P., 
an old and much respected merchant of NewTy, who 
still survives. 

He was educated in France, but at the period 
of the French Eevolution (when Christianity was 
declared abohshed) he and other Seminarists fled to 
Ireland and landed in Cork. John O'Hagan, though 
once more in his native land, was * stranded ' in the city 
of Cork, still wearing his French costume. The good 
citizens of Cork, however, came to his help with money 
and a * new suit,' when he embarked for Kilkeel, and 
from thence made his way (probably on foot) through 
the Mourne Mountains (vid the Deer's Meadow) to his 
native parish of Clonduff. He was subsequently 
admitted to Orders by the Bishop of Dromore, and 
shortly afterwards became parish priest in Glen. 
He died about 1810, aged (about) seventy years. 

1824.— The Rev. John Carter. He died in 1844. 

1844.— The Rev. Martin Ryan. 

Father Ryan was a member of the first Dispensary 
Committee (1848), and took a keen interest in the 
medical relief of the sick poor. 

1855.— The Rev. John McDonnell. 

Father McDonnell was a very popular parish priest, 
and took a warm interest in all that concerned the 
welfare of his own and the other parishioners. He was 
a member of the Dispensary Committee in 1858. 

1869.— The Rev. Felix McLaughlin, appointed by 


the Most Reverend Dr. Leahy. Father McLaughHn 
(the family spell the name McLoughlin, but we adopt 
that on his tablet) was educated at St. Colman's 
Seminary (Newry) and at Maynooth. He was ordained 
priest by the Most Reverend Dr. Blake, Bishop of 
Dromore in 1850, and was subsequently curate (at 
least) in Dromore, TullyHsh, and Gargory. Father 
McLaughlin was a most kind, good-natured priest of 
the old school, from whom the writer received many 
tokens of friendship. 

190L— The Rev. Fehx Magennis. 

His work in Glen is well worthy of record, for during 
the few years he was parish priest, not only w^as the 
Parochial House erected (as we have seen), but the 
restoration of St. Mary's Church was successfully 

1906.~The Rev. Patrick McConville is the present 
respected parish priest, and is assisted by his nephew, 
as curate, the Rev. Edward McConville. 

There are 145 famihes in connection with the two 

Glen has given the Church some well-known and 
distinguished priests. 

Monsignor O'Hare, LL.D., Rector of St. Anthony's, 
Manhattan Avenue, Brooklyn, New York, was born on 
Barr Hill about sixty- three years ago. St. Anthony's 
is one of the finest churches in Brooklyn, and Glen may 
well feel proud of the distinguished Monsignor who is its 

Another Glen man is the Rev. John O'Hare, son of 
the late James O'Hare, of The Rock, Knockanarney. 
Father O'Hare was born in 1854, and is still in the prime 


of life. He had a successful college career, and having 
been admitted to Orders by the Bishop of Dromore, 
he held in succession the following important 
Priests, curacies, viz. Loughbrickland, Barnmeen, 
Qlen. and (in 1891) the Newry Cathedral. In 

1903 he was appointed parish priest of 
Dromara, and in 1907 he was promoted to the im- 
portant position of parish priest of Dromore, co. Down, 
succeeding Monsignor McCartan, a most excellent 
priest, and a warm friend of the writer, when he was 
cm-ate of the Dromore Cathedral. 

Another deservedly popular and successful priest 
(a native of Glen) is the Eev. Hugh McEvoy, a brother 
of Arthur McEvoy, J.P. , of Drumiller . Father McEvoy 
held in succession the curacies of Loughbrickland, 
Warrenpoint, and Lurgan, and, quite recently, has been 
appointed parish priest of Maralin, where his superior 
talents and good quahties will be much appreciated. 

There are two flourishing National schools in Glen, 
viz. Derrycraw and Barr, both of which are under the 

management of the parish priest. 
Derrycraw ; ^^^ Derrycraw School-house was erected 
about 1818 by the Corrys, who owned the 
adjoining property. 

The first teacher was D. O'Gorman, whose salary 
amounted to the magnificent sum of £8 per annum 
and fees of the pupils, viz. twopence per week from 
each ! In 1820 he had, as pupils on his roll, 21 
Koman Cathohcs, six Estabhshed Church children, and 
three Presbyterians. He was succeeded (so far as can be 
known) by teachers named Cunningham and Madden. 

The school was taken into connection with the 


National Board in 1848, as a male and female school, 
which were amalgamated in 1889. 

The following is the succession of teachers, so 
far as can be known from existing records : 

Girls' School.— Mrs. Isabella Rooney (1848-1885) ; 
Miss Hannah Lawlor (1885-1886) ; Miss Sarah Quinn 
(April 1886-June 1887); Miss Sarah O'Neill (July 
1887-June 1889). 

Boys' School.— WiUiam Rooney (1857-1869 and 
1879-1888); Patrick Murray (1869-1878); Daniel 
Byrne (portion, 1889) ; James Byrne (portion, 1889- 

Amalgamated School. — Patrick McGennis (1891- 
1913) and Mrs. Ellen McGennis (1900-1913). The 
present competent teachers (appointed January 1, 
1913) are Owen Finegan (Principal) and Miss 
McNulty (assistant). 

There was a school at Barr in 1820 with 80 pupils, 
fees Hd. per week, the teacher being Jane 

The present Barr School was founded and the 
building erected in 1839. The succession of teachers 
is as follows : Fegan, Michael Boyle, Peter Murphy, 
Patrick Carroll, Mrs. Mary Bell, Charles Grant, John 
Malone, Peter Thompson, Miss Catherine McAuhffe, 
Miss Mary Aniie Timoney, and Mrs. Catherine Logan, 
the present capable principal teacher. 

There was formerly a good school in Corgary 

townland, known as Dromantine School. The school- 

house, a fine building, was erected in 

roman me. ^^^^ ^^ ^ ^^^^ ^^ £1,500. It was opened 

as a National school in 1848. There were a girls' 


and a boys' school. The first teachers were Mrs. 
Cuthbert and her husband, who were succeeded by- 
Mrs. Francis and her husband. 

Tombstone inscriptions in Barr (St. Mary's) 
churchyard, &c. : 
Ch" h rd (-^^ Headstone — Figure of Lamb under- 
neath cross. 

* Erected to the memory of Matthew Keavey, 
Lurganare, who died 21st July, 1850, aged 42 years ; 
also his beloved wife, EUza Reavey, who died 28th 
November, 1889, aged 82 years, his son Patrick Reavey, 
who died 6th December, 1894, aged 55 years.' 

(2) Headstone, with monogram LH.S. 

* Sacred to the memory of Bernard Hennings, 
Derrycraw, who departed this life 21st March, 1865, 
aged 40 years : also his beloved father, Peter, who 
died 9th February, 1866, aged 70 years.' 

(8) Headstone, with monogram I.H.S. 
* Gloria in excelsis Deo, 
And a spotless hfe as old age.' 

* Erected by Anthony Creney, Ballyblough, in 
memory of his daughter Sarah, who departed this life 
10th October, 1862, aged 25 years ; also his daughter 
Catherine, who died 14th May, 1863, aged 21 years ; 
also his son Anthony, who died 22nd February, 1864, 
aged 16 years.' 

(4) Headstone— I.H.S. 

' Erected by Mary Quinn, Derrycraw, in memory 
of her beloved son Luke, who departed this Hfe 28th 
January, 1841, aged 36 years.' 


(5) Headstone. 

* The pathway to our home above is shadowed by 
the X (cross).' ' It is a holy and wholesome thought 
to pray for the dead, that they may be loosed from 
their sins.' 

* Erected by Owen O'Hare, Corgary, in memory of 
his beloved wife, Bridget, who died 3rd December, 
1865, aged 75 years.' 

(6) Headstone — Figure of Lamb. 

' Erected by Ann O'Hare, in memory of her beloved 
husband Daniel, who departed this life 22nd October, 
1852, aged 62 years.' 

(7) Headstone— I.H.S. 

* Erected by Margaret Verden in memory of her 
father, Thomas Verden, who died 19th April, 1887, 
aged 61 years, and her mother Elizabeth, who died 
1st January, 1886, aged 62 years.' 

(8) Headstone— I.H.S. 

' Erected in memory of Henry Larkin, Drumiller, 
who died 9th January 1834, aged 63 years, and his 
son Charles, aged 12 years ; also his wife Sarah, who 
died 25th November, 1859, aged 68 years.' 

(9) Headstone—' Gloria in excelsis Deo.' 

* Erected by John O'Hare, Knockenarney, in 
memory of his father Koger O'Hare, who died 17th 
January, 1850, aged 84 years ; liis mother Elizabeth, 
who died 2nd February, 1850, aged 76 years ; also 
the above-named John O'Hare, who died 6th August, 
1901, aged 81 years, and his wife Bridget, who died 
1st May 1909, aged 76 years.' 

* May they rest in peace.' 


(10) Headstone — Figure of Crucifixion. 

' Erected by J. and P. Reavey in memory of their 
father Daniel, who departed this hfe 7th February, 
1841, aged 75 years, and their mother Susan, who 
died 9th July, 1865, aged 74 years.' 

(11) Headstone — Figures of Crucifixion, the 
Blessed Virgin and Mary Magdalen. 

' Erected by Sarah Loughhn, Knockenarney, in 
memory of her husband Patrick, who died 29th 
March, 1857, aged 56 years.' 

' Requiescat in pace. Amen.' 

(12) Headstone — * Gloria in excelsis Dec' 

' Erected by Patrick Wallace, Drumiller, in memory 
of his daughter Ann, who died 4th March, 1851, aged 
23 years ; also his daughter Catherine, who died 11th 
May, 1852, aged 22 years, and his son Patrick, who 
died 19th May, 1854, aged 22 years.' 

(13) Headstone — ' Gloria in excelsis Deo,' sur- 
mounting figures of Crucifixion, the Blessed Virgin 
Mary and Mary Magdalen. 

'Erected by Margaret Kerr, Carrickrovaddy, in 
memory of her husband James, who died 31st January, 
1848, aged 55 years ; also her daughter Sarah, who died 
March 31st, 1861, aged 16 years.' 

(14) Headstone — * Gloria in excelsis Deo ' over 
figure of Lamb. 

' Erected by Mary A. Cunningham, Knockenarney, 
in memory of her beloved husband Matthew, who 
departed this life 11th July, 1859, aged 46 years.' 

2 a 


(15) Headstone — (similar to No. 5). 

* Erected by Ann McEvoy in memory of her beioved 
husband Hugh, who died 15th November, 1831, aged 
50 years ; also her son Henry, who died 15th November, 
1862, aged 40 years.' 

(16) Headstone — Figures of Cross and Lamb. 

' Erected by Hugh McLoughhn, Newry, in memory 
of his beloved wife Eliza, who died 14th November, 
1867, aged 30 years.' 

* May her soul rest in peace. Amen.' 

(17) Headstone— LH.S. 

* Erected by John Dooley, Carrickrovaddy, in 
memory of his daughter Margaret, who died 30th 
October, 1852, aged 17 years.' 

(18) Headstone — ' Gloria in excelsis Deo.' 

* Erected by EHzabeth Dooley, Drumiller, in memory 
of her beloved husband Bernard, who departed this 
life 6th September, 1839, aged 72 years.' 

* May his soul rest in peace.' 

(19) Headstone — ' Gloria in excelsis Deo.' 
'Erected by Arthur Magennis, Ballylough, in 

memory of his wife Bridget, who died 13th February, 
1859, aged 74 years; his son Matthew, who died 
March 7th, 1849, aged 20 years; his infant sons, 
Patrick and Michael, who died at an early age ; also his 
son FeHx, who died 11th November, 1863, aged 53 
years, and the above-named Arthur Magennis, who 
died 13th June, 1876, aged 103 years.' 


(20) Headstone — Figure of Lamb. 

* Erected in memory of Patrick O'Hare, Treamount, 
who died 31st July, 1889, aged 62 years ; also his 
beloved wife Margaret, who died 18th February, 1900.* 

(21) Headstone — Cross. 

* Erected by Peter O'Hare, Lurganare, in memory 
of his father and mother, brothers and sister.* 


(22) Headstone — Cross and Lamb. 

* Erected by James O'Hare, Knockenarney, in 
memory of his father James O'Hare, who died 5th 
February, 1819, his mother Anna, who died November 
7th, 1832; and his son Thomas O'Hare, M.D., who 
died October 13th, 1867, aged 24 years.' 

(28) Headstone — Words * Ecce Agnus Dei,' with 
figure of Lamb. 

' Erected to memory of Bernard Brooks, Knocken- 
arney, who died 28th December, 1855, aged 68 years, 
and his son, Hugh, who died 5th December, 1862, 
aged 30 years.' 

(24) Very large Celtic cross, erected upon granite 

' Of your charity pray for the soul of Patrick 
Cranney, Lisnatierney, who died 10th April, 1893, aged 
74 years ; also his beloved wife Rose, who died 15th 
August, 1898, aged 74 years.' 

' Requiescant in pace. Amen.' 

2 a2 


(25) Headstone — ' Gloria in excelsis Deo.* 

* Erected in memory of Catherine Sands, Knock- 
enarney, who died 29th September, 1839 aged 52 
years ; also her beloved husband James, who died 
6th July, 1859, aged 68 years.' 

(26) Headstone— I.H.S. 

* Erected in memory of John McEvoy who died 
1st April, 1820, aged 82 years ; also his wife Catherine, 
who died 25th January, 1838, aged 85 years, and 
their son Daniel, who departed this hfe on 12th, 
February, 1845, aged 55 years.' 

(27) Headstone — * Gloria in excelsis Deo.' 
'Erected by Peter McKenney in memory of his 

only son Joseph, who died November 24th, 1819, 
aged 18 years.' 

(28) Headstone — Figures of Cross and Lamb. 

* Erected by Felix O'Hare, Maddydrumbrist, in 
memory of his father John, who died 1st December, 
1868, aged 68 years, and his mother, Ann O'Hare, who 
died 11th December, 1871, aged 78 years.' 

(29) Headstone — Cross and Lamb. 

* Erected by Patrick O'Hare, Drumentine, in 
memory of his mother Catherine, who died 16th 
January, 1879, aged 84 years, and his wife Sarah, who 
died 27th February, 1885, aged 34 years.' 

(30) * Erected to memory of Richard Savage, 
Lurganare, who died 11th March, 1886, aged 78 years ; 
also his daughter Mary, who died 26th February aged 
20 years.' 


(31) ' Erected by Margaret Magennis, Dromantine, 
in memory of her husband Patrick, who died 2nd 
July, 1890/ 

(32) Cross and Lamb. 

* Erected by Francis O'Hare, Derrycraw, in memory 
of his wife Mary Catherine, who departed this hfe 
4th January, 1885, aged 55 years, also the above- 
named Francis O'Hare, died 6th November 1892, 
aged 69 years/ 

(33) 'Erected by Hugh and Bernard McElroy, 
Derrycraw, in memory of their beloved mother Ellen, 
who died 20th January, 1890, aged 70 years, and their 
father Hugh, who died 15th September, 1893, aged 
74 years/ 

(34) Large granite cross. 

' Erected by John Hughes in memory of his father, 
Peter Hughes, Drumiller, who died 18th March, 1893, 

aged 83 years.* 

(35) Granite headstone. 

' Erected by Margaret Jane O'Hare in memory 
of her father John O'Hare, TuUymore, who died 
June 25th, 1905, aged 62 years.' 

(36) Very large Celtic granite cross. 

' Erected in memory of WilHam Walmsley, J.P., 
Mount Mill, who died 30th May, 1894, aged 56 years ; 
also his beloved wife Kachel, who died 8th February, 

(This grave-space railed in.) 


(87) Granite headstone. 

' In memory of Arthur Treanor, Newry, who died 
23rd January 1907, aged 51 years.' 

Flat Stones 

(1) ' The burial-place of James and John Savage, 
Lurganare, and their famihes and posterity.' 

(This grave-space railed in.) 

(2) ' In memory of John Savage, Lurganare, who 
died 5th June, 1856, aged 73 years, and of his wife 
Mary, who died 27th July, 1860, aged 73 years/ 

In an Ordnance Survey MS. in the Eoyal Irish 
Academy (1834) referring to the parish of Donaghmore, 
it is stated : ' A Seceding Meeting House, called the 
Eock Meeting House, is situated in the extreme 
north of the parish in the townland of Ballymacratty- 
more.' Hence it will be seen that the 
pS°^Li "^^^^'^^^"^^ Presbyterian Church or Con- 
Church. ^ gregation was formerly connected with 
the Secession Body. Unfortunately the 
Secession Synodical Minutes from 1778 till 1814 
inclusive are lost, and nothing can be ascertained 
during that period with any certainty in regard to 
this body, except in cases where the Minutes of 
Presbytery have been preserved. 

The Four towns Congregation was founded in 
1810, in connection with the Secession Presbytery 
of Down, the Minutes of which are missing for the 
period to which we have referred. 


The Synod of Ulster and that of the Secession 
Body united in 1840. 

The congregation was at first in charge of a Licen- 
tiate, named David Norwood, who subsequently went 
to America, where he was ordained in 1826, 
Norwood ^^ pastor of Mahoning, Mount Jackson, 
and Slippery Rock. 

The first ordained minister of the church was 
Thomas Heron. An old Session book of the Secession 
congi-egation at Rathfriland records that 
HerorT^ an Elder was appointed to attend an 
ordination at the Fourtowns on September 
21, 1813, which was most probably that of Thomas 
Heron, for on June 17, 1814, it is recorded that he 
received the Royal Bounty grant, which amounted to 
£40 (Irish money) or £36 18s. 6d. (British), being 
the sum to which a minister of a * Third Class ' con- 
gregation in respect of the Bounty was entitled. He 
died October 25, 1816, having been killed by a fall 
from his horse. 

Alexander Bryson, M.A., was ordained minister 
of the congregation, December 28, 1817. He chose 
as the text of his first sermon after ordina- 
B^^on ^^ *^^^ *^® words : ' Therefore came I unto 
you without gainsaying, as soon as I was 
sent for : I ask therefore for what intent ye have 
sent for me ? ' (Acts x. 29.) 

During his pastorate in 1832, there were in 
connection with the congregation 546 souls, while in 
1833 the congregation became a ' second-class congre- 
gation,' which enabled its minister to receive a Bounty 
of £50 (Irish) or £46 3s. Id. (British). It was during 


his ministry, in 1840, that the church became connected 
with the ' General Assembly,' which was formed by the 
Union of the Synod of Ulster with the Secession Synod. 
In 1847 there were 110 famihes connected with the 
congregation. The stipend paid Mr. Bryson for that 
year was £25 10s. He was a fine classical scholar, 
and in addition to his ministerial duties prepared 
young men for the University. He was minister of 
the congregation almost forty years. He died 
April 25, 1855, and was buried in the graveyard 
adjoining the church. On his tomb are engraven 
the words : 

' Eesurgent.' 

* Sacred to the memory of the Rev. Alexander 
Bryson, A.M., who died 25th of April, 1855, in the 
69th year of his age, and 39th of his ministry.' 

' This kind husband and affectionate father, and 
very worthy pastor, was greatly esteemed by his 
brethren, who regarded him as a man of high principle, 
sterling integrity, unostentatious piety, and generous 
friendship. For more than 38 years he faithfully 
preached the Gospel of the Grace of God ' (extract 
from Minute of Property). 

On his son's tomb, within the same walled-in 
space, are the following words : 

* March 17th, 1851, James Bryson, M.R.C.S., 
aged 29 years ; also his infant daughter, Mary Jane.' 

Alexander Bryson was succeeded by his son, the 
Rev. John Bryson, LL.D. Dr. Bryson was hcensed 
to preach the Gospel on June IB, 1843, by the Ban- 
bridge Presbytery, being then in his 21st year. 


Shortly afterwards he became a Licentiate assistant 
to the Eev. Dr. Hetherington, the parish minister 
of St. Andrews, N.B., where he remained 
LL D ^^^^^' about two years. During his residence in 
St. Andrews he was offered two ' calls ' 
— one from an important parish church (Church of 
Scotland), and the other from a Free Church in the 
immediate neighbourhood. It seems he was disposed 
to accept the former appointment, but his father, whom 
he consulted, advised that he was too young and 
inexperienced to undertake the pastoral charge of 
such a large and influential congregation. In 1846 
he received a * call ' to Trinity Presbyterian Church, 
Wolverhampton. He was ordained by the Presbytery 
of London in 1846 as minister of the congregation, and 
remained as such for about nine years. 

He became minister of the Fourtowns in June 
1855, when he was installed by the Banbridge Pres- 
bytery, among those present on the occasion being 
his good friend, Dr. Cooke, who frequently invited 
him to preach in May Street, Belfast, where a few 
members of the congregation, still surviving, remember 
his eloquence. The text of his first sermon after 
induction was that which his father chose on a similar 

He remained pastor of the Fourtowns congre- 
gation till his retirement from the active duties of 
the ministry in 1898. He died September 22, 1902, 
and was buried in the Fourtowns churchyard. On 
the handsome granite monument which marks his 
grave and that of his wife are engi'aven the words : 

* Here lieth the remains of the Rev. John Bryson, 


LL.D., for 47 years the faithful minister of Four- 
town Presbyterian Congregation, who died on 22nd 
September, 1902, aged 80 years. Also his beloved 
wife Mary Smith Harwick, who died on 25th January, 
1890, aged 55 years.' 

The writer had the pleasure of a long and intimate 
acquaintance with Dr. Bryson, for whom he enter- 
tained the highest feehngs of respect and esteem. 

Dr. Bryson was the author of several import- 
ant works, viz. ' The Presbyter, the Prelate, and 
the People ' ; ' The Three Marys ' ; and ' The Pulpit 
Orator ' — a work which was favourably noticed by the 
Bishop of Derry (Dr. Alexander) at the fcime, and by 
the late Professor Smith, M.P. Dr. Bryson received 
the coveted degree of Doctor of Laws, by examina- 
tion, from the ancient University of St. Andrews, 

He married Mary Smith, only daughter of Joseph 
Harwick, of Oaken Manor, Wolverhampton, by whom 
he had issue, of whom the following survive : Harwick, 
Eveline, Alexandra, Gertrude Harwick, and Edith 
(married John Vincent Chambers). 

Of Dr. Bryson's brothers were the surgeon (already 
mentioned) and George, whose sons John and James 
are members of the well-known firm of Spence, Bryson 
and Company (Portadown and Belfast), and Thomas of 
CorcuUentra, near Portadown. 

The Brysons are an old family of Scottish descent 
which settled in County Antrim at an early date. 
They are of a good stock, and are still represented in 
the parish by Robert and James Bryson of the 
Four towns. 


At a special meeting of the Banbridge Presbytery, 
held in the Fourtowns Presbyterian Church on 

January 24, 1899, William Henry Sloane, 
Rev. Wm. ^ j^ (^ Licentiate of the Belfast Pres- 
Sloane. bytery), was ordained as assistant and 

successor to Dr. Bryson. 
The Eev. W. H. Sloane married Eosina, daughter 
of the Eev. James Scott, B.A., Presbyterian minister, 
Banside, Banbridge, and resigned the charge of the 
congregation May 11, 1907, going to Harrj^ville, 

During the next three years the church had no 
stated pastor, the neighbouring ministers and others 
ofi&ciating at the services. At this period the congre- 
gation and the Banbridge Presbytery seemed to 
disagree over the vesting of the Manse property, with 
the result that the former prayed the General Assembly 

(Belfast), 1909, to be transferred to the 
Pr* b^^ "f Presbytery of Newry. The Assembly 
etc.^ ^' resolved * That the memorial be received, 

its prayer granted, and that the congrega- 
tion of Fourtowns be, and it is hereby, transferred from 
the Presbytery of Banbridge to the Presbytery of 

An earnest endeavour was made at this time to 
unite the congregation with a neighbouring one, but 
without success. The Committee on the Union of 
Congregations (which is vested with Assembly powers) 
thus reported (1910) : * We regret that our prolonged 
negotiations to unite Fourtowns with some neigh- 
bouring church were of no avail. The congregation 
having made arrangements regarding the tenure of 


their church property which were deemed to be satis- 
factory by the Committee, leave was given to the 
Newry Presbytery to proceed to the settlement of a 

Accordingly, in April 1910, William Pearse Young, 
B.A., was chosen by the congregation, and ordained 
as the minister of the Fourtowns on the 
pll^rsT ^^^^ ^^ *^^ following May. The Eev. W. P. 
Younc^. Young, a son of the Kev. W. J. Young of 
Milford, county Donegal, was educated at 
the Campbell, Queen's, and Assembly's Colleges, 
Belfast. He had a distinguished University career, and 
held a scholarship each year of his Divinity Course. 
He was licensed in 1908 by the Letterkenny Presbytery, 
and served as assistant to the Kev. W. J. Macaulay, 
D.D., Portadown, the Eev. D. Hadden, Annalong, and 
to the Eev. D. K. Mitchell (Crumlin Eoad), Belfast. 
He filled these positions with marked ability and 
acceptance, and was made the recipient of presenta- 
tions at the close of each engagement. He married 
Marion, eldest daughter of Alexander Cromie, of 
Millvale, Eathfriland, by whom he has issue. 

The following were Euling Elders in the Four- 

' towns Congregation : Samuel Thompson, Carrick ; 

William Campbell, Edenderry ; David Mc- 

Elderf Knight, Killysavan ; Eingham Bingham, 

Lisnabrague; and James Shanks, Ijisna- 


The present Elders : — George Bingham, Lisna- 
brague ; Eobert W. Shannon, Eose Cottage ; and 
Falkiner B. Small, Island House. 

George Bingham is son of the late Eingham 


Bingham, who was a Ruhng Elder in the Fourtowns 
for fifty years, while his mother was a sister of the late 
Rev. Thomas Cromie of Bessbrook, a distinguished 
member of the Newry Presbytery. 

Robert W. Shannon is the author of the able 
articles on agriculture which appear weekly in the 
'Newry Telegraph and Belfast Witness. He is a son 
of the late James Shannon of Tullymore House, by 
his wife, nee Barber. 

Falkiner B. Small is son of the late Robert Small 
of Island Cottage, by his wife Annabella, daughter of 
the late Thomas LedHe of Frankfort. 

The present church edifice is a small, fairly hand- 
some structure, without spire or tower, and with a 
seating capacity accommodating about 250 
Edmce persons. It is shortly to be renovated at 

considerable cost. 
There was no manse in connection with the Four- 
towns Congregation till 1901. On March 15 of 
that year the manse (known as The Rock 
Manse) was purchased, with eighteen acres 
(Irish) of land, for the sum of £600. Subsequently 
the congregation spent £250 in adding to and 
renovating the house, which is a handsome and 
commodious dwelling. 

In the adjoining churchyard many of the graves 

are without tombstones or other marks of identity 

to the public. In addition to those already 

mentioned, we notice the following tomb 

inscriptions : 

' Patton ' — engraved on headstone, with iron 
railing, fixed in granite uprights. 


' McKnight ' — (same as above). 

Large, handsome, marble obelisk, with walled-in 
space, bearing the inscriptions : 

(East side) — ' Erected by William Dinsmore, Lough- 
adian. Died 13th February, 1894, aged 78 years. 

* And of his mother, Margaret Fisher. Died 13th 
February, 1906, aged 83 years.' On the panel under- 
neath are the words : ' Be thou faithful unto death, 
and I will give you a crown of hfe.' 

(South side) — ' Also his sister, Selina. Died 17th 
September, 1890, aged 28 years.' 

(North side) — * Also his sister Isabella Margaret, 
wife of Adam Blakley, Ballybrick. Died 17th April, 
1885, aged 28 years. Interred in Ballyroney.' 

'Moses Waddell of Carrick. Died March 29, 
1872, aged 47 years.' — * Be ye ready also.' — Luke 
xii. 40. 

Headstone — large walled-in space : ' Here lie the 
mortal remains of James Shanks of Lisnabrague, who 
departed this life May 23rd, 1871, aged 84 years. 
Also the remains of his beloved wife, Margaret Shanks, 
who died January 28th, 1870, aged 87 years.' In 
the same space is a small headstone bearing the 
inscription : 

' To the memory of Kobert James McClelland, 
who departed this life 14th July, 1858, aged 6 years. 
Jesus said * Suffer little children and forbid them not 
to come unto Me, for of such is the Kingdom of 

Large metal railing — set in granite. Headstone : 

' In memoriam John Taylor. Died 20th November, 
1866, aged 59 years. His wife Mary died 4th February, 


1860, aged 48 years.' ' The sweet remembrance of 
the just shall flourish when they sleep in dust.' 

A burial-place is thus marked : ' The Family 
Burying Ground of James Dinsmore, Tandragee,' 
while another has an iron railing, but no head or 
tombstone of any kind. 

The Fourtowns National School is situated in 
the townland of Killysavan. The present manager is 
Falkiner B. Small, while his predecessors 
8cT^°^^^ in that capacity seem to have been the 
respective ministers of the Fom'towns 
Church. The present school-house was built in 1886, 
by subscription, and opened as a National school in 

The following is the succession of teachers : 

— Bell, 1837 ; Alexander Cummins, 1846 ; Miss 
Annie Henderson, 1872 (married James Jenkins, and 
continued to teach as Mrs. Jenkins) ; Miss M. Helena 
Cuyler, 1890 ; Miss Mary E. Malcomson, 1894 (she 
married, in 1898, Joseph Wylie of Killysavan, and 
continued to teach after her marriage) ; Miss Susan 
Cunningham, 1898 (she married, 1905, James Wylie 
of Elm Hill, and continued as teacher till 1908) ; 
Mrs. Joseph Wyhe (re-appointed), 1908. Miss Minnie 
Young, the present efficient principal teacher, was 
appointed October 1910. 

An attempt had been made to establish a school 
in Killysavan so far back as 1819 — when the Vestry 
of the parish church thus resolved : * We present 
the sum of twenty pounds for the purpose of building 
a school-house in the townland of Killysavan, provided 
the proprietor of the estate or his accredited agent 


gives from under his band that he will give over his 
right to said parish of the site of said school-house, 
together wdth the occupier of the farm at present — 
which documents are to be produced at the next 
Vestry, and entered on said Vestry Book — otherwise 
this grant to be void.' The following note is appended 
to the resolution : ' The condition of the above Act 
not complied with, 1st May, 1820.' 

About the same date (1819) a school was estab- 
lished in the townland of Tullymore, where the school- 
house still remains. There is no record 
Schools ^^ ^^® Vestry Minutes of any moneys 
having been levied off the parish towards 
the erection of the school-house (which was at first 
thatched). We find, however, a small grant for 
repairs, April 24, 1821, when the Vestry ' Resolved 
that the sum of two guineas be levied off this parish 
for the repairs of the school-house at Mr. John Young's.' 
The Committee for 1861 consisted of Hugh Copeland, 
Robert Small, James Shannon, Joseph McKnight, 
William Waddell, Samuel B. Marshall, Joseph Copeland, 
Joseph Neill, Arthur Graham, James Young, Archibald 
Marshall, Joseph Clegg, and Samuel Gibson. 

The first teacher of the school was John McMuUen 
(Roman Catholic), who had as pupils in 1820 14 
Roman Catholics, 5 Presbyterians, and 1 Irish Church 

Subsequent teachers (so far as known) : Mrs. 
Nesbit, Wm. Gordon, — Hamilton, — McElroy, 
George Hare, George Gillespie, Wm. Donaldson, 
Miss Agnes Sloan, Miss Minnie Sloan, and Miss 


In 1820 there was a good school in the townland 
of Ballymacrattybeg, the teacher of which was Robert 
Bell (a Seceder). His salary was £20 per annum. He 
had as pupils (1820) 18 Irish Church children, 12 
Presbyterians, and 8 Roman Cathohcs. 

2 18 



The ancient Irish had several modes of burial, one 
of these being cremation, which was undoubtedly 

practised at a remote period, as numerous 
f'^°,^^?^ , ui*ns containing burnt bones have been 
of Burial, found in tumuh. It is extremely doubtful, 

however, whether the custom was ever prac- 
tised in Ireland after the introduction of Christianity. 
It seems there is no record of any individual instance of 
burial by cremation after pagan times, though there 
is extant an ancient ecclesiastical canon, attributed 
to the fifth century, which refers to this mode, but 
probably only as one which had been practised in past 
(pagan) times. The reference is to kings, as having 
been buried in churches in the earliest ages, * whereas 
other people were often buried either by fire or by 
heaping up (over the body) a earn of stones.' Burnt 
bones (unless in an urn) found in a grave would not 
in themselves be sufficient evidence of cremation in 
Christian times, because burning alive was one of the 
modes of punishing persons guilty of serious crimes, 
as, for example, in the case of a person guilty of 
the abduction or seduction of a maiden. 


Another mode of burial was to put the body in a 
sitting posture in the grave, but occasionally, in the 
case of a king or warrior, the body was placed stand- 
ing up, fully * accoutred and armed.* 

Doubtless, too, in accordance with the custom of 
all Aryan peoples, not only did the warrior receive 
a ' full battle costume,' but was most kindly provided 
with a choice retinue, and so forth, by his admirers, 
who, at the funeral rites, burnt some of the chents, 
slaves, and favourite animals of the dead chief. * In 
no way could respect for the rank and qualities of the 
deceased chief be better shown than by providing 
him, on his entrance into the next world, with a 
retinue of his favourite servants befitting his rank and 
warhke exploits, and with horses and dogs for the 

The next mode of burial in ancient times was that 
which we have adopted ourselves, being the only one 
sanctioned by Christianity. 

Donaghmore Churchyard is one of our oldest 

places of sepulture, having been used, it seems, for 

that purpose since early Christian times. 

SSy'^rr Probably even in its rath days many an 

old chieftain and leading clansman were 

laid to rest within its precincts. 

Though fairly large in extent, measuring an acre 
and a half (statute), there is not a space in this * sacred 
spot ' which has not been used as a burial-place for 
the dead. There are many memorials of those whose 
bodies lie in this * silent land ' ; a few families have 
constructed enclosures only, but numerous graves 
are altogether unmarked, or only by a rude stone, 

2 B 2 


without even an inscription to tell us of the name of 
the departed, or sing their praise. * Memory o'er their 
tomb no trophies raised/ but doubtless for these poor 
sons of faithful toil and simple faith the Book of Life 
records a grander monument. 

There, in ' God's Acre,' he side by side the Roman 
Catholic, the Presbyterian, the Methodist and the 
Churchman — their former feuds and differences 
forgotten, their Christian virtues only remembered ; 
and thus, for each, our common 

* Father, in Thy gracious keeping 
Leave we now Thy servant sleeping.' 

The churchyard is vested in the Representative Body 
of the Church of Ireland ; the rector and church- 
wardens are the custodians, and it is their duty to 
see that the burial rights of parishioners are preserved 
inviolate ; to guard and protect from destruction the 
memorials of the dead, to shield from profanation 
the graves in which are deposited the sacred dust 
of the departed, and to have the consecrated place 
properly enclosed and kept. 

In August, 1838 (as recorded in the local Press), 
some antique remains were found in the churchyard 

by workmen who were engaged in building 
Remaps ^ fence at the outskirts. It seems they 

happened on a place which appeared to 
have been the depository of the remains of some person 
of distinction, buried at a remote period, and which 
had been reduced to ashes. From the extent of the 
enclosure, nearly six feet by four, it was probable 
that more than one body had been interred in it. 


The tomb was not more than four or five feet below 
the surface, while the bottom and sides were neatly- 
flagged. It is a matter of regret that the persons 
who discovered and opened it displaced the sides 
and removed some of the ashes. A number of small 
bars, resembling silver, had been found near it a 
few days previously by the workmen, and it was 
supposed by them that some valuable treasure was 
deposited in the tomb. 

There are a number of handsome tombstones 
erected in the churchyard — of stone, marble, and slate 

— while the epitaphs are simple, and never 
JasTriptions. ^^^^ome in praise of the departed. We 

have none of that absurd type of epitaph 
so often to be found in some of the old churchyards 
of England and other places — many of which are so 
ludicrous that they only excite our laughter at the 
expense of the due solemnity which is in keeping 
with the subject. An example of such is to be seen 
in Pewsey, Wilts., where the relations of the deceased 
used the tombstone as an effective means of advertise- 
ment ! The epitaph runs as follows : 

• Beneath this stone, in hopes of Zion, 
Is laid the landlord of " The Lion " ; 
Resigned unto the Heavenly Will, 
His son keeps on the business still.' 

The following, however, are fairly respectable 
epitaphs, and may interest our married folks : 

' Here lies a Noble Pair, who were in Name, 
In Heart, and Mind, and Sentiments the same. 
The Arithmetick Rule then can't be true, 
For One and One did never here make Two.' 


(Dunster, Norfolk, ob. 1709 and 1720 : Israel and 
Sarah Long). 

* Elizabeth, wife of Major-General Hamilton, who 
was married 47 years, and never did One thing to 
disoblige her husband.' (Streatham Church, ob. 1746.) 

The following are the epitaphs inscribed on the 
tombstones in the churchyard of Donaghmore, except- 
ing those already mentioned. Flat stones are marked 
by an asterisk, while the points of the compass sig- 
nify the direction from the church (which is almost 
in the centre of the graveyard) in which the tombs 
are situated. ' Enclosure ' implies that the particular 
burial-place is surrounded by a wall or metal railing, 
or both. 


Innes. — The Innes family vault consists of a small, 
strongly- built house with a massive metal door, facing 
the west, while over the front gable are the words : 

* This tomb was erected a.d. 1819, by Arthur Innes, 
Esq., of Dromantine, in this parish.' 

The front space is enclosed by a wall and iron 
railing. Here (outside the vault) Mrs. Innes {nie 
Brabazon) chose to be buried. At the head of her 
grave, built in the gable of the vault, is a handsome 
marble tablet, on which is engraven the following 
inscription : * In memory of Louisa Letitia Henrietta 
Innes, the beloved wife of Arthur Charles Innes, of 
Dromantine, Co. Down, died January 27th, 1886.' 

* I will never leave thee nor forsake thee ' (Hebrews xiii. 
6). * The Lord Thy God is with thee whithersoever 


thou goest ' (Joshua i. 9). The cof&ns of other 
deceased members of the family rest on ledges in the 
vauU, close to each being a small tablet with epitaph. 
The following are the inscriptions : 

(1) Behind this stone lies the body of Arthur 
Innes, Esq., of Dromantine, who died November 
15th, 1820, aged 65 years. 

(2) Behind this stone hes the body of his wife, 
Anne Innes, who died January 9th, 1843, aged 72 

(3) Behind this stone lies the body of William 
George Innes, Esq., who died 23rd May, 1829, in his 
19th year. 

(4) Here Hes the body of Arthur Innes, Esq., of 
Dromantine, who died 27th June, 1835, in his 30th 

(5) Mary Jervis Innes, wife of Arthur Innes, Esq., 
died 24th January, 1888, aged 84 years. 

(6) Emma Jane Innes, born 16th March, 1833, died 
23rd October, 1868. 

(7) Behind this stone Hes the body of Arthur 
Charles Innes-Cross, Esq., of Dromantine. Born 
25th November, 1834 ; died 14th April, 1902. 

(8) To the memory of Edith Clara Brabazon Innes. 
Born March 24th, 1860 ; died March 11th, 1866. 

(9) Behind this stone lie the remains of Sarah Jane 
Beauchamp, wife firstly of the adjacent A. C. Innes- 
Cross, and secondly of H. M. Cooke-Cross. Died 
16th November, 1911. 

Mee. — Sacred to the memory of Marchall Joseph 
Meo, Esq., who after a short iUness departed this life 
at the Glebe House of Donaghmore the 25th day of 


January, 1844, in the 22ncl year of his age. ' He was 
esteemed and valued for his many virtues and amicable 
qualities and his kind consideration for the feelings 
of others endeared him to all who enjoyed his 
acquaintance. He was the cherished and beloved 
son of the Eevd. M. J. Mee, many years Vicar of 
this parish.' (Enclosure.) 

Finlaij. — (Monument.) Erected by the Kevd. M. 
Finlay in memory of his beloved son, John Thomson 
Finlay, student of Theology, who died, after several 
years of patient suffering, on the 7th November, 1838, 
aged 25 years. ' Blessed are the dead which die in the 
Lord.' (Enclosure.) 

Porter. — In loving memory of John Porter, Donagh- 
more, who departed this life 17th May, 1870, aged 
72 years. Also his wife Anne (Kydd) Porter, who 
departed this life 5th January, 1901, aged 78 years. 

Parks. — Underneath this stone lie the remains of 
Kobert Parks, of Butter Hill, who departed this hfe on 
the 25th February, 1842, aged 60 years. Also Kobert 
Parks McClelland, nephew to Mrs. Parks, who departed 
this life on the 11th April, 1857, aged 83 years. Also 
Anna Parks, of Butter Hill, aged 79 years, wife of the 
above Robert Parks. She departed this life on the 
8rd December, 1864. Also Martha McClelland, sister 
to Mrs. Parks, aged 84 years. Died May 20th, 1871. 
Also William Reid McClelland, late of Butter Hill. 
Died August 8th, 1882. (Enclosure.) 

Young. — Erected by William in memory of his 
father John Young, who departed this life December, 
1844. Aged 72 years. Here also He the remains of 


the above-named William Young, who died June 6th, 
1866, aged 53 years. (Enclosure.) 

Little. — Erected by James Lyttle, of Dublin. In 
memory of his mother Margaret Little, who died 
Dec. 9th, 1877, aged 67. Also his father John, who 
died February 23rd, 1888, aged 80. And his brother 
Samuel, who died May 17th, 1907, aged 67. All of 
Buskhill. ' Rest in the Lord.' 

Hannon. — Erected by Catherine Hannon, of TuUy- 
more, in memory of her beloved husband John, who 
died 17th June, 1844, aged 51 years. Also his wife 
Catherine, who died 12th February, 1863, aged 78 
years. Also James Patterson, who died 8th February, 
1857, aged 26 years. From America. 

Graham. — Erected to the memory of Jane Graham, 
wife of James Graham, of Loughadian, who died 7th 
January, 1856, aged 67 years. 

Finegan. — Erected to the memory of James 
Finegan, late of Ardaragh, who departed this life 
19th July, 1846, aged 58 years. 

Doherty. — In memory of William Doherty, who 
died 1st March, 1907, aged 63 years. Also his wife 
Lucy. Died 14th November, 1911, aged 62 years. 
And their child Henry. Died 2nd October, 1874. 

McComh. — Erected by Robert McComb in memory 
of his wife, Margaret E. McComb, who died 3rd May, 
1905, aged 65 years. Also her father, Alexander 
Linden, who died 28th April, 1878, aged 80 years. 

Harpur. — This stone was erected by John Harpur, 
of Corgary, to the memory of his wife, Margaret Ann 


Harpur, who departed this life the 15th day of April, 
1840, aged 44 years. 

Browne, — Erected by Adam Browne, of Newry, 
to the memory of his beloved wife Anne Browne 
(alias Moffit),of Annabawn, who departed this life 8th 
August, 1864. Aetatis 50 years. 

Scott. — In memory of George Scott, Junior, who 
died at Cincinnati, Ohio, 4th January, 1849, in the 
19th year of his age, and whose remains were deposited 
in Spring Grove Cemetery, near that city. And here 
are interred the mortal remains of George Scott 
Esq., of Newry, who died 23rd January, 1864, aged 
73 years. And here also are interred the mortal 
remains of Mary Scott, the beloved wife of George 
Scott, who died 19th August, 1879, aged 71 years. 
Also of his grandson William Alex. Davis Scott, 
who died 3rd July, 1877, aged 2| years. Also his 
grandchildren, Jemima Marion Scott and Richard 
Davis Scott. Also Walter Scott, son of George 
Scott, died 9th October, 1906. Aged 67 years. And 
his wife, Alice Jane Scott, died 2nd May, 1906, aged 
68 years.* (Enclosure.) 

Greer. — Erected to the memory of Thomas Greer, 
of Buskhill, who died on the 18th June, 1868, aged 
75 years. * He was a much esteemed member of 
the Presbyterian Church in this parish, of which he 
was treasurer for many years. During his life he 
did much for the prosperity of the Church, and at 
his death bequeathed large sums of money for various 
rehgious and benevolent objects.' (Enclosure.) 

Clark-Patterson. — Tablet (built in wall). 'The Family 
Burial Place of John Clark, of Aughintobber, 1868.' 


Headstone. — * In loving memory of Sarah, wife of 
Joseph Patterson, of Aughintobber, and daughter of 
the late John Clark, who died 1st October, 1899.' 

Marshall-Morrison. — (Double enclosure, with parti- 
tion wall and railing) : 

(1) (Tablet.) * The Family Burying ground of John 
Marshall, Tyllymurry House, a.d. 1842.' 

(2) Here lie the remains of Jane Martin Morrison, 
second daughter of John Morrison, M.D. She departed 
this hfe 28th March, 1863. Also of Robert 0. Hayes, 
M.D., Bandon, and his wife Marion, eldest daughter 
of John Morrison, M.D., who departed this life 27th 
July, 1870. Here he also the remains of John Morrison, 
M.D., of Newry ; he departed this life 23rd July, 1880, 
aged 76 years. Also his wife Anna Morrison, who 
departed this hfe March 19th, 1894. Also John 
Morrison Hayes, who departed this life May 27th, 1893. 

Here also he the remains of Marion Lucas, only 
child of Rev. F. Lucas, and grand-daughter of Dr. 
Morrison, Newry, who departed this life January 1st, 
1896. And here also are interred the remains of 
Anna M. Lucas, who died 14th February, 1903, 
youngest daughter of the above Dr. Morrison, and 
wife of Rev. F. Lucas, D.D., of Dalkey, Co. Dublin.* 

Weir. — (Monument.) July, 1862. Sacred to the 
memory of a beloved father and mother, Nathaniel 
Weir and Anna his wife, by their children, Joseph Weir 
and Anna McNeilly. Also Nathaniel David Weir. 
Died 5th March, 1847, aged 5 years. (Enclosure.) 

Marshall. — (In this burial-place the several tomb- 
stones (flat) are within one enclosure. The first 


has a special railing, while the remains are deposited 
in a granite receptacle.) 

(1) Here lie the remains of Hugh Marshall, late of 
Warrenpoint, who died on the 23rd of November, 
1832. Aged 61 years. Also his beloved wife Marianne 
Marshall, who died on the 16th November, 1845, aged 
63 years. Also in memory of their son Hugh Marshall, 
who died at sea on his passage from Hong Kong in 
China on the 12th of December, 1845, aged 27 years. 
And of their youngest son George, who died on the 
22nd September, 1865, at New Orleans, United States, 
America, aged 38 years. ' In life beloved.' 

(2) Here lies the body of Hugh Marshall, who died 
3rd March — , aged 65 years, and Margaret Marshall, 
his wife, who died the 9th Jmie. Aged 40 years. 

(3) Here lieth the remains of John Marshall, who 
died the 17th Feby. 1805, aged 76 years. Also Agnes 
Marshall, his wife, died 15th Jan. 1814. Aged 84 years. 
Here lieth Isabel Marshall, aged 20 years, and Thos. 
Marshall, aged 18 years, both died the last week of 
May 1790, and Eliza Marshall, wife of Doctor Hugh 
Marshall, died 1st June, 1800, aged 70 years. Also 
here rest the remains of above named Doctor Hugh 
Marshall, who departed this life on the 21st day of 
September, 1826, aged 64 years. 

(4) Here lieth the remains of Thomas Marshall 
who died on the 1st December 1791, aged 65 years. 
Also Mary Marshall, his daughter, who died the 24th 
of May, 1796, aged 20 years. And Mary Marshall, wife 
of the above Thomas Marshall, who died 21st of Feb., 
1810, aged 78 years. Also Margaret Marshall, their 
daughter, who died June 8th, 1818, aged 59 (?) years. 


Also the remains of xindrew Marshall, Aughnacavin, 
who died on the 6th day of August, 1847, aged 71 
years. Also the remains of John Marshall, of Lake 
View, who died on the 16th February, 1878, aged 66 

(5) Here lie the remains of Capt". George Scott, 
of Newry, mercht., who departed this life on the 24th 
May, 1805. Here also were deposited the remains 
of Marianne, his daughter, who died on the 17th 
February, 1823, in the 24th year of her age. 

And here were deposited the remains of Anne his 
wife, who died on the 11th January, 1831, in the 72nd 
year of her age. Also those of Marianne, his grand- 
daughter, one year old. 

Crow, — Beneath this Tomb lie the remains of 
WilHam Crow, Esq., of the King's County, who 
departed this hfe at Maryvale, Co. Down, on the 
30th day of June, 1820, aged 46 years.* 

Irwin. — In loving memory of Mary Jane, dearly 
beloved wife of John Irwin, who fell asleep July 28th, 
1902. Aged 71 years. 

' Her children arise and call her blessed ! ' John iii. 
16. (Enclosure.) 

McKeage. — ^Here lieth the remains of Sarah, wife 
to William McKeage, who departed this life 27th 
November, 1828. Aged 55 years. 

Fegan. — (Two Headstones.) 

(1) Here Ueth the remains of Patrick Fegan of 
Corgary, who died March 1805, aged 76 years. Mar- 
garet, his wife, who died 15th July, 1815, aged 86 years. 
George, their son, who died 14th March, 1829, aged 54 
years. Mary, his wife, who died 23rd October, 1827, 


aged 63 years. George, their son, who died 1st 
November, 1830, aged 27 years. Also that of John 
Fegan, of Drumalane, Newry, who died the 27th April, 
1865. Also John Fegan, Drumalane, Newry, born 9th 
June, 1798. Died at the residence of his son-in-law, 
Eosebank, Castlereagh, Belfast, 28th February, 1881. 
' His end was peace.' 

(2) Here lieth the remains of Jane wife of James 
Fegan, of Clanrye Cottage, Newry, who died 13th April, 
1845. Also two of their children, James, who died 
4th July, 1857, aged 15 years, Francis, who died 15th 
January, 1861, aged 17 years. In loving memory of 
James Fegan, Clanrye Cottage, Newry, died 1st April, 
1890, aged 84 years. Also his youngest daughter, 
EUzabeth, who died 12th May, 1910. Aged 72 years. 

Clark. — (Compass and square — Lodge No. 269.) 

Sacred to the memory of Francis Clark, of Bally- 
macrattymore, who departed this life 16th Jan. 1826. 

Neil, — Here lieth the body of Agnes Neil, wife of 
Samuel Neil, who departed this life April 4, 1800, 
aged 22 years. 

— (Slate.)— J. L. Ys. 

Kidd. — Erected to the memory of Joseph Kidd, 
of Eingolish, who departed this life June 1st, 1828. 
Aged 66 years. Also Agnes, his daughter, who died 
April 15th, 1826, aged 30 years. And also his wife, 
EHzabeth, who died December 14th, 1838, aged 82 

Bohinson. — To the memory of Wilham Eobinson, 
of Granshaw, and Jane, his wife. Also their son, 
John, who departed this Hfe 5th May, 1857. Also 


their son, Joseph, who died 7th January, 1881. Aged 
74 years. 

McKee,—R. McKee. 

Clements. — Erected to the memory of the late 
Thos. Clements, of Loughorne, who died on the 11th 
of September, 1827, aged 72 years. Also his relict, 
Sarah Clements, who died June 18th, 1833. Aged 
77 years.* (Enclosure.) 

Ross. — ' Life so short. Eternity so long.' 

Here lieth the body of Sisen Eoss, who departed 
this life in the year 1773. Aged 33 years. Also 
Jean, his wife, who departed this life in the year 1799, 
aged 57 years. Also two of the children of Christopher 
Eoss, Wm. and Jn. 

Cofeland. — (Slate.) S. Copeland. 

MiUer. — (Defaced) — and Jane Kelly, his grand- 
child. — John Millar — departed this life October ye 
3, 1783. Aged 24 years. 

— (name effaced). August the 5th, 1761, Aged 3. 

Neil— John Neil : d.p. this life March 25, 1815. 

Taylor — Underneath are deposited the remains 
of Archibald Taylor, Esq., who departed this Hfe 
the 12th March, 1812, Aged 62 years.* 


Clegg. — Erected by Samuel Clegg, Loughorne, in 
memory of his wife, Elizabeth Ann, who died 19th 
Jan. 1875. Aged 66 years. The above Samuel 
Clegg died 11th Sept. 1882. Aged 88 years. 

McKelvey. — Erected to the memory of the late 
James McKelvey, of Eingbane, who died the 29th 
October, 1834. Aged 84 years.* 


Thompson. — Erected by Elizabeth Thompson? of 
America, third daughter of Eobert Thompson of 
Ballymacrattybeg, in memory of her Parents. Eobert 
Thompson died 5th Jany., 1845. Aged 68 years, and 
Ehzabeth Thompson died 1st Jany. 1818. Aged 40 

Colvin. — In loving memory of John Colvin who 
died May 27th, 1899. Aged 65 years. 

Co'peland. — (1) Erected by Sarah Copeland in 
loving memory of her mother, Sarah Copeland, of 
Derrybeg, who died 3rd March, 1854. 

(2) Here lyeth the body of Thomas Copeland, 
who departed this life the 7th of May, 1791. Aged 
33 years. 

(3) In loving memory of Margaret (Maggie), the 
beloved wife of Frank Copeland, who died 15th Nov. 

1^12- ' Trusting in Jesus.' 

Gumm. — Sacred to the memory of Alfred Gumm, 
of Newry, who departed this Hfe 10th February, 1864. 
Aged 52 years. ' Blessed are the dead who die in the 
Lord.' (Eev. chap. xiv. ver. 13.) 

Martin. — Samuel Martin, son of John Martin and 
Mary Boyd, his wife, died at Loughorne July viii, 
A.D. MDCCCxxxi, aged lxxx. 

Jane Martin, daughter of James Harshaw and 
Mary Bradford, his wife, married to Samuel Martin 
A.D. MDCccx. Died at Loughorne July xvi. 
A.D. MDCccxLvii. Aged Lx years. Samuel 
Martin, son of Samuel Martin and Jane Harshaw his 
wife. Born at Loughorne, Nov. xv a.d. mdcccxvii. 
Died at Loughorne Aug. xxiv. a.d. mdcccxxvi. 


Here lieth the body of Robert Martin, Esq., of Kilbrony, 
who departed this life the 13th day of October, 1881. 
Aged 76 years. Also John Martin, Esq., of Loughorne, 
who departed this hfe the 16th of November, 1835. 
Aged 76 years. Mary Martin died at Loughorne 
December 17th a.d. 1827. Jane Martin died at 
Kilbrony July 27th a.d. 1840, Aged 75 years.* 
(Enclosure.) (John Martin, M.P., see p. 335.) 

Neil. — In memory of Hugh Neil, who departed this 
life on the 19th of March, 1861, in the 89th year 
of his age. Also Eleanor, his wife, on the 8th of 
February 1815, aged 36 years. x\lso their son Hugh 
on the 16th February, 1816, aged 9 years, and their 
son David Neil of Cargabane who died 22nd July, 
1870, aged 75 years. 

Hamilton. — Sacred to the memory of John Hamil- 
ton, who departed this Hfe Novr. 28th, 1813, aged 69 
years. Also Margaret his wife; who departed Feb. 
1st, 1819. Aged 78 years. 

Kidd. — Erected to the memory of WilHam Kidd, 
of Buskhill, who departed this life 8th December, 
1885, aged 79 years. Also his wife Ehzabeth Kidd, 
who died 2nd March, 1886, aged 76 years. 

In loving memory of Ehzabeth Kidd, beloved 
wife of Wm. J. Kidd, Gilford, who departed this 
life February 14th, 1912, aged 60 years. 
' I am the Resurrection and the Life.' John xi. 25.* 


Johnston. — This tomb is a large sarcophagus with 
flat stone, partly broken and the letters defaced, but 



the following can be made out : ' Maria Anabella 
Johnston, wife of James Johnston, of Tremont. 
Died XXII December, mdccxxxii. Aged lxxi years. 
Here lieth the Body of Mrs. Ehzabeth Johnston, 
also of James Johnston, of Tremont Esq., who died 
December xxii, mdcclxxxii, Aged lxiv years. 

' She stretched out her Hand to the Poor. 

* She reached forth her Hand to the Needy.* 

Douglas. — ^Erected by Sarah Douglas, of Shankhill, 
who departed this life 14th March, 1905. Also 
Alexander Douglas, who died 21st June, 1898. 

Graham. — Sacred to the memory of Margaret B. 
Graham, who departed this life on the 16th of May, 
1865, Aged 24 years. Also John Graham, who 
departed this life on the 6th Oct. 1866, Aged 29 

Bryson. — Sacred to the memory of Mary Ann 
Bryson, who died the 14th Sept. 1871, Aged 33 years. 

Beatty. — ^Erected by Jane Beatty in memory of 
her beloved husband Andrew Beatty, who departed 
this Hfe the 29th August, 1859, Aged 62 years. 

Andrew. — This is the Burying ground of Eobert 
Andrew, of Loughorne. 

Andrews. — ^Erected by Kobert Andrews of Port 
Hope, Canada, to the memory of his father, Eobert 
Andrews, of Loughorne, who died 6th February, 1878, 
Aged 63. Also Eobert Andrews, who died 1st May, 
1851, Aged 1 year. Also Jeffrey Andrews, who died 
26th March, 1858, Aged 11 years. 

Grier. — ^Erected by his Parents, WiUiam and 
Maggie Grier, in loving memory of their dearly 
beloved son William Eobert Grier, who fell asleep 


in Jesus 21st December, 1889, Aged 10 years and 
4 months. 

' What though in lonely grief we sigh 
For friends beloved, no longer nigh ? 
Submissive still would I reply, 
Thy will be done. 

If Thou shouldst call me to resign 
What most I prize, it ne'er was mine; 
I only yield Thee what was Thine ; 
Thy will be done.* 

Also his favourite Aunt, Bessie Shannon, who fell 
asleep in Jesus 9th October, 1889, Aged 29 years. 

Dec. 16, 1874. 

Harjpur. — Charles Harpur, aged 74 years, a.d. 

Lang. — The Burial Place of James and Hugh 
Lang of Cairnmeen, and their FamiUes.* 

O'Hanlon. — Here lieth the body of Pat. O'Hanlon, 
who departed this hfe the 25th April, 1799, Aged 
56 years. 

Buddick. — Here He the remains of James Buddick,of 
Eingclare, who departed this hfe the 22nd Jany. 1834, 
Aged 75 years. Also his wife Margaret, who departed 
this life the 7th Feby. 1848, Aged 90 years. Also 
their son James Kuddick, who died 19th August, 1872, 
Aged 77 years. Also Mary, the beloved wife of the 
above named James Buddick who died July 5, 1885, 
Aged 62 years. 

Wallace — McCullough. — (1) (Flat stone). Here lyeth 
ye Body of Eobert Wallace in Crive T., who departed 
this hfe Jany. ye 2, 1710, in ye 69 year of his age. 

2 o2 


And here lyeth the body of Kobert Wallace, who 
departed this hfe the 3rd April (?) 1734 in the 53rd 
year of his age. 

(2) (Headstone). — Erected in memory of Kobert 
McCullough, Creevy House, who departed this hfe 
Oct. 24th, 1864. Also his wife, Mary Moore 
McCullough, died March 6th, 1831, and second wife, 
Margaret Bowden McCullough, died July 24th, 1857. 
Also Margaret Ewing McCullough, died March 17th, 
1899. (Enclosure.) 

Strain. — (Surmounted by Celtic cross and mono- 
gram J.H.S.) In memory of Peter Strain of Glasker 
and Family. B.I.P. Erected by his daughter, Mary 
Ann Strain. B.I.P. 

Fitzjpatrick. — Patrick Fitzpatrick. Anno Domini 
1712. (Portion effaced.) 

McGraih. — (Surmounted by Boman cross and 
monogram I.H.S.) Of your charity pray for the 
soul of Francis McGrath, of Beech Hill, who died 14th 
January, 1868. Aged 72 years ; also Jane, his beloved 
wife, who died 28th March, 1844, Aged 58 years. 

McCormic. — Erected by Ann Jane Cooke in memory 
of her father, William John McCormic, of Lisnatier- 
ney, who departed this life on the 27th April, 1849. 
Aged 63 years. Also her mother, Mary Ann McCormic 
who departed this Hfe on the 28th July, 1867. Aged 
70 years. 

Crawford. — ^Here Heth the body of WilHam Craw- 
ford, who departed this life on 1st day of December, 
1734, in the 57th year of his age. 

McMinn. — ^Here lieth the body of Bobert McMinn, 
late of Castle Lanigan, who departed this hfe the 


12th day of Nov. 1798, Aged 78 years. Here lieth the 
remains of Gilbert McMinn, son of John — (Eemainder 

McMinn. — (1) Here He the remains of Susanna, 
wife of Joseph McMinn, of Newry, who departed this 
life the 10th of February, 1823, Aged 70 years. 
Also the remains of the above Joseph McMinn, who 
died the 11th of July 1829, Aged 79 years. 

(2) Here lie the remains of Eobert McMinn, of 
Tormore, who departed this life the 12th October, 
1808, aged 70 years. Also the remains of his brother 
Gilbert McMinn of Tormore, who departed this life 
on the 12th of April, 1823, aged 77 years. Also the 
remains of their niece Mary Rutherdale, of Tormore, 
who departed this life on the 8rd of January, 1849, 
Aged 84 years. Robert McMinn, of Castle Ennigan, 
died 15th December, 1879, Aged 80 years. (Enclosure.)* 

McKeown. — Here He the body of James McKeown, 
who departed this Hfe 30th of March, 1830, aged 69. 
Also his wife Easter McKeown, who departed this 
Hfe 11th August, 1834, aged 74. Here He the body 
of their son, Joseph McKeown, who died the 10th 
February, 1836, Aged 45 years. 

McCamley. — Here lieth the remains of Michael 
McCamley, late of Newry, who departed this life 
the 1st day of June, 1700. Aged — . 

McClory. — (Surmounted by Roman cross and 
monogram J.H.S.). Here lyeth the body of Felix 
McClory, who dept. this Hfe May 22nd, 1786, Aged 
61 years. Also Eals McClory, June 22nd, 1781, 
Aged 6 years, and — Mary McClory, June 22nd, 


Salvetrer (or Salvestrer) McClory's Burying 

Black. — ' Eeader ! remember Thou must die.' 

Here lyeth the body of David Black, who died 
on the viith day of April mdcclxxi, Aged lxxxvi 

Magenis. — (Surmounted by Eoman cross.) Here 
lyeth the body of Arthur Magenis, who died April 11th, 
1814, Aged 73 years. 

No Name. — (Koman cross.) ^ ' p* 

Scott — Sacred to the memory of David Pcott 
of Desart, who departed this life February 1807, 
aged 64 years. Also in memory of Elizabeth Scott, 
his wife, who departed this life January 1833, Aged 
98 years. 

Scott. — (Slate.) John Scott. 

Harcourt — (Headstone.) Sacred to the memory 
of John Harcourt, who departed this life April the 
first 1818, aged 72 years. Also Mary his wife, who 
departed this life January the 21st 1833, Aged 82 
years. Also his grandson, John Thomas Harcourt, 
who departed this life on the 15th of May, 1847, 
aged 19 yrs. 

(Flat stone.) Erected in memory of John Harcourt, 
who departed this life on the first day of July 1877, 
aged 88 years. And of Jane Harcourt his wife, 
who departed this life on the sixth day of July, 1881, 
aged 72 years, also of their youngest son, Joseph, 
who died at Liverpool on the 11th October, 1893. 
Aged 52 years. Also their daughter, Mary Harcourt, 
aged 17 years, who died in 1852. Also their daughter 


Jane Eliza Stewart, who died May 5th, 1909, aged 
76 years. (Enclosure.) 

Smyth. — Here Ueth the body of Eobert Smyth, 
of Donaghmore, who departed this life the 15th day 
of February, 1804. Aged 72 years. 

Hale. — (Eoman cross and J.H.S.) Erected to the 
memory of Ellen Hale, of Drumsallagh, who died 
28th December, 1826, aged 56 years. Also Hugh, her 
son, who died 16th March, 1834, aged 19. And also 
Thomas, her son, who died 18th May, 1848, Aged 88. 
' Bequiescant in pace. Amen.' 

O'Hara. — (Eoman cross and J.H.S.) Here lieth 
the remains of Ehzabeth O'Hara, daughter of 
Patk. O'Hara, of Frankford, who departed this life 
March 25th, 1882, Aged 20 years. 

McElroy. — (Three headstones.) (1) Sacred to 
the memory of Margaret, wife of John McElroy, of 
Dromantine, who departed this life on the 17th of 
March, 1806, in the 81st year of her age. This stone 
was erected by her son, WilHam, now a resident of 
Albany, North America, during a visit to his native 
land in December, 1840. The above John McElroy 
departed this life the 11th September, 1848, aged 
81 years. 

(2) Erected by James McElroy, of Albany, America, 
in memory of his beloved mother, Elizabeth McElroy, 
who departed this life 18th May, 1859. Aged 85 years. 

(3) Samuel McElroy, 1811-1899. Ann McCullough, 
his wife, 1825-1902. Their children, Elizabeth, 1854- 
1906, Susannah, 1868-98. 

McKelvey. — Here lieth the remains of Mary 
McKelvey, who departed this life September 1812, 


and also her husband, James McKelvey, who departed 
this Hfe November 1832. 

McCourt. — (Roman cross and J.H.S.) 
' Gloria in excelsis Deo.' 

Erected to the memory of Laurance McCourt, of 
Ballylough, who departed this life on the 12th of 
April, 1827. Aged 60 years. Also his daughter, 
Catherine, who departed this life on the 8rd of June, 
1822, Aged 18 years. * May they rest in peace.' 

Donnell. — (Roman cross.) In memory of James 
Donnell, of Newry,.who departed this hfe 18th January, 
1822. Aged 48 years. And Mary Donnell, relict of 
the above, died January 18th, 1847, Aged 77 years. 
Also Jane Donnell, their daughter, died 24th January, 
1829, Aged 22 years.* 

Neil, — Sacred to the memory of Elizabeth Neil, of 
Cargoban, who departed this hfe the 9th of April, 1812. 
Aged 30 years. Also her husband, Samuel Neil, who 
departed this life the 5th of October 1825, in the 69th 
year of his age. This stone was erected by their son, 
Samuel Neil, now a resident of West Continent 
territory. West America, during a visit to his native 
land in March 1842, 

Marshall. — Erected by J. H. Marshall in memory 
of his uncle, Joseph Marshall, died 11th Oct. 1885. 
Also his grandfather, Andrew Marshall, died 16th 
March, 1853. 

Wright. — In memory of Mary, daughter of the 
late Joseph Marshall, Tullymurry, and beloved wife of 
Thomas Wright, Dromantine, who departed this life 
15th March, 1905, aged 53 years. 

* Erected by her husband and children.* 


Parker. — Sacred to the memory of Mary, the 
beloved wife of Henry Parker, of Bryansford, who died 
the 29th day of April, 1860, Aged 65 years. Also 
of Ann Parker, maternal Aunt of the said Henry 
Parker, who died the 3rd day of May, 1860, at Bryans- 
ford, Aged 90 years. Also Joseph, father of the said 
Henry Parker, who died at Bryansford, March 8th, 
1861. Aged 82 years. Also Ehzabeth, the wife of 
Joseph Parker, and mother of the said Henry Parker, 
who died at Bryansford on the 9th of July, 1864, 
Aged 87 years. Also John Moody Parker, grandson 
to the above named Henry Parker, who died on the 
5th day of May 1867, Aged 8 years. And also Henry 
Parker, Carleton House, Blaris, Lisburn, who departed 
this life 21st November, 1869. Aged 61 years. 
* Precious in the sight of the Lord is the death of His 
saints.' Psalm 116, v. 15.* 

Turley. — This is the Burying Place of Patrick 
Turley, Carnacally, 1781. (Kemainder effaced.) 

Murdoch. — (Two stones.) (1) Here lieth the body 
of Andrew Murdoch, who departed this life ye 27th of 
May, in ye year of our Lord 1717, Aged 69 years. 
Also his wife, Isobell Hunter, who departed this life 
ye 29th of May, 1732, Aged 82 years. 

(2) Here lyeth the body of Sam Boyd, who 
departed this life Sept. 2, Aged 63 years, 1741. Also 
lyes the body of Jane Murdoch, who departed this life 
March 24th, 1765, Aged 85 years. Here lyeth the 
body of Eobert Boyd — ye 31sfc February, 1703 — 
body of Isobell Boyd, who departed ye 7th of July, 
1731, Aged 14 years, both children of Sam 


Thoni'pson. — A. Thompson, who depd. this life 
4th Aug. 1817, Aged 59. 

(Slate.) S.M. 

O'Hara. — Erected by David O'Hara, of Crowreagh, 
in memory of his beloved son, James, who departed 
this life 7th May, 1888, Aged 23 years. Also his son 
Edward, who died 25th August, 1882, Aged 16 years. 

Mageiiis. (Eoman cross.) — This is the Burying 
Place of Phele Magenis, of Carygarovady, 1769, 
Aged 69. (Eemainder effaced.) 

Johnston. — Here lyeth ye body of John Johnston, 
who departed this life ye 10th day of N — in the 
year of our Lord 1716, as also ye body of Agnes John- 
ston, wife to ye above John Johnston, who departed 
this life March 13th, 1728 (?), Aged 66 years. 

Here lyeth the body of Eobert Johnston, late of 
Cloughan, — er, who departed this life April 9 (?) 1709. 
Aged 59 years. Here heth the body of Thomas 
Johnston, who departed this life the 15th day of June, 
1762, Aged 69 years and nine weeks.* 


Mathers. — This is the Burying Place of Wm. 
Mathers. Here lye the body of his wife, Mary Mathers, 
who departed this life the 15th of March, 1799, Aged 
54 yrs. Also of their children. 

Ham f ton. — Erected to the memory of William 
Hampton, of Corgary, who departed this life on the 
11th day of May, 1828, Aged 80 years. And also his 
wife, Hannah Hampton, who departed this life on the 
7th day of October, 1810, Aged 58 years. Likewise 


their son, John Hampton, who departed this Hfe on the 
23rd day of April, 1840, Aged 53 years. 

Donnell. — In memory of Joseph Donnell of Bally- 
lough, who died 1st Nov. 1893, Aged 84 years. Also 
his son, Joseph Donnell, who died 20th Feb. 1904. 
Aged 55 years. 

Barr. — Erected by request of the late Miss Martha 
Barr, Corcreechy, in affectionate remembrance of her 
father and mother and other relations whose remains 
lie within this enclosure. Martha Barr died June 11, 
1897. * Blessed are the dead which die in the Lord.' 
(Rev. 14 and 13.) (Enclosure.) 

Baicliff — Erected by Samuel Ratcliff in beloved 
memory of his son, James Ratcliff, who departed this 
life 16th December, 1872, Aged 26 years. 

Jardine. — Erected by Martha Jardine, widow of the 
late Hamilton Jardine, of Shankhill, to the memory of 
Samuel Jardine, of Ringban, who departed this hfe 
21st June, 1836, Aged 75 years. Also to the memory 
of his son Hamilton Jardine, her beloved husband, 
who departed this life 29th May, 1845, Aged 55 

Morrison. — Here Ueth the body of Joseph Morrison, 
who departed this Hfe on the 10th day of August, 1817, 
Aged 79 years, and Jane, his wife, who died on the 
21st of July, 1803, Aged 60 years. Also the remains 
of John Morrison, M.D., who died the 18th Jany. 1828, 
Aged 43 years.* 

Wilson. — Here heth the body of Adam Wilson, who 
departed this life June the 1st, 1783, Aged 66 

McKittrich. — To the memory of John McKittrick, 


of Shinn, who departed this Hfe on the 14th April, in 
the year of our Lord 1865, in the 69th year of his 
age. Also his wife, Margaret McKittrick, who departed 
this life in the same year, in the 63rd year of her 
age. Erected by S. and J. McKittrick. 

Cohnn. — Erected by James Colvin, Fourmile- 
House, in memory of his father and mother. 

(Slate.) H. L- 

Bradford.—B.ere Hes WilHam Bradford, who dept. 
this hfe June 9th, 1785, Aged 72 years. Also 
Agnes his wife, Jany. 7th, 1781, Aged 63 years, 
and 8 of their children. 

'Weep not for us, your children dear, 
We are not dead, but sleeping here; 
We rest in Peace, in hope to rise 
To live with Christ in Paradise.' 

Nugent— To S^ Nugent, Dpd. 7th Mrh., 1826. 

Mathers. — In affectionate remembrance of Thomas 
Mathers, of Edenderry, who departed this hfe 17th 
March, 1898, Aged 75 years. (Enclosure.) 

Jackson. — In memory of John Jackson, of Eingclare, 
who departed this hfe 1st Sept. 1847, Aged 68 years. 

Ervine. — (Slate.) J. Ervine. 

Megaw. — ^Here heth the remains of John Megaw, of 
Menin, who depd. this life April 1st, 1819, Aged 
74 years. Also his son, Thomas Megaw, who departed 
this life December 28th, 1850, Aged 72 years. Also 
his beloved wife Sarah Megaw, who departed this life 
29th Oct. 1876, Aged 80 years. 

Kingon. — (Masonic emblems.) Erected by William 
Kingon, of Loughorne, in memory of his daughter 


Nancy, who died the 21st Jany. 1851, Aged 15 
years. Also his granddaughter Mary J. Briars, who 
died 17th Nov^ 1856, Aged 3 weeks, And his Son 
John, who died at Cape Coast Castle, West of Africa, 
19th July, 1863, Aged 24 years. 

Dickie — (Slate.) Dickie. 

Sands. — (Roman cross and J.H.S.) This Burying 
Ground belongs to the Sands. 

Forde. — (Roman cross and J.H.S.) This is the 
burying Place of James Forde — 17 — (effaced). 

Kearney. T. K. : A.G. 50, 1782. J. Kearney A. G. 
76, 18 LI. 

Here lies the body of Adam — who departed 

this life October ye 4th 1754, aged 79 years, and the 
body of — (effaced). 

Kerr. — The remains of Jane Kerr lies here. Her 
happy spirit fled to joy above, June 6th, 1793, Aged 
32 (?) years. * Reader, Prepare to meet thy God.' 


Amusements, ancient Irish, 30 
Anderson, Rev. J., 207 
Anderson, Pi-ofessor, 53 
Architecture, early Irish, 176-9 
Aristocracy, ancient marks of, 

Armagh Cathedral, 178 
Askins, Rev. W. J., 208 

Ballybetagh, a, 337 

Barton, Rev. T., 207 

Beggars, strolling, 219 

BeUs, church, 181, 182, 243, 246 

Benefactions, 193 

Betagh, a, 338 

Bingham, G., 364 

Book of Rights, 6 

Bradford W., 312, 313 

Brehon law, 18, 21 

Brereton's tour, 35 

Bricren, 134 

Bronte, Hugh, and the Har- 

shaws, 330 
Bryson, Rev. A., 359, 360 
Bryson, Rev. J., 360, 362 
Bryson, Surgeon, 306 
Burgess, Rev. S., 207 
Burglary, 221 

Burial, ancient modes of, 370 
Burnett, Rev. L., 279, 280 

Garden, Colonel, 211 
Garswell family, 94 
Carter, Rev. J., 347 
Cauls, 236 

Celtic types and characteristics, 

Census, 47-51 
Chancel, erection of, 250 
Characteristics of inhabitants, 

Church of Ireland, historical 
"^z continuity of, 164 
Church, Donaghraore parish, 180 
Churchwarden, office of, 250-3 
Churchwardens, 253-8 
Churchyard, Donaghmore, 120, 

Civilisation, ancient Irish, 28 
Clan of Celtchair MacUthair, 24 
Clan of Ercc, 25 
Clan system, 14, 22 
Clans, Ulster, 22 
Clanagan, Manor of, 66-8, 337 
Clanwilliam, Earl of, 78 
Clark, J., 248 
Clerks, parish, 225-7 
Coffin, Rev. J., 199 
Colour, rank denoted by, 20 
Congregation, 193 
Copeland, R., 285 
Corry family, 62 
Corry, I., 63, 316 
Costume, ancient Irish, 19-26 
Cowan, Rev. J. D., 206 
Craig family, 65 

Cross of Donaghmore (Celtic), 150 
Crosses, ancient Irish, 158 
Culdees, 170-3 
Cunningham, Mrs., 65 
Curates of Donaghmore, 207, 208 



Dancing, 30 
Dane's Cast, 150-6 
Dedications, Celtic, 175 
Derry, Bishop of (Earl of Bristol), 

Dickson, Rev. J., 207 
Dinner, agricultural, 99 
Dinner to H. Irvine, 64 
Dispensary, 304-35 
Districts, origin of, 336 
Dixon, Rev. J., 207 
Doranach-Mor, Bishop of, 169 
Domnach-Mor, derivation and 

meaning, 1 
Donaghmore, physical aspect of, 

Donaghmore, topography, 44 
Donaghmore of Magh Cobha, 2 
Donaghmore Manor, 55-65 
Donnybrook Fair, 32 
Downe survey, 68, 70 
Dromantine, 81 
Dun — residence of a king, 133 
Dunkin, Rev. P., 199 

Editcation, ancient, 29 
Elders, ruling, 282-6, 364, 365 
Election, Ministerial, 287 
Electoral divisions, 52 
Elliott, Rev. J., 277-9 
Excommunications, 193 
Expressions, local, 104-8 

Gaednbe, Rev. 0., 200 
Ghosts, 114-19 
Glass, Rev. J., 207 
Glebe, Donaghmore, 189, 191 
Glen and Fourtowns, 337-69 
Glen Manor, 66 
Glen of the Black Pig, 152 
Glenny family, 162, 210 
Glynwood Massacre, 88-92 
Gordon family, 94 
Gordon, G., 210 
Gordon, S., 209 

Hacket, Rev. — , 207 
Hamilton, Hans, 75 
Hamilton, Rev. M., 207 
Harcourt family, 215 
Harpur, J., 286 
Harrison, Rev. H., 199 
Harshaw diary, 293 
Harshaw family, 284, 316-31 
Harshaw, James, 316 
Harshaw, John, 284 
Haskett, Rev. — , 207 
Hawkins family, 75, 77 
Hay, Rev. J., 273 
Henderson, Rev. W., 207 
Herenachs, 185, 197-9 
Heron, Rev. T., 359 
Houses, ancient, 34 
Howse, Rev. G., 207 

Faieibs, 144-50 

Fairs, ancient, 30-32 

Fairs, Irish, origin of, 32 

Fairy superstitions, origin of, 144 

Farming Society, 99 

Finlay, Rev. M., 273 

Fortescue family, 60 

Forts, 128-31 

Forts, age of, 140 

Forta, builders of, 142 

Forts, names of, 132 

Forts, types of, 131 

Forts, uses of, 132 

Foundlings, 218 

Innes family, 78-81 
Innes- Cross, A. C, 80 
Irish, ancient, two types of, 12 
Irvine, H., 64 
Iveagh, Viscount, 75 

Johnston, Rev. F., 202 
Johnston, Rev. J., 270 
Johnston, Rev. N., 207 

Kane, W. F. de V., 164 

Kings, ancient Irish, 14, 24 



Land tenures, 17 
Leslie, Rev. W., 207 
Lett, Canon, 63, 153 
Lo\vry, A., 297 
Lucas, W., 81, 82 

MacConvillb, Rev. F., 340 
McCracken, Rev. R., 208 
McCullough, Rev. H., 207 
McDermott, Dr., 315 
McDonnell, Rev. James, 346 
McDonnell, Rev. John, 345, 347 
M'Dowell, Rev. H., 279 
McElroy, J., 217 
McGivern, Dr., 315 
McLaughlin, Rev. F., 346, 347 
McMaster, D., 247 
Magenis, Murtagh McEnaspicke, 

Magenis family, 3, 5, 66-75, 337 
Magennis, Rev. F., 348 
Magh Cobha, castles of, 7 
Magh Cobha, exploits in, 7 
Magh Cobha, King of Norway 

slain in, 9 
Magh Cobha, Kings of, 5 
Magh Cobha, signification and 

location of, 3 
Magill family, 77 
Magistrates, 53 
Mahaffy, Professor, 87 
Manners, 108 
Manor Courts, 57 
Manses, 299, 365 
Marshall family, 214 
Marshall, H., 298 
Martin family, 331 
Martin, John, 47, 332-5 
Martin, Rev. J., 207 
Mathers, W., 212 
Matthews, Rev. M., 199 
Medical officers, 305-15 
Mee, Rev. M. J., 204 
Militia, 98, 229-32 w 
Mills, Dr. J. A., 313 
Mills, Dr. S., 310, 313 
Mills, Dr. W. S., 314 

Monasticism, Irish, 166 
Moore, Rev. S. J., 274-6 
Morrison, J., 217 
Mountgarrett, Rev. J., 203, 207 
Moycovians, the, 10 
Murdock, A., 298 
Murray, R. H., 87 

Naismith, Rev. A., 200 
National colour, 27 
Nationality, Irish, 16 
Norwood, Rev. D., 359 

O'DoNOVAN, J., visit to Donagh- 

more, 161 
O'Hagan, Rev. J., 347 
O'Hanlon, Redmond, 81, 84 
O'Hanlon family, 86 
O'Hare, Rev. C, 346 
O'Makrell, 184, 196, 197 

Parish priests, 346-9 

Parochial House, 344 

Parochial system, 37 

Patterson, J., 210 

Penances, 193 

Petty' s census, 47, 48 

Pews, 222 

Place-names, sources of, 39 

Plate, church, 196 

Politics, 104 

Poor Law Guardians, 53 

Presbyterian Church, Donagh- 

more, 260-303 
Presbyterian Church, Fourtowns, 

Presbji;erian Church officers, 302 
Presbyterian clergy, 269-80, 

Presbyterian discipline, 289 
Presentments, stringent, 224 
Price, Rev. J., 207 
Pudsey, Rev. R., 199 

QuiNN family, 206-6 
Quinn, Rev. J. C, 206, 208 



Radham, Rev. J., 199 
Rath of the Kings, 141 
Rectors of Donaghmore, 205, 

Religion, 102 
Rent-payers, first, 19 
Return, Parliamentary, 185 
Revival, 291 
Revolution, 92 
Richey, Rev. G., 271 
Rigg, Rev. J., 207 
Roads, repairs of, 216 
Robinson, J. J., 212 
Roman Catholic Church, 343-6 
Ryan, Rev. M., 347 

Sacheverell, Rev. T., 201 
St. Conall, rule of, 29 
St. Donard, 173 
St. MacErc, 165-70 
St. MacErc of Slane, 166, 174 
Salutation, forms of, 109 
Savage family, 342 
Saunderson, Dr., 306-10 
Sayors, Rev. G. B., 208 
School houses, 227, 239, 240, 

300, 349, 350, 367, 368, 369 
School teachers, 239, 240, 301, 

349, 351, 367, 368, 369 
Service books, 194-6 
Shannon, R. W., 365 
Sloane, Rev. W. H., 363 
Small, F. B., 365 
Smith, Rev. B., 203 
Souterrains, 120-7 
Souterrains, builders of, 127 
Souterrains, description of, 124 
Souteri'ains, uses of, 125 
Superstitions, 111, 144 
Surnames, Glen, 339 
Surnames, Irish, 343 
Synod of Ulster, 261 
Synodsmen, diocesan, 269 

Tenures, curious, 68 
Tithe war, 188 

Tithes, 185-9, 191 

Tithes, agitation against, 186 

Tithes, composition of, 244 

Todd, Rev. H., 182 

Tombstones in Barr Church vard, 

Tombstones in Donaghmore 
Churchyard, 370-97 

Tombstones in Fourtowns 
Churchyard, 365-7 

Tories, 84 

Towers, round, 179 

Townland distribution, 37 

Townland names — Irish deriva- 
tion and signification, 40 

Trevor, Sir K, 59 

Tribal government, 15 

Twi^g, Rev. P., 200 

Ulster, King of, 23 

Value of living, 183, 184, 192 
Vaughan, Rev. G., 200 
Vaughan, J., 64 
Vestrj books, 213-59 
Vestry dispute, 227, 235-9 
Vestry, select, 258 
Vicars of Donaghmore, 196-206 
Visitation, Royal, 185 
Visitations of Presbytery, 293-7 
Volunteer Convention, 96 
Volunteers, 93 

Wall of Ulidia, Great, 153 
Wetherby, Dean, 200 
White, Rev. P., 276 
White, Rev. V. W., 274 
Whitechurch, Sir M., 60 
Witchcraft, 113 
Woods family, 312 
Woods, T., 311 

Young, R., 285 
Young, Rev. W. P., 364 

Spottiawood* A Co. Ltd., PrirUfrt, Colchester, London and Eton. 




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